Time Line


(All times are approximate and are based on those given in the after action reports by unit commanders, in testimony before the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War, or in postwar reminiscences.)

*From Ballard, T. First Bull Run Staff Ride Guide

27 May 1861

  • Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell is assigned command of the Department of Northeastern Virginia and the military forces camped in and around Washington.

9 July 1861

  • McDowell’s military force, called the Army of Northeastern Virginia, is scheduled to march to Manassas Junction on this day, but a lack of sufficient supplies delays the movement.

16 July 1861

  • McDowell’s army begins its march toward Manassas Junction. By evening Brig. Gen. Daniel Tyler’s division has reached Vienna, Col. David Hunter’s and Col. Dixon S. Miles’ divisions have arrived at Annandale, and Col. Samuel P. Heintzelman’s division is at Pohick Creek.

17 July 1861

  • Commanding the Confederate Army of the Potomac at Manassas Junction, Brig. Gen. Pierre G. T. Beauregard informs the Confederate War Department of McDowell’s advance and asks for reinforcements.
  • Confederate authorities order the independent brigade of Brig. Gen. Theophilus H. Holmes at Fredericksburg to reinforce Beauregard.
  • In Richmond Col. Wade Hampton’s independent Hampton Legion is also ordered to Manassas Junction.
  • At Leesburg the 8th Virginia Infantry of Col. Philip St. George Cocke’s brigade is ordered to Manassas Junction.


  • The head of McDowell’s army, Tyler’s division, reaches Fairfax Courthouse.

18 July 1861


  • At Winchester General Joseph E. Johnston receives a telegram from the Confederate War Department informing him of McDowell’s advance and directing him to go to Beauregard’s assistance “if practicable.”


  • Tyler’s division arrives at Centreville. Tyler moves a portion of Col. Israel B. Richardson’s brigade south of Centreville and instigates a lively skirmish in what becomes known as the Battle of Blackburn’s Ford.


  • Johnston’s Army of the Shenandoah departs Winchester for Manassas Junction.
  • Hunter’s and Miles’ divisions arrive near Fairfax Courthouse, and Heintzelman’s division near Sangster’s Station (near what is now Clifton).
  • Unaware of Tyler’s skirmish at Blackburn’s Ford, McDowell personally reconnoiters the area around Sangster’s Station, searching for a location to turn the Confederate right flank.
  • In the evening Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson’s brigade, leading Johnston’s army, camps near Paris, Virginia, seventeen miles from Winchester, while the remainder of the army halts along the Shenandoah River.
  • Although the skirmish at Blackburn’s Ford provided McDowell with intelligence about Confederate positions and strength, he fears the skirmish has caused the Confederates to reinforce their right flank. McDowell orders his engineers to reconnoiter north of the Stone Bridge, on the Confederate left.

19 July 1861


  • After arriving at Piedmont Station, Jackson’s brigade departs for Manassas Junction.


  • Col. Francis S. Bartow’s brigade departs Piedmont Station for Manassas Junction.
  • Johnston directs his cavalry and artillery to continue to Manassas Junction by road.

20 July 1861


  • Johnston boards a train for Manassas Junction, along with Brig. Gen. Barnard E. Bee and portions of Bee’s brigade.
  • Brig. Gen. E. Kirby Smith remains at Piedmont Station to expedite the transportation of the remainder of Johnston’s army.


  • Johnston and Bee arrive at Manassas Junction. After Johnston suggests an attack against McDowell’s army, Beauregard proposes to attack the Union left flank at Centreville. Johnston requests that Beauregard put the plan in writing.
  • Hunter’s, Heintzelman’s, and Miles’ divisions arrive at Centreville. Brig. Gen. Theodore Runyon’s division guards the railroad from Alexandria.
  • McDowell’s engineers discover the undefended Sudley Ford and Poplar Ford, north of the Stone Bridge. McDowell plans an attack for the following day. Hunter’s and Heintzelman’s divisions will march around the Confederate left, crossing at Sudley and Poplar fords, while other troops create diversions at the Stone Bridge and Blackburn’s Ford.

21 July 1861


  • McDowell’s army begins its march against Beauregard. Tyler’s division (with the exception of Richardson’s brigade), followed by Hunter’s and Heintzelman’s divisions, march west on the Warrenton Turnpike. Richardson’s brigade, along with Col. Thomas A. Davies’ brigade of Miles’ division, moves toward Blackburn’s Ford. Col. Louis Blenker’s brigade of Miles’ division remains at Centreville in reserve.
  • Beauregard submits his plan to attack the Union left flank at Centreville to Johnston, who approves it.


  • Tyler’s division clears the Cub Run Bridge and Hunter’s and Heintzelman’s divisions follow. After crossing Cub Run, Hunter and Heintzelman turn north from the turnpike toward Sudley and Poplar fords.


  • Tyler arrives in front of Stone Bridge and opens fire with his 30- pounder rifle on Col. Nathan G. Evans’ brigade.


  • Concerned about the artillery fire near the Stone Bridge, Johnston orders Bee, Bartow, and Jackson to move closer to the Confederate left to be able to provide support if needed. Beauregard also sends the newly arrived Hampton Legion to the left.


  • Johnston and Beauregard place themselves on a hill to the rear of Brig. Gen. Milledge L. Bonham’s brigade in anticipation of Beauregard’s flank attack.


  • Signal officer Capt. E. Porter Alexander discovers the Union column marching toward Sudley Ford to outflank the Confederate left and reports the movement to Evans and Johnston.
  • Evans moves the bulk of his command from the Stone Bridge to Matthews’ Hill to block the Union flank march.
    Although Johnston is apprehensive that the Union troops reported north of the Stone Bridge may be those of Patterson’s army arriving from the Shenandoah Valley, he continues with the plan to attack Centreville.


  • Hunter’s division arrives at Sudley Ford. After a short delay the column crosses Bull Run and continues south. Instead of crossing at Poplar Ford, Heintzelman’s division follows Hunter’s division.


  • The head of Hunter’s column, Col. Ambrose E. Burnside’s brigade, engages Evans’ command on Matthews’ Hill.


  • As the firing increases on the Confederate left, Johnston and Beauregard ride toward Henry Hill.
  • Col. Andrew Porter’s brigade of Hunter’s division arrives on Matthews’ Hill, moving onto nearby Dogan Ridge.
  • Capt. Charles Griffin’s and Capt. James D. Ricketts’ batteries arrive on Dogan Ridge.
  • The brigades of Bee and Bartow (with Bee in command of both units) arrive on Henry Hill and shortly thereafter both brigades move to Matthews’ Hill to support Evans.


  • Col. William T. Sherman’s and Col. Erasmus Keyes’ brigades of Tyler’s division cross Bull Run, just north of the Stone Bridge. Sherman continues toward Matthews’ Hill, Keyes, accompanied by Tyler, moves to Young’s Branch, east of the Stone house.
  • Col. William B. Franklin’s and Col. Orlando B. Willcox’s brigades of Heintzelman’s division arrive on Matthews’ Hill. Col. Oliver O. Howard’s brigade is close behind.
  • Outflanked, Evans, Bee, and Bartow are forced to withdraw from Matthews’ Hill and fall back to Henry Hill.
  • The Hampton Legion arrives near the Robinson house on Henry Hill.
  • Hearing the increased firing coming from the left flank, Johnston scraps Beauregard’s attack plan and rides toward Henry Hill. Beauregard follows.


  • Jackson’s brigade arrives on Henry Hill.
  • Johnston and Beauregard arrive on Henry Hill.
  • Jackson is slightly wounded.


  • Keyes is ordered to attack Henry Hill near the Robinson house. He sends two of his four regiments forward, but they are driven back. Keyes’ entire brigade withdraws to the vicinity of the Stone Bridge.


  • Griffin’s and Ricketts’ batteries move from Dogan Ridge to Henry Hill. Griffin unlimbers north of the Henry house and Ricketts south of the house.


  • Griffin moves two guns of his battery to the right of Ricketts, where the 33d Virginia Infantry captures the guns. The remainder of Griffin’s battery withdraws from Henry Hill.
  • The 14th Brooklyn recaptures Griffin’s two guns.
  • The 4th and 27th Virginia Infantries, with assistance from the 49th Virginia Infantry, 6th North Carolina Infantry, and two companies of the 2d Mississippi Infantry, capture Ricketts’ battery and Griffin’s two guns.
  • The 1st Michigan Infantry attempts and fails to recapture Ricketts’ guns.
  • The 11th Massachusetts Infantry recaptures Ricketts’ battery, and the 4th and 27th Virginia Infantries fall back to their former positions.
  • The 5th Virginia Infantry, Hampton Legion, 4th Alabama Infantry, and 7th Georgia Infantry recapture Ricketts’ guns.
  • Bee is mortally wounded and Bartow is killed. Ricketts is wounded and captured. The 11th Massachusetts Infantry falls back to the Manassas-Sudley Road.


  • Sherman’s brigade begins an attack against Henry Hill, and Howard’s brigade moves to Chinn Ridge.
  • The 13th New York Infantry skirmishes with the Hampton Legion around the Henry house.
  • The 2d Wisconsin Infantry unsuccessfully assaults Henry Hill.
  • The 79th New York Infantry unsuccessfully assaults Henry Hill. The regiment commander, Col. James Cameron, brother of the Secretary of War, is killed.
  • Sherman’s last regiment, the 69th New York Infantry, along with the 38th New York Infantry of Willcox’s brigade, assault Henry Hill and recapture Ricketts’ and Griffin’s guns. Col. Wade Hampton is severely wounded.
  • The 18th Virginia Infantry of Cocke’s brigade, along with remnants of several other Confederate units on Henry Hill, recaptures the Union guns. Sherman’s and other Union units near Henry Hill withdraw to the Warrenton Turnpike.


  • Two regiments of Howard’s brigade arrive on Chinn Ridge. Two other regiments remain in reserve near the Warrenton Turnpike.


  • Col. Arnold Elzey’s and Col. Jubal A. Early’s brigades arrive on Chinn Ridge. General Smith briefly takes command of Elzey’s brigade but is wounded and Elzey resumes command.
  • Howard brings forward his other two regiments to Chinn Ridge.
  • With the assistance of 150 troopers of Col. J. E. B. Stuart’s cavalry, the brigades of Elzey and Early outflank Howard’s brigade and drive it back to the Warrenton Turnpike.


  • Retreat of the Union Army begins.

13 responses

31 05 2009
Time Line « Bull Runnings

[…] 31 05 2009 I’ve added a Time Line of the campaign in the Bull Run Resources section.  I wanted to do this for awhile, but […]


3 12 2009
Lionel Raymond

What weapon did the 1st and/or 2nd Rhode Island carry into 1st Bull Run?


3 12 2009
Harry Smeltzer

Not sure – I’ll see what I can come up with.


6 02 2011

I am an active duty Air Force officer and am putting together a set of “Letters from the Field” from every military skirmish in American History. It’s something i want to do for my troops as we prepare to deploy soon. I have come across the name “Private Andrew Merrow” in several readings and have been trying to get a copy of the letter he wrote to his wife 2 days after the First Battle of Bull Run (7/21/61). I’ve contacted the Harvard University Archives asking for a copy of it, and no response, so i am doing a little internet search to see if i can find someone who has seen it or knows anythign about it. He is supposed to have given his wife (in Massachusettes) a very detailed “new soldier’s eye-view” of the battle around him – so it has piqued my interest. Any information you have would be greatly appreciated!

Thank you,
Capt. Hako


6 02 2011
Harry Smeltzer

Mary, do you know his regiment?


7 02 2011

He was with McDowell – but that’s about all i know.


12 02 2011

The only reference to a Andrew Merrow I’ve found is from the book “Abraham Lincoln: Vampire Hunter.” By the title I’m sure you can guess that this is not a real history book, but a historical fiction (although a rather fun read). Many of the people referenced in the book are real and include real passages out of letters and diaries, for example a Lt. Christoph Niederer of the 20th NY Inf. Although, I’m not sure about Merrow.

The author does include a copy of the letter. I can’t say that the letter doesn’t exist; however, if it is a real letter I’m sure that the author has “creatively” edited it. It mentions a Col. Hunter, although I am not aware a man with this name and rank at that battle (certainly not in command of a Massachusetts Regiment or brigade containing a Massachusetts Regiment – it is mentioned that Merrow wrote to his new bride in Massachusetts). My guess is that the letter is does not exist and was completely fabricated for this novel, although I could be wrong. If you want to look at it though it’s in Chapter 11. Sorry I don’t know the page (I’ve got the book on my Kindle).


12 02 2011
Harry Smeltzer

Robert, I reviewed that book here. For a discussion of the letter in question, see here: https://bullrunnings.wordpress.com/2010/03/04/how-first-bull-run-was-really-lost/.

Also read the comments for a debunking of the contents of the letter. There were a few screw-ups in the book, apart from the fact that vampires aren’t real (hopefully that’s not a surprise to anyone). They were historical mistakes that the author could have corrected without messing with the story he was telling. See here: https://bullrunnings.wordpress.com/2010/02/17/abraham-lincoln-vampire-hunter/.

But is was a fun book, and should be a fun movie if and when it gets made.


12 02 2011

Harry, I hadn’t seen those previous posts. I hope I didn’t come across as thinking that the book was historical. I also hope Capt. Hako, if she sees my response, recognizes that it was fairly tongue in cheek.

I’m just a big fan of historical fiction and alternate histories, in addition to regular histories. I always find it interesting to ponder “what if?” While there are some, such as Guns of the South by Harry Turtledove, which are truly Science Fiction, there are others which I think do a fairly good job, or at least entertaining job, of examining historical possibilities (even others by Turtledove, like the Timeline-191 series).

I, indeed, did not think of David Hunter when I posted that I couldn’t think of a man matching that name at the battle. Your discussion with Chris Evans cured me of that. :-) It does seem that the letter is, at the very best, a hoax (assuming that the Harvard Archives hold such a letter. But it still makes me wonder if there is a real letter that Seth Grahame-Smith based his off of.

Regarding the movie, from what I understand it is still in the works. Joaquin Phoenix was cast as Henry Sturgess, although it looks like he’s been replaced by Dominic Cooper.


11 08 2012

I’m reading the vampire hunter book too. I was wondering if Merrows letter is real or not. I guess its just fiction, like the book.


11 08 2012
Harry Smeltzer

Yes, John, the letter, like vampires, does not exist.


23 07 2014

I am researching my ancestor, Florence O. Sullivan, Co. H, 27th Regiment, NY Infantry, and am trying to determine what time he might have been killed as the 27th was reportedly the first group which moved into battle. I see references to his death (don’t have my notes in front of me so am not 100% sure) but I think his death was mentioned in the Philadelphia?? nspr a day or two after the battle, as well as in the prologue to Volume 5? of “Missing Friends”. His brother, John James Sullivan of Newburyport, MA placed ads in the same volume of that book asking for information about his unit and his death at the Battle of Bull Run. Can you better pin down the time for me?


23 07 2014
Harry Smeltzer


The 27th was part of Porter’s brigade of Hunter’s division. They arrived on the field behind Burnside’s brigade, and went into action after Burnside was engaged. The 27th NY under Slocum did most of its heavy fighting in the vicinity of the Stone House on the Warrenton Pike, against the likes of the 7th GA and Hampton’s Legion. This would have been in the 11:00 to 1:00 time frame, I think. Of course, he could have received his wounds before or after that, but this would have been when the regiment suffered the bulk of its casualties.

Florence appears to be a popular Christian name among Sullivans/O’Sullivans. Florence O’Sullivan lends his name to Sullivan’s Island down Charleston way, and there was a Florence Sullivan aboard Lusitania on her fateful final voyage.

If you have any first hand accounts of Florence at Bull Run, please pass them along for inclusion in the Resources.



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