Nathan Evans

6 03 2014

For more on Evans, see here and here.





Nathan G. Evans

1 08 2009

Colonel Nathan “Shanks” Evans commanded the Seventh Brigade in Beauregard’s Army of the Potomac at Bull Run.  His command is often referred to as a demi-brigade due to its size: it consisted of one full regiment, the 4th SC, Wheat’s 1st Special Louisiana Battalion, Alexander’s and Terry’s troops of the 30th VA Cavalry, and one section of Latham’s battery.  All told, he had about 1,100 infantrymen with him on the far left of the Confederate line on the morning of July 21, 1861.  But what he managed to do with those men made him, for a time, a hero. 

Using the advantages of terrain, Evans managed to hold back Burnside’s men until reinforced by Bee and Bartow, which in turn gave Johnston and Beauregard time to send much of their widespread and late arriving manpower to Henry Hill.  He would follow up this success later in the year with a victory as the commander of the Confederate forces engaged at Ball’s Bluff, also known as the Battle of Leesburg.  That action would earn him the thanks of the Confederate Congress.

 But today Evans is probably best known not for his military achievments early in the war, but rather for his “barellita”, a one gallon jug of whiskey carried by an aide that accompanied him in camp and field.  His reputation as a hard drinker dogged him throughout his Confederate career, and perhaps played a role in his slow promotion and a series of transfers that earned his men the sobriquet of “The Tramp Brigade”.  He would end the war without a command and in relative obscurity.

Evans’s penchant for drink was a widely held impression from early on.  In a letter to his mother written 10/18/1861, Longstreet staffer T. J. Goree wrote:

[Evans] is very much censured for not attacking [an isolated Federal force a few days after Ball’s Bluff], but the truth of the matter is he was so elated by his victory at Leesburg that he got a little drunker than usual, and was consequently not in a condition to do anything.  Some of the officers under him speak of preferring charges against him.  Genl Evans is one of the bravest men I ever saw, and is no doubt a good officer when sober, but he is unfortunately almost always under the influence of liquor.  Cutrer, ed., Longstreet’s Aide: The Civil War Letters of Major Thomas Goree, p 51

 As for the photo below, I have no idea what’s going on there, but the two men are holding hands.  As I said here, things were different back then.  I think.  Not that there’s anything wrong with that.

evans2

This article was originally published on 9/13/2007, as part of the Nathan George Evans biographical sketch.





#110 – Col. Nathan G. Evans

3 10 2007

 

Report of Brig. Gen. Nathan G. Evans, Commanding Seventh Brigade, First Corps

O.R.– SERIES I–VOLUME 2 [S# 2] — CHAPTER IX, pp 558-560

HEADQUARTERS STONE BRIDGE, BULL RUN, VA.,

July 24, 1861

COLONEL: I have the honor herewith to submit the reports of Col. J. L. E. Sloan, commanding Fourth Regiment of South Carolina Volunteers; Captain Harris, commanding the First Special Battalion Louisiana Volunteers(*); Captain Terry, commanding the squadron of cavalry, and First Lieutenant Davidson, commanding a section of Latham’s battery of artillery, the whole constituting the force under my command on the 21st instant.

The enemy made his appearance in line of battle on the east side of the stone bridge, about fifteen hundred yards in front of my position, and opened their fire with rifled cannon at 5.15 a.m., which was continued at intervals for about an hour. Having my entire force covered by the crest of the hills on the west side of the bridge, I did not return the fire. Observing the enemy had deployed a considerable force as skirmishers in front of his line, and that they were advancing on my position, I directed the two flank companies of the Fourth Regiment South Carolina Volunteers and one company of Major Wheat’s Special Battalion Louisiana Volunteers to advance as skirmishers, covering my entire front.

The skirmishers were soon engaged, and kept up a brisk fire for about an hour, when I perceived that it was not the intention of the enemy to attack me in my present position, but had commenced his movement to turn my left flank. I at once decided to quit position and to meet him in his flank movement, leaving the skirmishers of the Fourth Regiment of South Carolina Volunteers, supported by the reserve of two companies, to keep him engaged. I sent word to Col. Philip St. George Cocke that I had abandoned my position at the bridge, and was advancing to attack the enemy at the crossing of the Warrenton turnpike and the Manassas roads.

Observing carefully the movements of the enemy, I was able to form my line of attack directly in his front, covered by a grove of woods, at about 9 o’clock a.m. Placing the Fourth Regiment on the left, supported by one piece of artillery, Major Wheat on the right, supported by a company of cavalry, I directed my command to open fire as soon as the enemy approached within range of muskets. At 9.15 o’clock my command opened a vigorous fire from their position, which caused the enemy to halt in confused order. The fire was warmly kept up until the enemy seemed to fall back. Major Wheat then made a charge with his whole battalion.

At this juncture General Bee arrived with his brigade to my timely assistance, and formed immediately in my rear, and advanced, covering and relieving my command, and was immediately hotly engaged with the enemy. Col. F. S. Bartow, with his regiment (Eighth Georgia), came up soon after to the support of General Bee, but the enemy by this time were in such large force that our position was no longer tenable, and I ordered my command, now greatly scattered, to fall back under cover towards the Lewis house. The commands of General Bee and myself were now completely scattered, when we were timely covered by Hampton’s Legion and other re-enforcements.

For the further services of my command I beg to refer you to the inclosed reports. While my whole command gallantly charged and repulsed the enemy, I would call the attention of the general commanding to the heroic conduct of Maj. Robert Wheat, of the Louisiana Volunteers, who fell, gallantly leading his men in a charge, shot through both lungs. I am also much indebted to him for his great experience and excellent advice. Colonel Sloan was observed by me several times during the day rallying his men and bravely leading them to action.

For acts of particular gallantry I beg again to refer to the reports of the immediate commanders. Lieutenant Davidson, though with one of his pieces crippled, did gallant service during the entire day, and kept up a brisk fire upon the enemy as they advanced to within two hundred yards of his piece. To my personal staff I am greatly indebted for the promptness with which they bore my orders under heavy fire, and to Capts. George McCausland, Alexander Rogers, aides-de-camp, and A. L. Evans, acting assistant adjutant-general, I am particularly indebted for remaining with me under heavy fire during the entire day.

I send herewith a stand of colors taken during the action by Major Wheat’s battalion. I would also call the attention of the commanding general to the valuable services of Dr. Bronaugh, of Virginia, who conducted me to the ground and assisted me in selecting my position to commence the action.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

N. G. EVANS,

Brigadier-General, Commanding

Col. PHILIP ST. GEORGE COCKE,

Commanding Fifth Brigade

*Not Found





Nathan George Evans

13 09 2007

Nathan George Evans: born Marion, SC 2/3/1824; nicknamed “Shanks” for his thin legs; brother of Chesley D. Evans, signer of SC ordinance of secession; brother-in-law of CSA general Martin W. Gary; attended Randolph-Macon College in Virginia; West Point Class of 1848 (36 of 38); Bvt 2nd Lt. 1st Dragoons 7/1/48; served on frontier duty in Texas1848-55; 2nd Lt 2nd Dragoons 9/30/49; 1st Lt 2nd Cav 3/3/55; duty in Kansas, 1855-1860; Sioux Expedition, 1855; Capt. (5/1/56 per Heitman, 12/20/55 per Cullum); Cheyenne Expedition 1856; Utah Expedition, 1858; Arkansas River Scout, 1859; Kiowa and Comanche Expedition, 1860; duty in Colorado, 1860; leave of absence, 1860-61; married Ann Victoria Gary, 3/20/60; resigned 2/27/61; Maj. SC Militia, AAG, 1/61; Capt ACSA Cav 3/16/61; Maj. CSA 3/16/61; AAG James Island Forces, 6/61 to 7/20/61; Col. CSA 4th SC Inf, 7/61; 7th Brigade, Army of the Potomac (AotP), 7/20/61 to 10/12/61; BGCSA 10/21/61 (n 10/21/61, c 12/19/61); 4th Brig., 4th Div, AotP, 10-22-61 to 10-24-61; Brg. X, Div. X AotP, 10/24/61 to 11/12/61; 1st Brig. 2nd Div. AotP, 11/12/61 to 12/18/61; 12/18/61 received Thanks of Confederate Congress “for the brilliant victory achieved by them over largely superior forces of the enemy in the battle of Leesburg [Ball’s Bluff]; 3rd Subdistrict, District of SC, Dept of SC, GA & East FL, 12-18-61 to 3/14/62; 3rd Subdist, Dist of SC, , Dept of SC & GA, 3/14/62 to 5/28/62; 2nd Subdist, Dist of SC, Dept of SC & GA, 5/28/62 to 6/19/62; Brig X, 1st Subdist, Dist of SC, Dept of SC & GA, 6/19/62 to 7/8/62; 3rd Brig, Jones’s Div, First Corps, Army of Northern VA (AoNV), 7/8/62 to 8/9/62; Evans’s Brig, Hood’s Div, First Corps, AoNV 8/9/62 to 11/6/62; Evans’s Brig, Dist of NC, Dept of NC, 11/6/62 to 3/3/63; James Island, 1st Subdist, Dist of SC, Dept of SC, GA & FL, 5/15/63 to 5/25/63; Evans’s Brig, Loring’s Div, Army of MS (AoM), 5/25/63 to 6/63; Evans’s Brig, Breckinridge’s Div, Army of TN (AoT), 6/63 to 6/21/63; Evans’s Brig, French’s Div, AoT, 6/21/63 to 8/3/63; Brig X, 2nd Subdist, Dist 1, Dept of SC, GA & FL, 8/3/63 to 9/15/63; arrested by Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard for disobedience of orders, Sept. 1863; acquitted of charges 11/5/63; Evans’s Brig, 1st Subdist, Dist of SC, Dept of SC, GA & FL, 3/11/64 to 3/21/64; 1st Subdist, Dist of SC, Dept of SC, GA & FL, 3/21/64 to 10/17/64; wounded after falling from his horse, 4/16/64; 2nd Subdist, Dist of SC, GA & FL, 10/17/64 to 11/5/64; failed to secure a command through to the end of the war; no record of parole; high school principal, Midway, AL, until his death on 11/23/68; buried Tabernacle Cemetery, Cokesbury, SC.

Sources: Cullum, Biographical Register of the Officers and Graduates of the U. S. Military Academy, Vol II, pp 365-366; Eicher & Eicher, Civil War High Commands, pp 228-229,793; Heitman, Historical Register and Dictionary of the U. S. Army, Vol. I, p. 410; Silverman, Thomas & Evans, Shanks: The Life and Wars of General Nathan G. Evans, CSA; Wert in The Confederate General, Vol II, pp 107-108; Warner, Generals in Gray, pp 83-84. 

 evans2.jpgevans1.jpgevansn3q.jpgevansgrave.jpg

 Photo credits: a, b, c – www.generalsandbrevets.com; d – www.findagrave.com

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Brig. Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard to Col W. B. Bate, 2nd Tennessee Infantry, on Forwarding Troops to Brentsville

26 12 2020

CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN MARYLAND, PENNSYLVANIA, VIRGINIA, AND WEST VIRGINIA FROM APRIL 16 TO JULY 31, 1861

CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. – CONFEDERATE

O. R. – Series I – VOLUME 2 [S #2] CHAPTER IX, pp. 932-933

Headquarters Department of Alexandria, Va.,.
Manassas Junction, June 17, 1861.

Col. W. B. Bate,
Comdg. at Camp Jackson, Brooke’s Station, Stafford Co., Va.:

Colonel: As it would be important to re-enforce the troops under my command as soon as practicable should the enemy advance from Alexandria, I have to suggest that you obtain the approval of General Holmes and of the Secretary of War to your throwing forward your regiment (two would be preferable) and a battery to my support. A good position for them to occupy would be Brentsville, a few miles southeast of here, where they would protect my rear, and be prepared also to act against any force of the enemy attempting to land at Quantico Creek or even at Aquia Creek.

I have already informed General Holmes, through his aide, Colonel Lacy, of the necessity of establishing a battery and supporting force at the mouth of the former creek, but I am unable to do so at present for the reason given above; hence I would be happy to have him do it if in his power. I would suggest also the necessity of establishing immediately a telegraph station near your headquarters and another near those of Lieutenant-Colonel Green, at Camp Chopawamsic, near Evansport, so as to be in telegraphic communication with this place, via Richmond, for a most thorough and perfect concert of action must exist between our different military departments to insure victory to our arms and success to our glorious cause.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. T. BEAUREGARD,
Brigadier- General, Commanding.

P. S.— What has become of the portable hot-shot furnace I sent to General Lee from Charleston for the defense of the Potomac? It ought to be at Aquia Creek. I beg you to send a copy of this letter, through General Holmes, to the Secretary of War, with such remarks as both may wish to add to it.

[Indorsement.]

Headquarters Department,
Brooke’s Station, June 18, 1861.

I disagree with General Beauregard as to the propriety of detaching any part of this command. The point designated by him is entirely out of reach of Aquia Creek. If this command is relieved, it should be on the supposition that there is no danger to be apprehended of an invasion from near here, and in that event nearly the whole command should be sent.

Respectfully forwarded.

TH. H. HOLMES,
Brigadier-General, Commanding Department.





S. S. C., 4th South Carolina, On the Battle

10 09 2020

Correspondence of the Richmond Dispatch.
Fourth South Carolina Regiment.

Camp Pettus, 7 miles North of
Manassas, Aug. 5, 1861.

In reading the letters of your numerous correspondents with regard to the late battle at Stone Bridge, I see that nearly all allude to particular regiments, and the prominent parts enacted by each of them in achieving that great victory. Though I have been glad to see the gallantry and prowess of each regiment and legion thus chronicled to the world, I have been surprised to see that the very first regiment and battalion which were engaged in that conflict, and who sustained the whole shock of the enemy, unsupported for two hours, have been scarcely mentioned at all. I allude to the Fourth South Carolina Regiment, under Col. J. B. E. Sloan, and the Louisiana Regiment, under Maj. Wheat. As I am a member of the “Fourth,” I speak of what I know. Our regiment, with Major Wheat’s command, and two six-pounders of Latham’s Artillery, had been encamped for four or five days previous to the battle, within a few hundred yards if the Stone Bridge, waiting and watching for the enemy. Before daylight on Sunday morning, 21st, we were aroused by the firing of our pickets. Being formed in line of battle, our regiment by sunrise was lying upon the ground directly in front of the bridge, and covered by the brow of the sharp hill to the left of the road. Soon after sunrise, the long straight turnpike upon the opposite side of the Run was filled with the columns of the enemy as far as the eye could reach. They came within five hundred yards of us, threw out their skirmishers, and opened a battery upon us, feeling with ball and shell around and over the hill to find our position. Our regiment remained here with no other firing except between our skirmishers and those of the enemy, until about eight o’clock, under the immediate supervision of Gen. Evans, whose headquarters were within one hundred yards of our position.

At about 8 o’clock we received a message that the enemy had crossed the Run in large force about three miles above, and were marching down to flank us on our left. Withdrawing without the knowledge of the army in our front, and which was composed of eight or ten thousand men, we commenced a double-quick to meet the column which had crossed above. After accomplishing a mile or more, we came in sight of their long line of bayonets, glistening in the morning sun. Halting, we formed in a small hollow or ravine, with Maj. Wheat’s battalion on our right and a little advanced from our position. The enemy formed on a commanding hill, four or five hundred yards in front, and opened upon us with a heavy fire of musketry, and grape-shot from the Rhode Island Battery. Both the Louisianians and our regiment returned the fire with spirit, and several of our men were killed and wounded this early in the day, or before 9 o’clock.

Soon afterwards, we received an order to form under cover of a wood on our right, and somewhat nearer the enemy. Here we remained for some time, in the edge nearest the enemy, keeping up our fire, and having many of our men killed and wounded. The first reinforcement of which we were aware joined us here, and arrived at 9 ½ or 10 o’clock. It proved to be the 4th Alabama Regiment and some other companies, under command of the lamented Col. Bee.

With this noble regiment, which has been deservedly spoken of for its gallantry, we retired when the fire became too hot to be withstood. We, however, soon rallied, and returned to the fight, remaining in it throughout the day. A large portion of our regiment were in the first charge made upon Sherman’s Battery; and many eye-witnesses will avow that the regimental flag, presented to us a few weeks ago by the patriotic ladies of Leesburg, was the very first planted upon one of those guns. It was done by Major Robert Maxwell, our gallant color-bearer. These pieces were, I believe, taken several times before we finally succeeded in holding them. This much I have thought should be said, in justice to the 4th Regiment and the Louisiana battalion, without in the least intending to detract from any other command. Where all did nobly, comparison would be odious. History will, however, record that we were first in the fray, and, with about 1,000 men, )as four of our companies remained at the bridge as skirmishers and a reserve,) kept 30,000 of the enemy in check for one and a half or two hours.

After the day was ours, and victory had perched upon the new born banners of the South, our regiment returned to its former camping ground, now a portion of the battle-field, and, for the first time that day, partook of a soldier’s meal. Our tents and blankets had also been sent off, and, without either, we were exposed that night to a drenching rain, catching what we could of sleep, and dreaming of the thrilling incidents of the day. The loss od our regiment in killed and wounded as 102 men, our of 700 fit for duty. Among the gallant dead was Adjutant Genl. Sam. Wilks, of Anderson, South Carolina. – Our army boasts no more chivalric and accomplished gentleman. Himself and horse fell within 50 yards of our encampment, pierced by more than a dozen bullets.

S. S. C.

Richmond (VA) Dispatch, 8/8/1861

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Unknown, Lynchburg Artillery/Latham’s Battery, On the Battle

14 07 2020

The War.
—————
Facts and Incidents of the late Battles, &c., &c.
—————

A correspondent, who was attached to Latham’s Battery in the battle of July 21st, desires to correct a statement that has been published, to the effect that the battle was commenced at Stone Bridge by Gen. Evans, with certain regiments supported by two guns of the Washington Artillery. The writer says:

“In the first place there was no battle at the Stone Bridge, and in the second place none of the guns of the Washington Artillery were within miles of the bridge, nor in any manner connected with Gen. Evans’ command. With two six pounders of Latham’s Battery, I was within one hundred yards of the bridge, with a full compliment of men for both guns, under command of Gen. Evans, awaiting the approach of the enemy. In this position we had been for a week, scarcely leaving our guns, night or day, for a single moment. We were exposed to a raking fire from the enemy for most of the eleven hours’ battle, and it is no more than justice to Gen. Evans to say that [?] coolness, courage, and ability in battle, he has few equals.

“The two guns at the Stone Bridge were the left half of Captain Latham’s Battery, commanded by Lieuts. Davidson and Leftwich. The Captain of the Washington Artillery is too gallant a man to claim honors belonging to others, when an eleven hours’ in the open fields leaves no room for doubt, in the minds of any who were engaged, as to the respective positions of each.”

The writer goes on to give a detailed and minute account of the fight, closely written on both sides of the paper, which is a sufficient reason for its omission. His compliments to Gen. Evans, and to Captain Latham and his men, are fully justified by their action on that memorable day. On other paragraph [?]:

“Having ascertained that Lieut. Dempsey, of Company G., New York Second Regiment, [?] in the Baltimore Sun as killed, was in one of the hundred hospitals convenient to Manassas, Stone Bridge and Centreville, I went to see him, and found he had a dangerous wound in the head, caused by a bursting bomb. He told me he had a wife living in New York City, and I insert this for her benefit, trusting it may meet her eye and will venture a piece of advice. In time to come it would be well for Mrs. Dempsey to keel the Lieutenant at home, and leave us to manage our niggers as suits us best.”

Richmond (VA) Dispatch, 8/3/1861

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Capt. Edward Porter Alexander, Signal Officer, Army of the Potomac, On the Signal Corps in the Campaign

9 07 2020

THE FIRST SIGNAL MESSAGE.
—————
It Was Sent at Bull Run by Gen. E. P. Alexander, C. S. A.
—————
BY. BRIG. GEN. E. P. ALEXANDER, C. S. A.
—————

In September, 1859, I was a Second Lieutenant of Engineers, U. S. Army, and was on duty with the Corps of Cadets at West Point as Assistant Instructor in Practical Engineering. Here, on Sunday morning. I became acquainted with Dr. Albert J. Meyer, Assistant Surgeon, U. S. A., and learned from him of the system of military signals which he had devised and which he was then under order to develop and bring into practical operation.

Surgeon Meyer had been authorized also to select some young officer to assist him in his experiments, and our accidental acquaintanceship resulted in his making application for me to be relieved from duty at West Point and assigned to duty with him.

This was done, and I remained on duty with Surgeon Myer from Oct. 3, 1859, until March, 1860. The first three months were spent about New York Harbor, experimenting and perfecting our apparatus by daily and nightly signals, between Fort Hamilton, on the Narrows, and Sandy Hook, and Navesink Highlands. Then, everything being satisfactory, we went to Washington and exhibited the system to the Military Committees of the House and Senate, which resulted in the passage of a law creating a Signal Corps, of which Surgeon A. J. Myer was the head, with rank of Major.

I, at my own request, was returned to duty in my old corps, where I continued to serve until after the secession of Georgia, my native State. On May 1, 1861, I resigned, being then on duty at San Francisco, and I returned East via Panama, and arrived in Richmond on June 1.

WITH THE CONFEDERATE ARMY AT MANASSAS.

Confederate armies were being formed at that time in West Virginia in the Shenandoah Valley, at Manassas Junction, at Yorktown, and at Norfolk. On my arrival I was promoted Captain of Engineers, and several applications were made for me for different positions; but President Davis had been Chairman of the Military Committee of the Senate when Maj. Myer and I had appeared before it, on a number of occasions, exhibiting the military signals; so he refused all applications to me, and after making me put in operations a little factory of flags, torches, etc., on July 1, I was ordered to take myself and my system of signals to the army of Gen. Beauregard at Manassas Junction.

On June 24, Gen. McDowell had submitted to the War Department a plan for an advance upon Manassas Junction, to be begun on July 8, which had been accepted. Most fortunately for the Confederates, however, the Federal army, with all its resources, was not ready to start until July 16. Twenty miles of marching, and a preliminary skirmish, and only on July 21 was the battle delivered.

ORGANIZING A SIGNAL CORPS.

On my arrival at Manassas, July 2, 1861, I really had much more time to install my system of signals than I expected; for “rumors of the foe’s advance” now swelled upon almost every breeze, and I lost no time. I had brought with me from Richmond all the necessary flags, torches, glasses, etc., and the first thing was to select men. I soon made acquaintances among the officers, and got the names of about 15 young privates who might later be promoted as Signal Officers, and I had them detailed and assigned to me for duty. They were at once put upon a course of instruction and practice.

Meanwhile I procured a horse, and between times began an exploration of the country which was to be our theater of action, to find out what facilities it offered to establish lines of signal.

The topography was very far from favorable; the country was generally flat and gently rolling. There were but few large bodies of woods, but very many medium sized ones, and very much second growth pine. Our line of battle had been chosen along the stream of Bull Run, about three miles north of Manassas, and the course of the stream was generally wooded and bordered with small fields and pastures, giving very few open stretches. I was not at all sanguine that I would be able to render any valuable service, but, fortunately, I had the time to make a thorough search of the whole country, and as will be seen, one line which I opened up disclosed the vital secret of the enemy’s strategy in time to allow it to be successfully met.

LOCATING SIGNAL STATIONS.

About a mile east of the little village of Manassas, on the farm of a Mr. Wilcoxen, I found a high, rocky point, covered with cedars, but having a good outlook over a valley to the north and west. I made this point a central station, and by clearing it off, and by some clearing at other points, I got two straight six-mile ranges; one northwest to a bluff over Bull Run Valley, on our extreme left, a short way above the Stone Bridge (by which the Warrenton Turnpike crossed Bull Run), and the other north to Centerville, about three miles beyond the Run, opposite our center. Another station was found near the Run, opposite our right center; and a fourth near our headquarters in the village. This was the utmost that the topography permitted, and I established them and set the men to practicing by day and by night.

It is not necessary for me to refer to the operations preceding the 21st. Early that morning McDowell’s turning column was approaching Sudley Ford, two miles above the Confederate left at Stone Bridge; and after a very early breakfast, Gens. Beauregard and Johnston, with their united staffs, started to the front opposite their center. They had sent orders to Ewell, on their extreme right, to advance and turn the enemy’s left, but these orders miscarried in some way, and were never received; consequently there was no action on our center, which was waiting in vain for the right to begin, and ample time was allowed McDowell’s turning column to complete its long march and make the fight upon our left.

And now I may introduce the incident which this paper records in detail for the first time.

As the rather large party, with an escort of couriers, moved down the road soon after breakfast, Gen. Beauregard called me to him, and directed me to take a courier and go to my central signal station on the hill near Wilcoxen’s house, and to remain there in general observation and to send him messages about anything that could be seen. I was far from pleased at the receipt of this order, for I had hoped to accompany the two Generals throughout the day, and the chances of seeing anything important from this place seemed infinitely small. There was no help for it, however, and Beauregard deserves credit for the thought of taking every possible means of acquiring prompt information. If we had had a balloon this would have been the time to send it up.

By rare food luck the Wilcoxen Hill had a particularly good outlook beyond the Stone Bridge. From it could be seen our signal station on the bluff in rear of Stone Bridge, six miles off, and then beyond that for miles the level valley of Upper Bull Run, with its fields, fences, pastures, etc., was foreshortened into one narrow band of green. I arrived on Wilcoxen’s Hill about 8 a. m. After a careful study, I fixed the glass upon the Stone Bridge station and got from the operator there some details about the developments of the morning.

M’DOWELL’S FLANKING COLUMN DISCOVERED.

While I was reading the motions of his flag, the sun being low in the east, and I looking toward the west, from up in the narrow band of green above the flag, the faintest twinkle of light caught my eye. My eyes were always remarkably quick and good, and I had had long training with a glass. It was but a single flash, but the color was that of brass, and the shape a horizontal line. It could be nothing but the reflection of the morning sun from the side of a brass gun. I brought my glass very carefully to bear exactly, and presently made out a little swarm of still fainter glitters, and I knew that it was a column of bright musket barrels and bayonets.

It was about 8:45 a. m., and I had discovered McDowell’s turning column, the head of which at this hour was just arriving at Sudley, eight miles away. I at once appreciated how much it might mean, and I thought it best to give Gen. Evans, in command at the Stone Bridge, immediate notice, even before sending word to Beauregard. So I signalled Evans quickly, “Look out for your left; you are turned.” Gen. Evans afterwards told me that the pickets which he had at Sudley, being driven in by the enemy’s advance guard, had sent a messenger, and the two messengers, one with my warning and one with the report of the picket, reached him simultaneously. The two reports coming together from different sources, thoroughly impressed him with the gravity of the situation, and he acted immediately and with excellent judgement. He left four companies of his command to occupy the enemy (Tyler and his three brigades) in his own front, and with the remainder of his force (six companies of the 4th S. C. and Wheat’s La. Battalion), he marched to oppose and delay the turning column, sending word at the same time of his movement to Col. Cocke, next on his right. In his official report Evans warmly thanks Col. Robt. Wheat (who had been an old Filibuster) for sound advice on the field, and I have no doubt that Wheat was consulted and advised with here. Poor fellow, he fought as well as advised, and fell shout through both lungs. He recovered, but in his next fight, Gaines’s Mill, 11 months later, he fell, leading a charge and could only exclaim: “Bury me on the field, boys.”

Having sent Evans my brief notice of his immediate danger, I wrote a note to Gen. Beauregard, which I can quote, I believe, verbatim, as it was framed after my idea of what the reports of reconnoitering officers should be – the exact mathematical truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth. I kept no copy of it, but its impression upon my own brain was very vivid, and it was about as follows: “I see a body of troops crossing Bull Run about two miles above the Stone Bridge. The head of the column is in the woods on this side. The rear of the column in in the woods on the other side. About a half mile of its length is visible in the open ground in between. I can see both infantry and artillery.”

When I had it written, it looked very tame for notice of the great event I took it to be: but I gave it to my courier and sent him off at a gallop, with some two and a half miles to go.

Untitled

SEASONABLE AND MATERIAL ASSISTANCE.

Gen. Beauregard, in his report of the battle, does not mention the receipt of this note, but says generally that I gave him “seasonable and material assistance early in the day with the system of my signals.”

Gen. Johnston is a little more explicit, and says: “About 8 o’clock, Gen. Beauregard and I placed ourselves on a commanding hill in rear of Gen. Bonham’s left. Near 9 o’clock the Signal Officer, Capt. Alexander, reported that a very large body of troops was crossing the Valley of Bull Run, some two miles above the bridge. Gen. Bee, who had been placed near Col. Cocke’s position; Col. Hampton, with his legion, and Col Jackson, from a point near Gen. Bonham’s left, were ordered to hasten to the left flank.”

Bee’s force comprised the 4th Ala., 2d Miss., and the 7th and 8th Ga. The Hampton Legion was one regiment, and Jackson had five regiments, the 2d, 4th, 5th, 27th and 33d Va. So in all, 10 regiments, with an average distance of about three miles to go, were now en route to reinforce Evans with his one regiment and a half.

I need proceed no further in the history of this battle, though it included the sending of several other signals, and other matters of interest which concerned our knowledge of what was taking place.

It is known of all men that the delay made by the troops above mentioned gave time for the arrival of the brigades of Early and Kirby Smith and two regiments of Burnham’s, and that their arrival changed the defeat into victory. As the sending of these troops to the left was caused by the timely warning of the approach of the enemy upon that flank; it must fairly be attributed to the operation of the system of signals. And as to the value of that victory in moral effect upon the Confederate army and people, those who have fully appreciated the immense power given by “morale” to any army, will realize that that victory laid a foundation of morale without which our subsequent victories – prolonging the war for four years – would have been almost, if not quite, impossible.

The National Tribune, 1/8/1903

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Contributed by Michael Pellegrini

Edward Porter Alexander at Wikipedia 

Edward Porter Alexander at Ancestry.com 

Edward Porter Alexander at Fold3 

Edward Porter Alexander at FindAGrave 





“Ensis,” Co. C*, 18th Mississippi Infantry, On the Battle and Aftermath

30 06 2020

Correspondence of the Citizen.
—————

Camp Near Stone Bridge, Va.,
July 30, 1861.

Dear Citizen: – The 17th and 18th Regiments now find themselves at this new encampment, after much marching and exposure to the weather, and are attached to a new brigade. This re-organization, so decidedly agreeable to us, has been brought about, we suspect, by the freely expressed dissatisfaction which was felt by the two regiments, both in rank and file, towards our former Brigadier (D. R. Jones,) and we have now the pleasure to claim as our official head, the cool, chivalrous and experienced Gen. Evans.

You have doubtless been fully informed that the partial failure of our attack upon the enemy’s left wing battery, in the engagement on Sunday last, was entirely owing to the mismanagement, ignorance, and, I must say, military incompetence of our immediate leader. Being ordered to charge bayonets when at a distance of five hundred yards from an overwhelming enemy posted and entrenched upon and almost inaccessible hill, with two tremendous hills and a ravine at least seventy-five feet between us, we think displayed too rash and an indifference about the welfare of his men and too little of the general to be borne by regiments which, by their integral composition and proficiency in drill, are in every way prepared to sustain the high honor of their State. The ravine was utterly impassible in the charge; and to have stood there upon it’s brink, in the midst of the deadly and terrific storm of grape, canister and bombs which about ten heavy pieces of artillery thundered upon them, would have been sheer madness. The order to retire was therefore given, and although the Yankees immediately retreated and joined the general rout, yet, in the minds of some persons, uninformed as to the facts, our regiments sustained some discredit.

Our 2nd Lieutenant was a few days ago taken from us by the “Camden Rifles,” to supply the place of their lamented Captain (Adam McWillie); and the result of an election in the “Confederates,” to fill the place of Judge Hill, has just this moment been announced in favor of our popular Sergeant Hugh Love, for whose gallantry in action and agreeability in camp, every soldier can vouch. The unsuccessful aspirant was our worthy friend Sergeant Rucker.*

We are now encamped upon the edge of the main battle field. There remains to mark the spot only a few dead horses, the scars of the cannon-shot and graves of the fallen. The marks of the enemy’s flight are all over the country, and most remarkably did they exemplify the scriptural assertion, “the wicked flee when no man pursueth.” No idea of the utter consternation which attended their flight can be formed till the broken wheels and guns, the scattered clothes and provisions, the deserted tents and the tremendous quantity of relinquished booty of every description, all along the route from Bull’s Run to Alexandria is seen.

I have seen sixty-one pieces of the fine artillery which we took; and every wayside house has been converted into an arsenal, prison and hospital for their deserted equipments, the terror-stricken captives and poor wounded wretches. The moral force and the exaltation of the South, and her holy self-defence, which the news of this victory and unequaled defeat will carry throughout America and into the ears of astonished Europe (which the bragging North has ever attempted to deafen to the truth). Is the most grateful blessing which a kind God could grant to the Southern patriot and soldier.

The health of our company and regiment is only tolerable. We start soon for Leesburg, about twenty-five miles distant.

Mr. Hardy is still with us.

Dr. Divine, who has won the golden opinion of the regiment by his readiness in camp and upon the field, with his instruments and his rifle, is yet the welcome confrere of the company.

We miss the luxury of fruit and vegetables, which our friends at home are enjoying about now; but we, here, have this honorable war.

In haste, your friend,
Ensis.**

(Canton, MS) American Citizen, 8/10/1861

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Contributed by John Hennessy

18th Mississippi Infantry Roster 

* Hugh Love and William W. Rucker, both in Co. C per roster above. Co. C was raised in Canton, Madison County, MS.

** An ensis is a saltwater clam.





An Eye Witness, Co. B, Hampton’s Legion, On the Battle

10 01 2020

For the Advertiser.

A Letter from Capt. Gary’s Company

Headquarters C. S. A.
Manassas, Va, July 22nd ‘61

Mr. Editor: On Sunday morning the 21st instant, the Infantry of the Legion arrived at this place, a few hours before day break, having left the city of Richmond on Friday evening. We were out two nights and a day without provisions, having left in accordance with a sudden and unexpected order, thereby depriving us of the chance of preparing rations for the men. At the break of day we drank a hasty cup of coffee, and soon after were on the march for the field of battle, some seven miles distant. We hear the booming of cannon as we started, which continued until we reached the scene of action. The fight had commenced early in the day with Gen. A. G. Evans, who commanded, I believe, the 3rd and 4th Regiments from South Carolina. He held the enemy a hardly contested fight although he had only some fifteen hundred men, and they (the enemy) a very large force, several thousand.

The Legion arrived about ten o’clock and immediately backed up the General’s command. We formed in line of battle calmly and coolly. The men could not have been more composed than they were even if going to dress parade. The fight was opened with great vigor by the enemy with artillery and Infantry, armed with every kind of weapon known to modern warfare. They were in number about ten to one, but we began the fight regardless of all odds. Soon Lieut. Col. D. J. Johnson fell dead from his horse. He was an ornament to the Legion and his death will add another bright name to the historic record of the gallant men of South Carolina. So soon as his death was known, on motion of Capt. Adams and Capt. Austin, the command of the left wing was tendered to Capt. Gary. He immediately announced his willingness to take it, and told them “that he would lead them to death or victory,” – whereupon three cheers were given for the Captain, and they advanced upon the enemy. Capt. G. Soon gave the order to charge, and led his men some two hundred yards in advance of the line of battle on our side; by some mistake in the order, he was left alone with his gallant Company under a galling fire. Whilst in this position Willliam R. Dorn was shot down by a ball passing through the top of his cap, and stunning him severely, but he soon arose and continued to charge. John L. Coleman was also knocked down by a spent ball. At the same time we were mistaken by our own men and were fired on by our side and by the enemy. We then quickly fell back under cover of a ravine, regained our position on the left of the Legion, all the time subject to a hot fire. So soon as we rejoined the Legion, we were ordered to the front and were fired upon by an immense army, but were compelled after sustain a loss of several killed and many wounded to fall back, where we rallied and were honored by the presence of Gen. Beauregard, Gen. Bee and Gen. Evans. Gen Beauregard said “we must win the day.” Capt. Gary responded “we will followe wherever he leads.” We gave the General three cheers, and three more for our gallant Colonel, who is as brave a man as ever drew a sword in defense of his country, with a heart as soft and gentle as that of a woman. We were ordered to hold ourselves in reserve to charge a battery. Soon we were ordered to charge. We charged up to the house of Spring Hill Farm owned by John Henry; here Colonel Hampton was wounded and carried from the field. Captain Conner ordered the legion to fall back and form – announced that he would assume command as Colonel, and Lieut. Lowdnes immediately took charge of Company “A” – Capt. Gary as Lieut. Colonel, Lieut. Tompkins taking command of Company “B.” We again charged up the house and then upon the battery of Captain Rickett’s, which was taken possession of by Lieut. Col. Gary commanding in the name of the Legion. The enemy here retreated towards Stone Bridge and from there to centreville they were followed by Col. Kershaw’s and Cash’s Regiments and the Legion, with Artillery and Cavalry. The road was filled with every thing appertaining to camp life, and some unusual luxuries, such as champagne and lemons. The Cavalry pursued them and captured some 30 pieces of cannon and some five or six hundred prisoners. We then fell back and slept upon the bloody field of battle and returned next morning to this place.

There were thirty thousand of the enemy engaged, and some fifteen thousand on our side. We lost, I suppose, five hundred killed and wounded. The enemy some twenty-five hundred killed and wounded. It was a great pitched battle with West point officers against West Point, and we carried the day, having routed and demolished the flower of their army.

Our company lost killed and wounded as follows:

Thomas A. May, killed.
J. Milledge Hart, seriously wounded – now at Richmond.
Wm. C. Corely, mortally wounded – now at this place.
Davis Bodie, seriously wounded in the arm – now at Culpeper Court House.
Jesse Stone, seriously wounded – now in Richmond.
Sergeant J. T. Nicholson, slightly wounded.
J. W. Jennings,                      “              “
Corporal M. A. Padget,       “              “
R. J. Borknight,                     “              “
J. W. Rochell ,                        “              “
J. W. Rhodes,                         “              “
J. E. Burkhalter,                   “               “
R. T. Carroll,                          “               “
J. L. Coleman,                       “                “
M. A. Griffith,                       “                “
Wm. Jennings,                     “                 “
R. A. Turner,                        “                 “
Thadeus Freeman,             “                 “
John Jennings,                     “                 “

There are a few incidents of the battle that may interest the relatives of those concerned. M. A. Griffith had his canteen shot through. Wm. Jennings had his shot off and his gun knocked out of his hand. His brother, John Jennings, finding him down and almost senseless, dragged him to the shade of a tree. He then started to rejoin his company but soon discovered that his brother was being carried off by two Aouaves. He fired and killed one; fired again and missed; fired again and killed the other, whereupon he and his brother started back to us – met five Zouaves that were pursued by Cavalry, – Levelled their pieces at them and halted the five, and with the assistance of Cavalry brought them to this place as prisoners.

All of our commissioned and non-commissioned officers bore themselves as became volunteers from old Edgefield. Capt. Gary is supported by as fine a set of officers as ever belonged to any Company. Lieutenants Tompkins, Bates and Jennings, bore themselves with uncommon coolness and courage, always prompt in the execution of every order. Lieut. Tompkins, in command of the company after Col. Hampton was wounded, bore himself gallantly, in the whole engagement, and especially in the charge of Ricket’s battery, taken by Capt. Gary acting as Lieutenant Colonel. Lieut. Bates , as every one expected of him, proved himself as brave as the bravest. Lieut. Jennings at one time had command of the Company, – Capt. Gary acting as Lieut. Colonel – Lieuts. Tompkins and Bates having gone for water for the Company and coming very near losing their lives by being cut off – showed that he wielded the sword with as much facility as he did the scalpel.

The 1st Sergeant B. E. Nicholson, fought bravely and at last fainted and was born from the field by Virginians. 2nd. Sergeant R. A. Tompkins was always at his post and could not have acted better. He was at all times cool and brave. Sergeants J. T. Nicholson and J. W. Jennings were both wounded, which speaks for itself. Sergeant Corley was sick when he went on the field and was reluctantly compelled to leave the field with others towards the last of the battle. Corporal J. W. Tompkins particularly distinguished himself with his courage and soldierly bearing during the entire engagement. Corporal Medlock was in the whole fight, acted bravely and well. Corporal Eidson was one of the Color-guard to the flag and was always where the shot fell fastest and thickest. Corporal Herlong was sick and lame when he went into the engagement, and was overcome with heat and exhaustion. The other Corporals were wounded. Nothing need be added when men are wounded in the ranks – you know they are in the right place. In fact, all of the Company did well, and if I were permitted to particularize, I could name many of the privates whose courage could not be surpassed by any one.

The Cavalry and Artillery were not with the Legion.

Dr. Pollard has been appointed assistant Surgeon in the C. S. Army.

Dr. J. H. Jennings is here amputating limbs night and day, for friends and enemies.

I hope you will pardon this long account, as it is given for the benefit of those who are related to those in the Engagement.

AN EYE WITNESS

Edgefield (SC) Advertiser, 8/7/1861

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Contributed by John Hennessy