Anniversary Video with Civil War Times: Bartow Monument, 7/21/2021

24 07 2021

Our second stop on Thursday was the monument to COLONEL (NOT Brigadier General) Francis Bartow on Henry Hill. There we spoke about the first monument on a Civil War battlefield (I think), the man in whose memory it was erected, as well as a little about the incidents surrounding the naming of “Stonewall” Jackson and his brigade. See here for a nice article on that by John Hennessy. You can also read more about the Bartow monument in the April 1991 issue of Blue & Gray Magazine (the one with friend Clark “Bud” Hall on the cover), in an article titled The Civil War’s First Monument: Bartow’s Marker at Manassas. Appearing in this video are Civil War Times editor Dana Shoaf and myself. The magazine’s director of photography Melissa Winn is behind the camera.





Special Orders #211 – Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson Assigned to Command of Brig. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston

30 12 2020

CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN MARYLAND, PENNSYLVANIA, VIRGINIA, AND WEST VIRGINIA FROM APRIL 16 TO JULY 31, 1861

CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. – CONFEDERATE

O. R. – Series I – VOLUME 2 [S #2] CHAPTER IX, p. 963

Special Orders,
No. 211

Headquarters,
Richmond, Va., July 4, 1861.


III. Brig. Gen. T. J. Jackson, Provisional Army, Confederate States, will report for duty to General Johnston, commanding Army of the Shenandoah.


By order of General Lee:

GEO. DEAS,
Assistant Adjutant-General.





Brig. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston to Brig. Gen. Samuel Cooper on Developments in His Command

29 12 2020

CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN MARYLAND, PENNSYLVANIA, VIRGINIA, AND WEST VIRGINIA FROM APRIL 16 TO JULY 31, 1861

CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. – CONFEDERATE

O. R. – Series I – VOLUME 2 [S #2] CHAPTER IX, pp. 948-949

Headquarters,
Winchester, June 24, 1861.

General S. Cooper,
Adjutant and Inspector-General, Richmond, Va.:

General: I was informed yesterday by a person just from Baltimore, and strongly recommended to me by a friend in that place for his principles and means of information, that General Patterson’s troops are still occupying Hagerstown and Williamsport, the main body being in the former place, and six or eight thousand men under General Cadwalader in the latter.

He says that General Patterson has been corresponding with the authorities of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in relation to repairing the road, and talks of occupying Harper’s Ferry. Should he do so with less than ten or twelve thousand men, an equal force attacking him would have the advantage of ground.

Colonel Jackson, who is in the neighborhood of Martinsburg to support the cavalry which is observing the enemy, has, according to his instructions, destroyed all the rolling stock of the road within his reach. I have directed him to have such of the large stock of coal as the inhabitants require sold to them, and accounts to be kept of the sales, and the proceeds to be used in purchasing provisions in the neighborhood. I have had the pleasure to receive the order for Capt. W. E. James to report to me with his company of cavalry. We require three or four more companies of that arm from the great extent of country to be observed. Another officer capable of commanding a brigade and four or five competent to the duties of quartermasters and commissaries are greatly needed. In this connection I recommend the appointment of Lieutenants Davis and Morgan as assistant quartermasters. They have proved themselves competent to the discharge of the duties of that position.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. E. JOHNSTON,
Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.





Maj. Gen. Robert E. Lee to Brig. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston on Equipments for Harper’s Ferry

13 12 2020

CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN MARYLAND, PENNSYLVANIA, VIRGINIA, AND WEST VIRGINIA FROM APRIL 16 TO JULY 31, 1861

CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. – CONFEDERATE

O. R. – Series I – VOLUME 2 [S #2] CHAPTER IX, pp. 883-884

Headquarters Virginia Forces,
Richmond, Va., May 27, 1861.

Brig. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston,
Commanding, &c., Harper’s Ferry, Va.;

General: In a letter from Colonel Jackson, of the 21st instant, lately received, he speaks of the want of an ordnance or artillery officer at your post. There is none at present available, but Major Elzey, of the Confederate Army, has been ordered here, and I will endeavor to place him on duty with you. Meantime I have thought that the services of Colonel Jackson might be applied to the mounting and preparing the batteries for service. The proper defense of the country west of you and the command of the railroad through that region is deemed very important to the safety of your position, and it is hoped you will be able to take measures to maintain it, or prevent the use of the road to invaders of the State. It is thought probable that you might add to the comfort of your command by procuring, or causing to be procured, at Winchester camp equipage for those companies said to he in want, and that arrangements might he made there for making cartridge-boxes, haversacks, &c.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. E. LEE,
General, Commanding.





Col Thomas J. Jackson to Col. Robert S. Garnett on Resolution of Command Dispute at Harper’s Ferry

12 12 2020

CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN MARYLAND, PENNSYLVANIA, VIRGINIA, AND WEST VIRGINIA FROM APRIL 16 TO JULY 31, 1861

CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. – CONFEDERATE

O. R. – Series I – VOLUME 2 [S #2] CHAPTER IX, p. 877

Harper’s Ferry, Va., May 25,1861.

Col. E. S. Garnett, Adjutant-General Virginia Forces:

Colonel: Subsequent to mailing to you yesterday the communication in which I refused to recognize General J. E. Johnston’s authority to assume command here, I was furnished with the following indorsement on an application:

Referred to General J. E. Johnston, commanding officer at Harper’s Ferry.

By order of Major-General Lee:

JOHN A. WASHINGTON,
Aide-de-Camp.

Immediately on receiving this information I complied with General Johnston’s request, and published his order assuming command.

I am, colonel, your obedient servant,

T. J. JACKSON,
Colonel Virginia Volunteers.





Col. Thomas J. Jackson to Col. Robert S. Garnett on Command Dispute at Harper’s Ferry

7 12 2020

CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN MARYLAND, PENNSYLVANIA, VIRGINIA, AND WEST VIRGINIA FROM APRIL 16 TO JULY 31, 1861

CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. – CONFEDERATE

O. R. – Series I – VOLUME 2 [S #2] CHAPTER IX, pp. 871-872

Headquarters, Harper’s Ferry, Va., May 24,1861.

Col. R. S. Garnett, Adjutant-General:

Colonel: I forward herewith copies of correspondence between General J. E. Johnston, of the C. S. Army, and myself. Major Whiting has taken charge of the defenses.

I am, colonel, your obedient servant,

T. J. JACKSON,
Col. Virginia Vols., Comdg. at Harper’s Ferry, Va.

[Inclosure No. 1.]

Harper’s Ferry, Va., May 24, 1861.

Colonel Jackson, Virginia Forces:

Colonel: Will you oblige me by having the inclosed order copied and distributed to the different regiments?

Very respectfully,

J. E. JOHNSTON.

[Inclosure -No. 2.]

Orders, No. —.] Harper’s Ferry, Va., May 24,1861.

In obedience to the orders of the Secretary of War, the undersigned assumes the command of the troops at and in the vicinity of this place.

Maj. E. E. McLean, C. S. Army, will take the direction of the operations of the Quartermaster’s Department; Maj. W. H. C. Whiting those of the Engineer Corps.

J. E. JOHNSTON, Brigadier-General, C. S. Army.

[Inclosure No. 3.]

Headquarters,
Harper’s Ferry, Va., May 24, 1861.

Brig. Gen. J. E. Johnston, C. S. A.:

General: I have the honor of acknowledging the receipt of your note of this morning, requesting the publication of an order, as coming from you, assuming the command of this post, in obedience to the orders of the Secretary of War, and directing Maj. E. E. McLean, C. S. Army, to take the direction of the operations of the Quartermaster’s Department, and Maj. W. H. C. Whiting those of the Engineer Corps. Until I receive further instructions from Governor Letcher or General Lee, I do not feel at liberty to transfer my command to another, and must therefore decline publishing the order. Meanwhile I beg you to be assured that it will give me pleasure to afford to yourself and to the other officers named every facility in my power for obtaining appropriate information relating to the post and departments of the service connected with it.

I am, general, your obedient servant,

T. J. JACKSON,
Col. Virginia Vols., and Comdg. at Harper’s Ferry, Va.





Maj. Gen. Robert E. Lee to Col. Philip St. George Cocke Clarifying the Latter’s Rank and Command

28 11 2020

CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN MARYLAND, PENNSYLVANIA, VIRGINIA, AND WEST VIRGINIA FROM APRIL 16 TO JULY 31, 1861

CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. – CONFEDERATE

O. R. – Series I – VOLUME 2 [S #2] CHAPTER IX, pp. 836-837

Headquarters Virginia Forces,
Richmond, Va., May 13,1861.

Col. P. St. George Cocke,
Comdg. Virginia Forces, Hdqrs. Culpeper Court-House, Va.:

Colonel: I have just received your letter of the 12th instant, and hasten to give such explanation as I can of the circumstances to which it refers. Your change of rank has resulted from the action of the Convention. Before the termination of its session an ordinance was passed requiring all appointments in the military service by the governor to be submitted to the Convention for confirmation. The Convention also determined, as I have understood, to reduce the number of the higher grades in the service, which resulted in the renomination by the governor, by and with the advice of the council, of several officers for appointments to grades one degree lower than those to which they had been originally appointed. General Gwynn’s, General Johnston’s, General Ruggles’, yours, and others were of this number. Another ordinance of the Convention gave to officers of the Provisional Army rank above those of the volunteer forces of the same grade, and subjected them to duty with the volunteers until required for service with the Provisional Army. Colonel Ruggles and Colonel Terrett having been appointed in the Provisional Army, it was incumbent on me to recognize their rank. It therefore became necessary to change your command, which I did with regret. Of the circumstances attending it I supposed you were cognizant, as the action of the Convention, I think, occurred before your last visit to this city.

When Colonel Jackson was sent to Harper’s Perry, it was to muster into service the companies there assembled, with a view of organizing a force as rapidly as possible to hold that point. Hence he was not directed to report in person to you on his route, as that would have occasioned delay, though it was well understood that Harper’s Ferry was embraced within your command. At the present time, as well as for the reasons given in Special Orders, No. 39, it was deemed advisable to give to the commander at Harper’s Ferry command of that station, without reference to any other question. I hope you will perceive, from the foregoing explanation, which has been necessarily brief, that the change in your command was dictated by necessity and not by choice. In assigning the officers within your former district to their present posts, I was guided entirely by the convenience of the service and a desire to hasten the organization of the troops. It is temporary, and designed to meet the exigencies of the occasion. As to yourself, I desired to have the benefit of your knowledge of the troops and officers called from the extensive country assigned to you, in their organization and equipment, and hoped the service would be as agreeable to you as I believe it will be beneficial to the public. Recognizing as fully as I do your merit, patriotism, and devotion to the State, I do not consider that either rank or position are necessary to bestow upon you honor, but believe that you will confer honor on the position. In the present crisis of affairs, I know that your own feelings, better than any words of mine, will point out the best course for you to pursue to advance the cause in which you are engaged, and to promote the interests of the service, which you have so much at heart, and will leave to the voice of your fellow-citizens to assign to you the position you deserve.

I am, with high respect and esteem, your obedient servant,

R. E. LEE, Major-General.





Maj. Gen. Robert E. Lee and Col. Thomas J. Jackson Discuss Policy Regarding Maryland

28 11 2020

CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN MARYLAND, PENNSYLVANIA, VIRGINIA, AND WEST VIRGINIA FROM APRIL 16 TO JULY 31, 1861

CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. – CONFEDERATE

O. R. – Series I – VOLUME 2 [S #2] CHAPTER IX, pp. 832-833, 836

Division Hdqrs., Harpers Ferry, Va., May 11, 1861.

Maj. Gen. R. E. Lee :

General: The precautions mentioned in your letter of the 6th instant have been under consideration for some time, and some of them have been taken; others are progressing as rapidly as the circumstances admit of. Arrangements are complete for a desperate defense at Point of Rocks. I have troops also at Berlin, Shepherdstown, and Martinsburg. Marylanders, with artillery, are opposite Shepherdstown, and have threatened us there to such an extent as to induce the officer stationed there to call on me for artillery; and though I can poorly spare it, yet, under the circumstances, I must comply. Previous to receiving your letter I had authorized the payment of $5 for the best arms, and graded pieces below that. My report for yesterday* will show the strength of the command. I can get enough volunteers from the counties named to swell the force to probably four thousand five hundred; but they are without arms, accouterments, and ammunition. Please send me five thousand good muskets and rifles, with complete equipments. Also full equipments for three hundred cavalry, and an additional light battery more than those called for in my last. Make this the depot for the northwest. Grafton should be occupied at once. Col. J. M. Bennett will deliver this to you, and give important information respecting the northwest. The quartermaster, Mr. John A. Harman, of this post, should not be removed, if it can possibly be avoided. Please have him appointed and retained, if practicable. I had difficulty in inducing him to remain; but, if the appointment be sent to him, I think he will continue here.

Please to forward the arms at once, and all troops and supplies destined for Harper’s Perry. I respectfully request they may be sent at once. Have no fear of this place being surprised.

Your most obedient servant,

T. J. JACKSON,
Colonel, Virginia Volunteers, Commanding.

*Not found.


Headquarters Virginia Forces,
Richmond, Va., May 12,1861.

Col. T. J. Jackson,
Commanding, &c., Harper’s Ferry, Va.:

Colonel : I have just received your letter of the 11th instant, by Colonel Bennett. I am concerned at the feeling evinced in Maryland, and fear it may extend to other points, besides opposite Shepherdstown. It will be necessary, in order to allay it, that you confine yourself to a strictly defensive course. I presume the points occupied by you at Point of Bocks, Berlin, and Shepherdstown are on our side. I am glad to hear that volunteers are assembling. Over two thousand arms have already been sent to you, and one thousand more have been ordered this evening. If you only expect to receive sufficient volunteers to swell your force to four thousand five hundred men, I do not see how you can require five thousand arms, as you must now have nearly three thousand armed, besides the three thousand arms, above mentioned, ordered to you. We have no rifles or cavalry equipments. The latter may use double-barreled shot-guns and buck-shot, if no better arms can be procured. I will see to the quartermaster. I fear no field battery can be sent you besides that now preparing. The Fourth Begiment Alabama troops, from Lynchburg, have gone to you, and I have ordered two others from the same point. Ammunition has also been ordered to you. You know our limited resources, and must abstain from all provocation for attack as long as possible.

I am, &c.,

R. E. LEE,
Major-General, Commanding.





Maj. Gen. Robert E. Lee and Col Thomas J. Jackson on the Occupation of Maryland Heights

26 11 2020

CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN MARYLAND, PENNSYLVANIA, VIRGINIA, AND WEST VIRGINIA FROM APRIL 16 TO JULY 31, 1861

CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. – CONFEDERATE

O. R. – Series I – VOLUME 2 [S #2] CHAPTER IX, pp. 823-825

Division Headquarters,
Harpers Ferry, May 9, 1861.

Major-General Lee,
Commander Virginia Forces:

General: If this place is attacked, we may expect the enemy to make a free use of rifled cannon, in addition to field artillery, and possibly larger caliber.

The object of this letter is to state that Colonel Thomas, adjutant-general of Maryland, has placed at my disposal the ordnance from the Virginia navy-yard en route for Baltimore via this place, and to request that you will, should it meet with your approbation, send a competent ordnance officer, with sufficient force and means, to mount such pieces as I may designate.

I am, general, your most obedient servant,

T. J. JACKSON,
Colonel Virginia Volunteers, Commanding Division.

P. S.—There are about 2,200 Federal troops at the Relay House, others beyond Baltimore, and about 4,000 near Chambersburg, Pa. I have occupied the Maryland Heights with the Kentuckians and one company of infantry from Augusta County, making about 500 in all.


Headquarters Virginia Forces,
Richmond, Va., May 10, 1861.

Col. T. J. Jackson,
Virginia Volunteers, Commanding Harper’s Ferry, Va.:

Colonel: Your letter of the 7th instant, by Major Massie, has been received. Orders have been given to fill your requisition for arms, ammunition, and accouterments as far as possible. In addition to the guns that you were advised yesterday would be sent to you, I have directed two 32-pounders, with navy carriages, and a supply of ammunition, &c., to be forwarded to you. They will be in charge of Lieutenant Fauntleroy, of the Navy, who is ordered to report to you, and I hope will be useful in defending your post.

Your intention to fortify the heights of Maryland may interrupt our friendly arrangements with that State, and we have no right to intrude on her soil, unless, under pressing necessity, for defense. I had hoped that her own citizens would have relieved us of that question, and you must endeavor to give to the course you may find it necessary to pursue the appearance of its being the act of her citizens. At all events, do not move until actually necessary and under stern necessity.

I have directed the companies ordered to rendezvous at Staunton to be sent to you as soon as mustered into the service, and I hope you will receive a large accession of troops under the authority extended to you. Several officers of experience have been sent to you, and I shall endeavor to send some cadets. I know, from the spirit with which you are animated, that you will leave nothing undone to insure the defense of your post and the security of your command. You will not neglect, therefore, the instruction of the troops, who ought to be constantly practicing their military exercises and prepared in every way for hard service. Every rifle that you can finish will be of advantage, but it will be necessary to send off that machinery as soon as the musket factory is removed. I have directed the Quartermaster and Commissary Departments to send funds, if practicable, to the assistant quartermaster and commissary at your post.

Respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE,
Major-General, Commanding.


Headquarters Virginia Forces,
Richmond, Va.y May 10,1861.

Col. T. J. Jackson, Commanding, &c., Harper’s Ferry, Va.;

Colonel: Your letter of May 9th has just been received. The guns you refer to, intended for Maryland, have, I understand, been stopped by the governor. I wrote you to-day that two 32-pounders had been ordered to you. I fear you may have been premature in occupying the heights of Maryland with so strong a force near you. The true policy is to act on the defensive, and not invite an attack. If not too late, you might withdraw until the proper time. I have already suggested to you the probability of the use of the canal as a means of carrying ordnance and munitions from Washington to use against you. In that event it would be well to cut the supply dams to prevent its use. Ten cadets have been ordered to report to you, in addition to the ten now there.

Very respectfullv, &c.,

R. E. LEE,
Major- General, Commanding.





Maj. Gen. Robert E. Lee to Col. Thomas J. Jackson Directing Him to Not Move Into Maryland, and on Aid to Harper’s Ferry

25 11 2020

CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN MARYLAND, PENNSYLVANIA, VIRGINIA, AND WEST VIRGINIA FROM APRIL 16 TO JULY 31, 1861

CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. – CONFEDERATE

O. R. – Series I – VOLUME 2 [S #2] CHAPTER IX, p. 822

Headquarters Virginia Forces,
Richmond, Va., May 9, 1861.

Col. T. J. Jackson, Commanding, &c., Harper’s Ferry, Va.;

Colonel: I have received your letter of the 6th instant, and am gratified at the progress you have made in the organization of your command. I hope some of the field officers directed to report to you will have arrived and entered on their duties. In your preparation for the defense of your position it is considered advisable not to intrude upon the soil of Maryland, unless compelled by the necessities of war. The aid of its citizens might be obtained in that quarter. I regret I have no engineer of experience to send you. You will have to rely upon your judgment and the aid of the oflicers with you. I have directed that four 6-pounder guns be forwarded to you as soon as possible, and two 12-pounder howitzers, with a supply of ammunition and equipment for firing, will be sent to you at once. There are no caissons. Horses, wagons, and harness will be procured near you by an agent of the quartermaster’s department, sent for the purpose.

Captain Pendleton’s company of artillery from Lexington will join you as soon as possible, with such field pieces as it has. Flour and provisions for use of the troops must be secured. In other respects it is not designed to embarrass the legitimate commerce of our citizens.

I have directed that one thousand muskets, obtained from North Carolina, be sent to you, to aid in arming your command and to respond to requisitions that may be made upon you by Colonel Porterfield. Your requisitions upon the staff department at headquarters, as far as possible, will be filled.

Respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE,
Major- General, Commanding.