This weekend I recorded some images of BG James Longstreet aide Moxley Sorrel’s home in Savannah, Ga.
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Testimony of Maj. William F. Barry
Report on the Conduct of the War, Vol. 2, pp. 142-149
WASHINGTON, January 7, 1862.
General WILLIAM F. BARRY sworn and examined.
By Mr. Gooch:
Question. Were you at the battle of Bull Run, as it is called?
Answer. Yes, sir.
Question. In what capacity?
Answer. As chief of artillery.
Question. Can you state to us what led to the rout of our army on the field that day?
Answer. There were a great many causes.
Question. We want to get at the causes, the most obvious causes?
Answer. I think the principal cause was the uninstructed state of our troops. The troops were raw; many of the officers were indolent, and they did not all behave themselves as they should have done on that day. I think that was one cause. All troops are liable to panics. But the great fault I found with our men was that after they had fallen back some distance, and were out of the enemy’s fire, they could not be rallied. I look upon that as a difficulty inseparable from green troops. And in rallying men we need the assistance of the regimental and company officers very much, and that assistance was not rendered in many cases.
Question. Can you tell us at what time of the day and at what point the panic first showed itself?
Answer. On the right of our line was the place that I thought the panic first took place.
Question. In whose division?
Answer. The troops were very much scattered. They had been moved from point to point. They had been successful on the left of us, and the enemy had been driven back pretty nearly a mile, and having nothing to do, several of the regiments had been brought up towards the right. I had been with the army but three days. I had just arrived from Fort Pickens with my battery of artillery, and found that I was promoted to be a major. I gave up my battery to my successor, and General McDowell appointed me chief of artillery. I joined them the second day of the march, and was not very familiar with the organization of the troops.
Question. Were you present near the place where Ricketts’s and Griffin’s batteries were when they were captured?
Answer. Yes, sir; I was there at that very spot.
Question. What led to the capture of those batteries by the enemy?
Answer. The infantry support abandoned them, and that enabled the enemy to advance and capture the guns, or a portion of them; they did not capture them all. Nearly all the horses were shot down, and it was nearly impossible for the moment to remove the guns.
Question. Were those batteries ordered forward immediately preceding their capture?
Answer. Yes, sir; I suppose a half an hour before.
Question. Did you convey the order?
Answer. I gave the order in person to Captain Perkins and Captain Griffin; and not only that, I superintended the movement.
Question. Were those batteries supported?
Answer. Yes, sir; two entire regiments were procured at my request; the 11th New York, commonly called the Fire Zouaves, and the 14th New York militia.
Question. This was about three o’clock, was it?
Answer. I did not look at my watch during the entire day. I should suppose it was about half past two o’clock, for I think we left the field about four o’clock.
Question. In what condition were the Fire Zouaves at that time?
Answer. In what order, do you mean?
Question. Were they then an efficient regiment?
Answer. I thought so. I knew very little of them, except by newspaper reports. I knew what New York firemen were, and I supposed there was fight and pluck in them. I was struck with the manner they marched forward, very handsomely in line of battle. I rode with the major of the regiment—now colonel of the regiment. They marched up very handsomely in line of battle, passed the various obstacles they met in the usual tactical manner. I thought they did very well, and was very much disappointed and surprised when they broke.
Question. How many men should you think there were in the regiment at that time?
Answer. It looked to me as though there were about seven hundred.
Question. They supported which battery?
Answer. Both. The two regiments went up together, one just after the other. They had to go down a declivity, cross a little stream, and then go up a sharp acclivity. The ground was a little heavy in one or two places, and the artillery moved up in column of pieces, and formed the battery after they got on the ground.
Question. Did they take position on the hill indicated for them?
Answer. Yes, sir; and commenced firing, and fired some time.
Question. Was there any objection made by the officers of those batteries to advancing when the order was given to them?
Answer. Not the slightest that I heard.
Question. Was there any complaint that they were not properly supported?
Answer. I never heard of such a thing.
Question. How many guns were there in Griffin’s battery?
Answer. Six guns in Griffin’s battery, and six in Ricketts’s battery.
Question. Twelve guns in all?
Answer. Yes, sir. However, I am under an impression that just at that moment one, if not two, of Griffin’s guns had been left behind. I think one of his guns had become choked by careless loading; the cartridge bag had become twisted, and it could not be got in or out. That gun, I think, was not brought forward; but I am not certain about that. I did not count the guns.
Question. How many infantry would be a proper support for the guns of those two batteries?
Answer. Two regiments, I suppose, would be amply sufficient. I think if those two regiments had stood firm and done their duty those guns would never have been captured.
Question. Is there not a rule, or an understanding. as to the number of infantry that should support a battery?
Answer. No, sir; that depends upon circumstances very much; upon the amount of force opposed. If they are opposed by a large force you must have a corresponding force. And in addition to these two regiments of infantry there was a squadron of cavalry sent up by General McDowell afterwards, but moving faster than the infantry they arrived almost at the same time.
Question. Were the enemy in position in front of those batteries?
Answer. We could not see them.
Question. When were they first seen?
Answer. After the firing commenced.
Question. How soon after the order to advance was given?
Answer. I should suppose twenty minutes or half an hour. It must have taken nearly fifteen minutes to get to the place, because after I had designated the place that had been designated to me by General McDowell, and had started the batteries there, I then went to this infantry support and moved up with it. While I was doing that both of the batteries mistook the place, came a little short of it. I went forward and corrected that mistake, which produced some little delay. So I suppose the batteries were fully fifteen minutes in getting in position where they finally opened fire, which was the position I first designated.
Question. When did you see the enemy first in front of these batteries?
Answer. I suppose it was fifteen or twenty minutes after the firing commenced. It is hard to mark the lapse of time under such circumstances. I had very much to do then, passing from one battery to another, and looking to the infantry regiments coming up.
Question. Was there any mistake as to the character of a regiment that appeared in front of these batteries?
Answer. Yes, sir.
Question. What was that mistake?
Answer. It was a mistake in reference to a regiment that came out of a piece of woods into which one of the infantry regiments that supported the batteries had gone a few minutes before—this fourteenth regiment from Brooklyn.
Question. What was that mistake?
Answer. This regiment came out in line of battle, and a few minutes after they came out they delivered their fire upon us.
Question. Was it supposed by any one that that was one of our regiments?
Answer. I supposed it was. They had no colors. I supposed it was this same regiment that had gone into the woods, as they disappeared in that direction. Whether they went into the woods or not I do not know. The ground was somewhat rolling, and they would disappear from sight for a few moments.
Question: Did Captain Griffin suppose it was one of the regiments supporting him?
Answer. I do not know what he supposed. He directed my attention to it.
Question. Did he propose to open fire on that regiment?
Answer. Not that I remember. If he had chosen to do it, he was competent to do it.
Question. Did you give him orders?
Answer. No, sir; I gave no orders to either captain. They were both competent men.
Question. You say you have no knowledge that he did not receive orders not to fire upon that regiment?
Answer. No, sir; I gave no orders not to fire.
Question. That regiment opened fire directly upon these batteries?
Answer. Yes, sir.
Question. They captured these batteries?
Answer. No, sir; after they had produced a great deal of havoc, the troops immediately in front advanced—not that regiment which was on one side. There was nothing left for it then, for the infantry support broke in confusion and scattered in all directions.
Question. Was not this the first indication of a panic manifested?
Answer. No, sir; because I had seen regiments in the first part of the day break and fall back, and we were afterwards very handsomely successful.
Question. Do you not consider that the capture of these two batteries had a very decided influence on the fate of the battle on that day?
Answer. I think it had an influence, but I do not know whether it was a very decided influence. I think the circumstance that had the most decided influence was the arrival of those fresh troops on our right flank, after the men had become wearied. Our men had had a long march; been moving back and forth, and became very tired.
Question. Were not those fresh troops those that appeared in front of these batteries?
Answer. No, sir; I think not, because after that there were troops that came up on our right flank, almost at right angles, and those were the troops that I always took to be the fresh ones. Those that advanced on the guns when they were no longer supported, I have always supposed were the enemy’s left that we had driven back.
Question. You do not suppose those troops that took the batteries were Johnston’s men that had just come?
Answer. No, sir; I do not think they were. I am sure they were not. I think they were the enemy’s right, which we had driven back two or three times. I saw very plainly their batteries limber up and go off to the rear and take up a new position. I saw that twice. Finally they went back so far that Captain Ricketts and Captain Griffin could see nothing of the men to fire at. You could not see the horses even; only a puff of smoke.
Question. When was this?
Answer. Before the two batteries moved forward.
Question. I mean after the two batteries moved forward. Did not some regiments appear in front of and capture these batteries within ten or fifteen minutes after they opened fire at this last position?
Answer. No, sir. The infantry support broke and abandoned the batteries. Then they of course felt emboldened to advance, because there was no opposition to them. There were a great many men killed and wounded, and a large number of horses knocked over by that single discharge of that one regiment, which was to our front and right—not really in front. It came out of this piece of woods. There was a very tall Virginia fence, eight or nine rails high, and I could just see the tops of their bayonets—not the clothes of the men, at all, but perhaps ten inches of their bayonets. They had no colors.
Question. What did you suppose that regiment to be?
Answer. I supposed it to be one of our regiments. But if I had known it to be one of their regiments, it would have been no time to do anything before they delivered their fire; that is, after I saw them. It was almost instantaneous after I saw them. I did not see them until my attention was directed to them by Captain Griffin, who said, “See there!” or “Look there!” I was then looking at the direction the guns were firing, and I could see nothing in front, even then. I had been with Captain Ricketts’s battery, and just as I came to Captain Griffin’s battery he called my attention to this regiment. It was all the work of a moment. There was a high, tall fence, and looking at it obliquely, as we did, it made a very close fence to us where we were. If we had been looking at it in front, we could have seen more plainly. But I could see nothing except this line of bayonets, and they delivered their fire almost instantaneously after I first saw them.
Question. Was their fire delivered from behind the fence?
Answer. Yes, sir; right through the fence. It made but a small obstacle to them, because they were close to the fence and the rails were of the usual width apart in that kind of fence, so that they could very readily see through it and fire through it. But even if we had known they were the enemy there would have been no time to have turned the guns upon them before their fire was delivered. If the infantry support had stood, the force in front of us would not have advanced.
Question. Did you consider the batteries were properly supported at that time?
Answer. I did. I think two entire regiments were ample support, and this squadron of cavalry was with them.
Question. How many cavalry?
Answer. Two troops of cavalry. They were commanded by Captain Colburn, who is now a lieutenant colonel upon General McClellan’s staff. There were two troops of cavalry, commonly called a squadron, perhaps 100 men.
By Mr. Odell:
Question. Did the cavalry stand?
Answer. Yes, sir; until General McDowell ordered them to fall back, for after the enemy advanced they were only too much exposed, as there was no opportunity for them to charge there. The enemy made a sort of charge down the road—30 or 40 men of them. The troops were very much exhausted, the fire zouaves called it the “black horse cavalry,” and spoke of the wonders they performed. But there were no black horses there or black uniformed men. They were ordinary bay and sorrel horses with single-rein snaffle-bits. I examined them very closely, because I had lost my pistol and wanted to get one of theirs, and I examined three or four very closely for that purpose. The fire zouaves fired upon them as they passed, for the cavalry could not be held, but ran by almost pell-mell.
Question. We never recovered the possession of Griffins’s battery, as I understand?
Answer. Yes, sir; the guns were retaken twice. The official report states that fully. They were taken the first time and the men tried to drag them off. But they were encumbered with dead horses, and there were no other horses to hitch to them. After dragging them some distance the enemy advanced in large force and drove us back. Then some other troops with those of the infantry support which could be rallied again came back once more, but there was a large force advancing, and they had nothing left but to fall back. The infantry fire had pretty much ceased towards the left. There were several regiments in the road and resting upon their arms, and they were ordered up. If those two regiments had held on a little while we would have had a strong force. It was impossible to rally the 11th regiment—the fire zouaves. I rode in among them and implored them to stand. I told them that the guns would never be captured if they would only stand. But they seemed to be paralyzed, standing with their eyes and mouths wide open, and did not seem to hear me. I then reminded them of all the oaths they had sworn at Alexandria, after the death of Ellsworth, and that that was the best chance they would ever have for vengeance. But they paid no attention to what I said at all.
Question. I suppose the mere fact that a panic had spread among the troops once should not create a distrust of those troops again?
Answer. O no, sir. General McDowell and myself took regimental flags which we saw and begged the troops to rally around them; and a few did, but not a sufficient number to warrant the hopes that we would have had with good troops.
Question. How many did you estimate the force in front, and this regiment on the right, together?
Answer. I could not tell. They covered themselves very well. That was a remarkable feature in that battle: they kept themselves remarkably well covered.
Question. The ground permitted them to do that?
Answer. Yes, sir; the ground they advanced over was not so level as that our troops went over. Our troops marched very handsomely in line of battle. One instance, I saw a whole brigade advance as handsomely as ever any troops did.
Question. So far as the whole fight was concerned, the enemy had infinitely the advantage of our troops in position?
Answer. Yes, sir; the ground was their own selection. I think if the battle had been fought at the hour it was expected to be fought at, 8 1/4 or 8 1/2 o’clock in the morning, we would have won it. There was a loss of three hours there, which I think had a very important effect upon the success of the day. It enabled those fresh troops to get up: it prevented our turning their flank so completely as we would have done by surprise; for when our columns halted, the enemy discovered the direction we were going to take, and prepared for it. And worse than that, the halting, the standing still, fatigued the men as much if not more than by marching that time.
Question. So that our men were really very much exhausted when they went into the field?
Answer. Yes, sir.
Question. But if the battle had been fought three or four hours earlier, then Johnston’s reserve would not have been up in time?
Answer. I think the fate of that day would have been decided before they got upon the ground. I look upon that delay as the most unfortunate thing that happened. The troops that ought to have been out of the way were in the way before we could get to the turning-off point of the road.
Question. You were to have marched at 6 o’clock on Saturday night under the first order?
Answer. No, sir; the only order I heard was to move at half-past 2 o’clock in the morning.
Question. Was not the first order to advance our troops on Saturday night at 6 o’clock, or a portion of them?
Answer. Not that I ever heard of.
Question. Was it not proposed—I do not know that the order was issued— that the troops should march at 6 o’clock on Saturday night?
Answer. Never that I heard of.
Question. Was not there some delay on account of rations—of provisions?
Answer. I never heard of any.
Question. I will ask you, as you were in General McDowell’s staff, whether the battle was not fought a day or two later than was first proposed?
Answer. I think not. The intervening time, from our arrival at Centreville and the time of advancing, was occupied by the engineers in observation. The affair of the 18th showed that the enemy was in great force at that position. I presume General McDowell’s next idea was to discover some place to cross Bull Run without this opposition and turn their flank. I know the time was taken up by reconnoitring by a party of engineers, and a great deal of it was occupied at night to escape the observation of the enemy.
Question. I think it has been stated that there was a delay of one or two days for want of provisions?
Answer. I do not know about that. I joined General McDowell only a day or two before. I arrived here at 8 o’clock in the evening, and had to take my battery down to the arsenal, fill up with ammunition, get fresh horses, &c. General McDowell had marched the day before, and I made two marches in one and overtook him at Fairfax Court-House, and the next day he had me relieved because I was promoted, and assigned me to a position on his staff. So that what his views and intentions were previously to that I do not know. Half past two in the morning was the hour appointed. When he had the assembly of all his division commanders, and explained to them the movements and everything, he was very particular in giving directions about General Tyler’s division being out of the way, as his division was the first to take the road, so as not to stop up the road for the others.
By Mr. Odell:
Question. You spoke of the delay of two or three hours being in your judgment a very serious one upon the success of the day?
Answer. Yes, sir.
Question. What was the occasion of that delay?
Answer. I always heard that it was occasioned by General Tyler not getting his division out of the way of the troops that were to follow. He was to lead, and was to march down the road past the point where they were to turn off to go up to the place with the other divisions, and his division did not get past in time to prevent that delay.
Question. Were not the other divisions waiting for him to pass?
Answer. I always heard so; always supposed so. We had to take one common road at first, and after crossing the little stream called Cub Run, where so much baggage and guns were lost on the retreat by the bridge being broken down, after crossing the little run a short distance we came to this turning off point.
Question. Have you any knowledge of the occasion of his delay?
Answer. I have not. There was some little firing ahead; was firing slowly at long intervals. I went down to where he had a large Parrott gun in the middle of the road in position. I asked the officer what he was firing at. He said they saw some small parties of men. I told him not to waste the ammunition of a heavy gun like that in firing at little parties of men.
By Mr. Odell:
Question. Was there the same difficulty in rallying the 14th New York regiment as in rallying the 11th regiment?
Answer. No, sir. But they were under the disadvantage of having lost their colonel. But they were rallied to some extent afterwards by General Heintzelman.
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Tags: JCCW, Resources, U. S. Artillery
Categories : Joint Committee Testimony, Resources, The Battle
If you’re one of the three folks who actually read the ORs I post here, you may have run across a few familiar names in the report of Brig. Gen. James Longstreet. The 100 pound Peyton Manning, T. J. Goree and G. Moxley Sorrel would remain with Longstreet throughout most of the war. Cavalry aficionados among you may also have recognized Benjamin Franklin Terry and Thomas Saltus Lubbock. I’ll write full sketches of both men, but for now here are brief recaps.
Terry was born in 1821 in Kentucky and moved to Texas when he was 12 years old. In 1851 he was a partner in Texas’ first railroad. He became a delegate to the Texas secession convention in 1861, and set out for Richmond later that year to offer his services to the Confederacy.
Lubbock was born in Charleston, SC in 1817. He moved to Louisiana and was involved in the cotton trade, and when the Texas Revolution started he threw his fortunes in with the state and served throughout in various military organizations including the Texas Rangers. He was captured by the Mexican army and spent some time as a prisoner. Lubbock was a strong secessionist, and in 1861 joined Terry on the trip to Richmond.
It appears, though I have yet to verify it, that Terry and Lubbock set out from Galveston on board a ship in the company of Longstreet, who was heading east after resigning as a paymaster in the U. S. Army, and Goree. Terry and Lubbock eventually served on Longstreet’s staff at Bull Run as volunteers, though they were referred to as “Colonels”. After the battle, they received permission from Jefferson Davis to return to Texas and recruit a regiment of cavalry. Terry became Colonel and Lubbock Lt. Colonel of the 8th Texas Cavalry, Terry’s Texas Rangers.
Lubbock came down with typhus in Tennessee and had to leave the regiment. Not long after, on Dec.17, 1861, Terry was killed in the regiment’s first battle at Woodsonville, Ky. Lubbock ascended to command of the regiment, but never rejoined it, dying in hospital at Bowling Green (or Nashville?) in January, 1862.
Both Terry and Lubbock counties in Texas are named in honor of the former Longstreet aides, as is the city of Lubbock.
In the 1861 group photo below, Lubbock is thought to be second from the right (photo found here) – is it just me, or do the two fellas flanking him appear to be supporting a sleeping, sick, or even dead man?:
Here’s a photo of Terry (found here, as was the recruiting announcement at top):
And here’s a photo of Lubbock’s most famous son (found here):
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Tags: After Action Reports, Articles, Biographies
Categories : Articles, Civilians, Official Reports, Soldiers
Report of Brig. Gen. James Longstreet, C. S. Army, Commanding Fourth Brigade, First Corps
O.R.– SERIES I–VOLUME 2 [S# 2] — CHAPTER IX, pp 543-544
HEADQUARTERS FOURTH BRIGADE, July 28, 1861
In obedience to the general’s orders of the 20th to assume the offensive, my command was moved across Bull Run at an early hour on the 21st. I found my troops much exposed to the fire of the enemy’s artillery, my front being particularly exposed to a double cross-fire as well as a direct one. Garland’s regiment, Eleventh Virginia, was placed in position to carry by assault the battery immediately in my front. McRae’s regiment, Fifth North Carolina, under Lieutenant-Colonel Jones, the colonel being sick, was posted in front of the battery on my right, and with same purpose in regard to this battery. Strong bodies of skirmishers were thrown out in front of each column, with orders to lead in the assault, and at the same time to keep up a sharp fire, so as to confuse as much as possible the fire of the enemy, and thereby protect the columns, which were not to fire again before the batteries were ours. The columns were to be supported, the first by the First Virginia Regiment, under Major Skinner, the second by the Seventeenth Virginia Regiment, under Colonel Corse. The Twenty-fourth Virginia Regiment, trader Colonel Hairston, was the reserve in column of division in mass, convenient to the support of either column. Arrangements being complete, the troops were ordered to lie down and cover themselves from the artillery fire as much as possible.
About an hour after my position was taken it was discovered by a reconnaissance made by Colonels Terry and Lubbock that the enemy was moving in heavy columns towards our left, the position that the general had always supposed he would take. This information was at once sent to headquarters, and I soon received orders to fall back upon my original position, the right bank of the run. Colonels Terry and Lubbock then volunteered to make a reconnaissance of the position of the enemy’s batteries. They made a very gallant and complete one, and a hasty sketch of his entire left. This information was forwarded to the commanding general, with the suggestion that the batteries be taken.
The general’s orders were promptly issued to that effect, and I again moved across the run, but some of the troops ordered to co-operate failed to get their orders. After awaiting the movement some time, I received a peculiar order to hold my position only. In a few minutes, however, the enemy were reported routed, and I was again ordered forward. The troops were again moved across the run and advanced towards Centreville, the Fifth North Carolina Regiment being left to hold the ford. Advancing to the attack of the routed column I had the First, Eleventh, Seventeenth, and Twenty-fourth Virginia Regiments, Garnett’s section of the Washington Artillery, and Whitehead’s troop of cavalry. The artillery and cavalry were at once put in pursuit, followed as rapidly as possible by the infantry.
General Bonham, who was pursuing on our left, finding it difficult to advance through the fields, &c., moved his command to the road, put it in advance of mine, and the march towards Centreville was continued about a mile farther. Night coming on, the general deemed it advisable to halt. After lying in this position about an hour the general directed that the troops should be marched back to Bull Run for water.
Early next day I sent Colonel Terry forward, under the protection of Captain Whitehead’s troop, to pick up stragglers, ordnance, ordnance stores, and other property that had been abandoned by the enemy. I have been too much occupied to get the names or the number of prisoners. As I had no means of taking care of them I at once sent them to headquarters. Colonel Terry captured the Federal flag said to have been made, in anticipation of victory, to be hoisted over our position at Manassas. He also shot from the cupola of the court-house at Fairfax the Federal flag left there. These were also duly forwarded to the commanding general.
About noon of the 22d Colonel Garland was ordered with his regiment to the late battle-ground to collect and preserve the property, &c., that had been abandoned in that direction. Colonel Garland’s report and inventory of other property and stores brought in to headquarters and listed by Captain Sorrel, of my staff, and the regimental reports of killed and wounded are herewith inclosed.(*)
My command, although not actively engaged against the enemy, was under the fire of his artillery for nine hours during the day. The officers and men exhibited great coolness and patience during the time.
To our kind and efficient medical officers, Surgeons Cullen, Thornhill, and Lewis, Assistant Surgeons Maury, Chalmers, and Snowden, we owe many thanks. Lieut. F. S. Armistead, acting assistant adjutant-general, and Lieut. P. T. Manning were very active and zealous.
Volunteer Staff.–Colonel Riddick, assistant adjutant-general, North Carolina, was of great assistance in conveying orders, assisting in the distribution of troops, and infusing proper spirit among them. Cols. B. F. Terry and T. Lubbock were very active and energetic. When unoccupied, they repeatedly volunteered their services to make reconnaissances. They were very gallantly seconded by Capts. T. Goree and Chichester, who were also very useful in conveying orders. Capts. T. Walton and C. M. Thompson were very active and prompt in the discharge of their duties. Captain Sorrel joined me as a volunteer aide in the midst of the fight. He came into the battle as gaily as a beau, and seemed to receive orders which threw him into more exposed positions with peculiar delight.
I remain, sir, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,
(*) Not Found, but see pp. 570, 571
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Tags: After Action Reports, Resources
Categories : Official Reports, Resources
Click on the highlighted links to find the books and articles listed. Most are downloadable in pdf fromat. UPDATE: MSN has killed it’s digitizaiton project, therefore some of these links may be inactive. I’ll fix them as I find them. If you have a new link for the dead ones, leave me a note. Also, if you know of a link I don’t have listed here, let me know.
Dyer, Frederick H. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion (Union Unit Sketches)
Heitman, F. B. Historical Register and Dictionary of the U. S. Army
Moore, Frank (ed.) The Rebellion Record, A Diary of American Events, Second Volume
Phisterer, F. Statistical Record of the Armies of the United States
Ballard, T. First Bull Run Staff Ride, Ballard, T.
Barnard, John Gross, The C.S.A. and the Battle of Bull Run – A Letter to an English Friend
Beauregard, G.T. A Commentary on the Campaign and Battle of Manassas
Johnston, R. M. Bull Run – Its Strategy and Tactics
Stedman, E.C. The Battle of Bull Run
Breazeale, B. B. Co. J, 4th South Carolina Infantry at the First Battle of Manassas
Dickert, D. A. History of Kershaw’s Brigade
Goldsborough, W. W. The Maryland Line in the Confederate Army 1861 – 1865
Wise, G. History of the Seventeenth Virginia Infantry, C.S.A.
Wise, J. C. The Long Arm of Lee
Benedict, G.G. Vermont in the Civil War
Brackett, A.G. History of the United States Cavalry
Fairchild, C.B. History of the 27th Regiment N. Y. Volunteers
Hutchinson, Gustavus B. A Narrative of the Formation and Services of the Eleventh Massachusetts Volunteers
Ingersoll, C.M. Catalogue of Connecticut Volunteer Organizations
Phisterer, Frederick New York in the War of the Rebellion
Schouler, W. A History of Massachusetts in the Civil War
Stone, E.W. Rhode Island in the Rebellion
Waite, O. F. R. (NH Regiments) Claremont War History, April 1861 to April 1865
Waite, O. F.R. New Hampshire in the Great Rebellion
Waite, O.F.R. Vermont in the Great Rebellion
Woodbury, A. The Second Rhode Island Regiment
Baylor, G. (12th VA Cav) Bull Run to Bull Run
Howard, McH. (1st MD) Recollections of a Maryland Soldier and Staff Officer
Hopkins, L.W. (6th VA) From Bull Run to Appomattox – A Boy’s View
Longstreet, J. From Manassas to Appomattox
McKim, R. H. (1st MD) A Soldiers Recollections
Morgan, W. H. (11th VA) Personal Reminiscences of the War of 1861-65
Sorrel, G. M. Recollections of a Confederate Staff Officer
White, B.F. (6th NC) in Clark’s History of the Several Regiments and Battallions from North Carolina, The Sixth Regiment at Manassas, July 21, 1861
Barrett, Edwin Shepard What I Saw at Bull Run
Clement, Edward Henry The Bull Run Rout
Coffin, C. C. The Boys of ’61
Croty, D. G. (3rd MI) Four Years Campaigning in the Army of the Potomac
Howard, O.O. Autobiography of Oliver Otis Howard
Merrell, W. H. (27th NY) Five Months in Rebeldom; or Notes from the Diary of a Bull Run Prisioner
Merritt, John G. 1st Minnesota at Bull Run
Metcalf, Lewis Herbert “so Eager Were We All…” 11th New York at Bull Run
Sherman, W. T. Memoirs of General William T. Sherman, Vol. I
Diaries and Letters
Chesnut, M. B. A Diary from Dixie
Jackson, M. A. Life and Letters of General Thomas J. Jackson
Jones, J. B. A Rebel War Clerk’s Diary
Lusk, W. T. (79th NY) War Letters of William Thompson Lusk
Wolsey-Bacon & Wolsey-Howland (16th NY) Letters of a Family During the War for the Union 1861-1865
Russel, W. H. My Diary North and South
Cooke, J. E. Stonewall Jackson
Dabney, R. L. Life and Campaigns of Lieut.-Gen. Thomas J. Jackson
Jackson, M. A. Memoirs of Stonewall Jackson by His Widow
Smith, E.C. Thomas Jonathan Jackson 1824 – 1863: A Sketch
White, H. A. Stonewall Jackson
Bancroft, F. The Life of William H. Seward
Bowen, J. L. Massachusetts in the War 1861 – 1865
Cavanagh, M. Memoirs of General Thomas Francis Meagher
Dellenbaugh, F. S. George Armstrong Custer
Gould, Edward K. Major-General Hiram G. Berry: His Career as a Contractor, Bank President, Politician and Major-General of Volunteers in the Civil War Together with His War Correspondence Embracing the Period from Bull Run to Chancellorsville
Green, T. M. Historic Families of Kentucky
Headly, P. C. Massachusetts in the Rebellion
Kennedy, H. R. John B. Woodward, a Biographical Memoir (13th NY)
Pearson, H. G. James S. Wadsworth of Geneseo
Phisterer, F. New York in the War of the Rebellion, 1861 – 1865
Powell, William H. Powell’s Records of Living Officers of the United States Army
Riddle, A. G. The Life of Benjamin F.Wade
Robertson, J. Michigan in the War
Senour, F. L. R. Major General William T.Sherman and His Campaigns
A Blockaded British Subject Life in the South from the Commencement of the War, Vol II
Fieberger, G. J. Campaigns of the American Civil War
Frost, J. B. The Rebellion in the United States; or, The War of 1861Jeffrey, W. H. Richmond Prisons, 1861-1862
Nicolay, J. G. The Outbreak of the Rebellion
Pollard, E. A. The First Year of the War
Swinton, W. The Twelve Decisive Battles of the War
Glynn, G. Brigadier General Thomas F.Meagher
Hennessy, J. War Watchers at Bull Run
Johnston, J. E. The Battle of Bull Run
King, K. J. First Battle of Bull Run: The U. S. Marines
Knoke, K. & Burgess, J. Bull Run Discovered
Neville, D. M. Henry Kingsbury’s Luck Runs Out
Schreckengost, G.J. 1st Louisiana Special Battalion at the First Battle of Manassas
Schreckengost, G. J. “The Fatal Blunder of the Day”: Artillery Deployment at Bull Run
Sergent, Mary Elizabeth Classmates Divided
Scott, Henry L. Military Dictionary (1864)
Comments : 15 Comments »
FIRST BULL RUN CAMPAIGN
ORDER OF BATTLE
B = Biographical Sketch D = Diaries I = Image M = Memoirs N = Newspaper Accounts OC = Official Correspondence OR = Official Report PC = Private Correspondence
Army of the Potomac
Acting Assistant Adjutant General (AAAG)
Acting Assistant Quartermaster (AAQ)
- Maj. Cabell
- Col. R. B. Lee
- Col. Williamson
- Chief Surg R. L. Brodie
- Col. S. Jones
- Col. Chesnut
- Col. Chisolm
- Col. Hayward
- Col. Manning
- Col. Miles
- Col. Preston
- Col. Rice
- Capt. D. B. Harris
- Capt. W. H. Stevens
- Lt. W. Ferguson
- Lt. H. E. Peyton
- Capt. John F. Lay, Powhatan Troop (OR)
- Capt. K. E. Utterback, Little Fork Rangers
- Col. Lay, AAG
- Col. Kemper, AAQ
- Lt. Washington, AAQ
- Maj. Kennedy, Chief Commissary
- Maj. Walton, Military Secretary
- Gen. Hagood, ADC
- Gen. McGowan, ADC
- Col. Aldrich, ADC
- Col. Lipscomb, ADC
- Col. Simpson, ADC
- Maj. Butler, ADC
- Maj. Davies, ADC
- Maj. M. B. Lipsocmb, ADC
- Maj. Tompkins, ADC
- Capt. A. Moss, ADC
- Capt. Nyles, ADC
- Capt. Stevens, ADC
- Capt. Venable, ADC
11th NCV (later 21st NCI)
- Col J. B. Kershaw (OR1, OR2)
- “M” (PC)
- Unknown (1) (PC)
- Unknown (2) (PC)
- Col. J. H. Williams (OR1, OR2)
8th LA (N)
- Col. H. B. Kelly (Not in Johnston’s OOB)
- Co. B – Capt. A. Larose (N)
30th VA Cav
- Col. R. C. W. Radford (OR1, OR2)
Alexandria Light Artillery (4 Guns)
1st Company Richmond Howitzers (4 Guns)
- Capt. J. C. Shields
- Lt. Col. Charles Humphrey Tyler, AAAG
- Capt. Fitzhugh Lee, AAAG
- Capt. Charles H. Rhodes, AQM
- Lt. George Campbell Brown, ADC (M)
- Cadet John Taliaferro, ADC
- Robert F. Mason, ADC
- Edgar A. Hudnut, Clerk
5th AL (D)
- Col. J. J. Seibels
- BHB (PC)
- Col. J. G. Seymour
- Co. E – 1st Sgt. John Tobin (PC)
- Col. J. G. Jenifer
Washington Artillery (4 Guns)
- T. L. Rosser
- Lt. Latham, AAAG
- Capt. Coward, AAQ
- Capt. Curfell, AAQ
- Capt. Ford, AAQ
- Capt. Taylor, AAQ
- Lt. McLemore, AAQ
- Col. W. S. Featherstone (OR)
- Col. E. R. Burt (OR)
- Col. Micah Jenkins (OR)
Flood’s Company, 30th VA Cav
- Capt. J. W. Flood
Washington Artillery (2 Guns)
- Capt. M. B. Miller
- Lt. Armistead, AAAG
- Lt. P. T. Manning, AAQ
- Col. Lubbock, ADC
- Col. Riddick, ADC
- Col. Terry, ADC
- Capt. Chichester, ADC
- Capt. Goree, ADC (PC1, PC2)
- Capt. Sorrel, ADC
- Capt. Thompson, ADC
- Capt. Walton, ADC
- Col. Moore
- Maj. F. G. Skinner
- Col. S. Garland
- Col. P. Hairston
Company E, 30th VA Cav
- Capt. E. Whitehead (OR)
Washington Artillery (2 Guns) (N)
- Capt. Garnett
Col. Philip St. George Cocke (OR)
- Capt. Harris, Chief Engineer
- Col. R. E. Withers (OR)
- Col. P. St. George Cocke
- Lt. Co. J. B. Strange
49th VA (Battalion)
- Cpt. F. B. Schaeffer (N1, N2)
Loudon Artillery (4 Guns)
- Capt. Arthur L. Rogers (OR)
- Lieut. Henry Heaton
Lynchburg Artillery (4 Guns)
- Capt. H. Grey Latham (OR)
Wise Troop (Cavalry Company)
- Capt. Gardner, AAAG
- Lt. Willis, ADC
- Col. Harry T. Hays
- Lt. Col. Charles De Choiseul
- Maj. Davidson B. Penn
- Col. W. Barksdale
- Col. J. L. Kemper
Washington Artillery (5 Guns) (N)
- Lt. C. W. Squires (OR)
- Lt. J. B. Richardson
- Lt. J. B. Whittington
- Capt. A. L. Evans, AAAG
- Capt. McCausland, ADC
- Capt. Rogers, ADC
- Maj. C. R. Wheat (W) (OR)
- Lt. Allen C. Dickinson, ADC (N)
- Col. J. B. E. Sloan (OR)
Alexander’s Troop, 30th VA Cav
- Capt. J. D. Alexander (OR)
Terry’s Troop, 30th VA Cav
- Capt. W. R. Terry (OR)
1 Section Lathams Artillery (2 Guns)
Brig. Gen. Theophilus H. Holmes (OR)
- Lt. Walker, AAAG
- Col. J. F. Fagan
- Col. W. Bate
Purcell Artillery (6 Guns)
- Capt. L. Walker
Albemarle Light Horse
- Capt. Eugene Davis
- Major John Scott
Hampton’s SC Legion (6 Companies)
Unknown 1 (PC)
Unknown 2 (PC)
Unknown 3 (PC)
Harrison’s Battalion of Cavalry (4 Companies)
Maj. Julian Harrison
Camp Pickens Battery
Capt. I. S. Sterrett
Army of the Shenandoah
Acting Adjutant General (AAG)
Acting Assistant Adjutant General (AAAG)
- Capt. Thomas L. Preston
Acting Assistant Quartermaster (AAQ)
- Maj. McLean
- Maj. Kearsley
- Maj. William Henry Chase Whiting
- Col. W. N. Pendleton (OR)
- Col. Thomas
Lt. James B. Washington
Col. F. B. Jones, AAAG
Lt. A. S. Pendleton, Ordnance
Capt. Marshall, ADC
Lt. T. G. Lee, ADC
Cadet N. W. Lee, ADC
Cadet Thompson, ADC
- Surgeon Hunter McGuire (M)
2nd VA (M)
- Col. J. W. Allen (OR)
4th VA (M)
Col. K. Harper
Co. L – Capt. J. H. Waters (OR)
- Lt. Col. J. Echols
33rd VA (8 Companies) (M)
- Col. A. C. Cummings (M1, M2, PC1, PC2)
Rockbridge VA Artillery (4 Guns)
Col. Francis Bartow (K)
Brig. Gen. S. R. Gist, ADC
Col. Shingler, ADC
Maj. Stevens, ADC
- Lt. Col. L. J. Gartell
- Lt. Col. W. M. Gardner
Wise Artillery (Alburtis’ Battery) (4 Guns)
- Capt. E. G. Alburtis
- Lt. John Pelham (PC)
Maj. William H. C. Whiting placed in command after the battle (OR)
Capt. T. L. Preston, AAAG
Brig. Gen. S. R. Gist
Maj. R. A. Howard
Capt. A. Vander Horst (Gist, Howard, & Vander Horst filed this OR for Bee’s Brigade, but are not listed on any OOB as part of Bee’s staff)
4th AL (M)
- Col. Egbert J. Jones (MW)
- Lt. Col. Evander M. Law (W)
- Maj. Charles L.Scott (W)
- Capt. Thomas J. Goldsby (OR)
- Unknown (PC)
- Col. W. C. Falkner
- Co. G – Capt. Hugh R. Miller (PC)
11th MS (Companies A & F)
- Lt. Col. P. F. Liddell
6th NC (Not Brigaded) (N)
- Col. Charles. F. Fisher (K)
- Lt. Col. Charles E. Lightfoot
Staunton Artillery (4 Guns)
- Lt. Chentney, AAAG
- Lt. McDonald, AAQ
- Col. Buist, ADC
- Capt. Cunningham, ADC
- Capt. Hill, ADC
- Capt. Tupper, ADC
- Lt. Contee, ADC
1st MD Battalion (M)
- Lt. Col. G. H. Steuart
- Unknown Officer (PC)
- Col. J. C. Vaughn
- Unknown Officer (PC)
13th VA (Left at Manassas)
- Col. A. P. Hill
Newtown Artillery (4 Guns)
Capt. George. A. Groves
Lt. R. F. Beckham
1st VA Cav
Thomas Artillery (Stanard’s Battery) (4 Guns)
- Capt. P.B. Stanard
Comments : 7 Comments »
This coming Sunday’s Super Bowl match up features teams representing two states that were loyal to the Union in the late unpleasantness. However, one team’s offense is led by prolific passer and son of the south Peyton Manning. I for one am glad to see the Colts in the championship. I’m a lifelong Steelers fan (Colts head coach Tony Dungy once caught and threw an interception in the same game when he played for Pittsburgh, and he got his coaching start here as well), and will be rooting for the AFC come game day. And you have to love Peyton’s commercials: “They’re not saying ‘Boo’; they’re saying ‘Moooovers'” and my favorite “De-Caf (thump thump), De-Caf (thump thump)”.
Now, there are a lot of similarities between studying history and watching football. Perhaps one of the most irritating similarities is that (relatively) high paid analysts in both fields have a penchant for judging decisions by their results. Throwing into double coverage is a bonehead move if it results in an interception, but is brilliant if the ball goes through the DB’s hands and results in a touchdown. Don’t laugh – the number of Civil War studies that rely on similar methodology is legion.
This particular game offers a chance to discuss something that has bugged me for some time: why in God’s name did Peyton’s dad Archie decide to name his child Peyton? I suppose it might be reasonable to guess that he may have been thinking “Anything but Archibald”. But then, why not Quimby? Or Larry?
Some students of the American Civil War are aware that both the Peyton and Manning names were “big” in the Confederacy. At various times, Mannings commanded four infantry regiments in the Army of Northern Virginia, the 49th & 50th Georgia, the 3rd Arkansas, and the 6th Louisiana. Peytons commanded the 5th and 19th Virginia. Out west, Peytons headed the 3rd Mississippi Infantry, Major Peyton’s Cavalry Battalion, and the 3rd Missouri Cavalry.
Mannings and Peytons served in staff positions in the Army of Northern Virginia as well. Virginian Jacob Hite Manning was signal officer to James Longstreet and, presumably, to R. H. Anderson. One time governor of South Carolina John Laurence Manning served as a volunteer ADC to Brig. Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard at First Bull Run and later in December 1862. Henry E. Peyton of Missouri was an ADC to Beaurgeard at First Bull Run, and would later serve on the staff of Robert E. Lee. Virginia brothers Moses G. and Thomas G. Peyton did time as staff officers as well, Moses as volunteer ADC to Robert Rodes and as AAG to Rodes, Stephen D. Ramseur and Bryan Grimes, and Thomas as AAAG to Richard Ewell. Another Virginian, Thomas Jefferson Peyton, served as Acting Assistant Inspector General for G. W. Smith and as AAIG and Ordnance Officer for John C. Pemberton. And someone named William H. Peyton served in the capacity of AQM in Staunton, VA in 1861.
Four other Mannings were in other rebel armies, assisting generals Cantey, J. E. Johnston, S. D. Lee, Twiggs, and Wheeler. Three more Peytons also worked for J. P. Anderson, Hood, H. B. Lyon, and J. S. Williams.
Now, that’s a whole lot of Peytons and a whole lot of Mannings. Archie Manning, the most famous of all (‘Ole Miss) Rebel quarterbacks, was born in Drew, Mississippi. It seems likely that Archie is the result of some long ago (or not so long ago) conjoining of a Manning and a Peyton. Possible evidence of this theory may be found 160 miles from Drew in the town of Aberdeen, MS. That’s the birthplace of the man listed on the Confederate order of battle for First Bull Run as James Longstreet’s acting assistant quartermaster, Lt. Peyton Thompson Manning.
Described in the memoir of John C. Haskell as “a little man, weighing not over 100 pounds” and a fine horseman, “Manny” (as T. J. Goree referred to him) was born in 1838 and attended the Georgia Military Institute. “Befo de woah” he was a railroad engineer. He signed on as a sergeant in Co. I of the 11th MS Infantry in February, 1861, and was later commissioned a lieutenant in the regiment and a major in the Provisional Army of the Confederate States (PACS). I’m guessing he went east with the 11th MS to muster into Confederate service at Lynchburg, VA; two companies of the 11th would be with Barnard Bee during First Bull Run. Manning was assigned to Longstreet’s staff and, except for a brief stint on the staff of J. E. Johnston, would serve on it for the remainder of the war, primarily as Ordnance Officer. He is famous in Confederate literature for a mis-adventurous sleigh ride with fellow Longstreet staffer G. Moxley Sorrel during the winter of 1861-62, and for nearly choking on a sweet potato when slightly wounded at Chickamauga. He also served as a cannoneer at Antietam in “Battery Longstreet”, thrown together by the General when the crew of a battalion of the Washington Artillery were shot down. Francis W. Dawson recalled that Manning was “exceedingly kind and considerate”, easy to work with, gentlemanly and “brave as a lion.” But “he knew very little of his work as an ordnance officer, and was unable to write an ordinary letter correctly.”
At war’s end, Manning returned to his wife Julia Watson in Aberdeen, and died there on February 3, 1868 at the age of 30 or 31. He is buried in Odd Fellows’ Rest Cemetery in Aberdeen.
I haven’t been able to track down any images of Peyton Manning the staff officer. If any reader (Archie?) has an image or other information on him, please let me know via the comments section of this site. I’ll update here with any new information I receive.
By the way, that was Elijah Peyton who was Lt. Col. of the 3rd Mississippi Infantry. But that’s another story for another Super Bowl – maybe.
Crute, J., Units of the Confederate States Army
Krick, R. E. L., Staff Officers in Gray
Krick, R. K., Lee’s Colonels
Govan & Livengood, ed., The Haskell Memoirs
Longstreet, J., From Manassas to Appomattox
Sorrel, G. M., Recollections of a Confederate Staff Officer
Comments : 21 Comments »
Tags: Articles, Peyton Manning
Categories : Articles, Family Ties, Soldiers
WordPress provides statistical information about how my site is accessed. For instance, if someone has a link to my blog on their website, if a reader navigates to here from that link I get a count on how many readers did that each day, for each site that has a link which was used that day. I also get a list of the search engine keywords used to navigate to my site. Lately I’ve noticed a few hits coming from the term “striated glutes”, which was used to describe the statue of Little Sorrel in the Body by Balco post. I’m not too sure how I should feel about that.
Also there have been a few hits from the phrase “senator captured at Bull Run”. I suspect this resulted in a link to my site based on the last three words. Whoever is looking for that info, you won’t find it. There were no senators captured at Bull Run. There was a congressman captured – Alfred Ely of New York. That may be what you’re looking for.
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Categories : Articles, What is this?
Jim Burgess is the Museum Specialist at Manassas National Battlefield Park, and he is one of the many folks I’ve come across in the NPS who goes the extra mile to help out strangers. I was put in contact with Jim by John Hennessy down in Fredericksburg after asking John about a relatively obscure listing in his order of battle for BR1, and together I think Jim and I solved something of a mystery while uncovering another, but more on that in a later post. I sent Jim a note on Monday asking if he had any info on the dedication of the Jackson monument on the battlefield and, as I knew he would, he came through for me yesterday. The following summary of how the monument came to be has been gleaned from the information Jim sent me and from the e-book “Battling for Manassas” by Joan Zenzen.
At the 75th Anniversary reenactment on July 21, 1936, a suggestion was made to erect a monument more suitable than the “poorly lettered” sign then marking the site of Jackson’s line. When the Sons of Confederate Veterans conveyed the Henry Farm to the US government on March 19, 1938, the deed included a condition for the erection of a monument to Jackson by the State of Virginia. Also as part of the negotiations with the SCV, the Park Service pledged to construct what is now the visitor’s center. These two projects effectively established the national park.
In 1939, the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts (after the usual wrangling with a national arts commission) chose Joseph P. Pollia (1894-1954) to sculpt the Jackson statue. Pollia was Italian born but trained in Boston, and had previously sculpted a memorial on San Juan Hill in Cuba and a statue of Phil Sheridan. An early model of the statue was criticized by Confederate organizations because they felt the features of the rider more closely resembled US Grant, and that the horse looked more like a plow horse than a prize mount (that is, more like Little Sorrel than Cincinnati?). Pollia changed his design.
After casting at the Bedy-Rassi Foundry in New York City, the statue was trucked to the park where it arrived on July 14, 1940. The State of Virginia appropriated $25,000 for the artwork and paid $22,500 to Pollia. On August 31, 1940, more than 1,500 people gathered for the dedication, and were reminded by Douglas Southall Freeman in his keynote speech that “Jackson’s use of discipline and vigorous training…would serve current military commanders well.”
Even though I am a thoroughly unreconstructed Union man, I’ve loved this monument from the day I first laid eyes on it. It reminded me of so many of the drawings in the Stan Lee Marvel Comics of my youth – this Jackson is impossibly muscular, like The Incredible Hulk. In fact, this Jackson achieved a state of muscular development not seen in real live human beings until the mid 1980’s. The dude is ripped! And so is his horse (supposed to be “Little Sorrell” – not likely). Striated glutes! The horse has striated glutes! Jackson’s diamond shaped calves are easily discernible through his heavy leather riding boots. And his chest! (See the banner at the top of this page.) Obviously ‘ol Blue Light spent his down time at Harper’s Ferry that spring doing lots of bench presses from various angles, dumbbell flys, and cable crossovers. But I suspect he (and Little Sorrel) had some help. And on my last visit to the park, I found something that comfirmed my suspicion.
On the west side fo the monument’s black granite base are etched the immortal (if possibly ambiguous) words of Brigadier General Barnard Bee, uttered before his mortal wounding: “There Stands Jackson Like a Stone Wall.” Everyone can see these words. They face the visitor’s center. Fewer folks walk to the east side of the monument, and fewer still stoop low enough to read the small inscription nearly at ground level:
“Saved the day for the Confederacy in 1861, also hit 78 home runs with 207 RBI in a secession shortened season.”
And at the end of the inscription, in a brighter etching obviously made recently:
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Tags: Articles, Monuments, Stonewall Jackson
Categories : Articles, The Battlefield