Maj. Gen. Robert E. Lee to Col. R. C. W. Radford on Forwarding Cavalry to Manassas

23 12 2020



O. R. – Series I – VOLUME 2 [S #2] CHAPTER IX, p. 926

Richmond, Va., June 13, 1861—1.30 p. m.

Col. R. C. W. Radford, Lynchburg, Va.:

Use your discretion in sending cavalry companies to Manassas by rail or road. Lose as little time as possible. There are here no arms for cavalry of any kind.

R. E. LEE,
General, Commanding.

Col. Robert S. Garnett to Col. Jubal A. Early on Arms and Organization

5 12 2020



O. R. – Series I – VOLUME 2 [S #2] CHAPTER IX, pp. 858-859

Headquarters Virginia Forces,
Richmond, Va., May 20, 1861.

Col. J. A. Early, Lynchburg, Va.:

Sir: In reply to your letters of the 16th and 17 th instants*, the commanding-general now instructs me to say that he has this day ordered the Ordnance Department to forward to your address one thousand original percussion muskets, one thousand altered, and one thousand flint locks, and sixty thousand rounds of ammunition, to be issued by you to such companies of Virginia volunteers without arms as may be mustered in at Lynchburg, or arrive there already mustered in. The ten companies which you have reported may be organized into a regiment, to the command of which you may assign Colonel Radford, if they are the companies raised by him and reported to the governor. If they be not, you may assign Colonel Radford, or any other colonel, and field officers to them as may be deemed best, observing the rule as far as practicable to associate together companies and field officers from the same region of country. As soon as this regiment is organized and armed, order it to report to the commanding officer at Culpeper Court-House. In regard to staff officers of experience, the general regrets to inform you that there are none to be had at present, and hopes that you will be able to instruct those you already have until they shall become useful.

I am, &c.,

Adjutant- General.

*Letter of 17th not found.

Col. Jubal A. Early to Col. Robert S. Garnett on Recruiting and Arming Troops

4 12 2020



O. R. – Series I – VOLUME 2 [S #2] CHAPTER IX, pp. 851-853

Lynchburg, Va., May 16, 1861.

Col. R. S. Garnett, Adjutant-General, Virginia Forces:

Colonel: I arrived here this morning, and have assumed command of the Virginia volunteers mustered into the service of the State at this place. It was not possible for me to get here sooner, as I was compelled to make some preparation to enable me to go into the service. I find that Lieutenant-Colonel Langhorne has mustered into the service two companies of cavalry, one from Lynchburg and the other from Bedford; also, seven companies of infantry, two from Lynchburg, two from Bedford, two from Botetourt, and one from Floyd. Two companies reached here this evening from Roanoke, and will be mustered into the service to-morrow. The company of cavalry from Lynchburg, commanded by Capt. John S. Langhorne, has sabers, but no other arms. The company of cavalry from Bedford, commanded by Capt. William E. Terry, has about fifty sabers, leaving twenty odd without any arms, and those having sabers have no other arms. Three companies, belonging to the Twelfth Brigade of Militia, were reported by the adjutant-general of the militia as armed. The infantry companies have no arms whatever, and I imagine that there are no companies in the counties for which this place is the rendezvous which are armed. I know such is the case in the Twelfth Brigade, composed of the counties of Campbell, Bedford, Franklin, Henry, and Patrick. All the armed companies were ordered into the service by the governor some time since. If, therefore, five regiments of infantry and riflemen and one of cavalry are mustered into the service at this place, and they are armed here, it will be necessary to have sent here near five thousand stand of muskets and rifles, and the same number of sets of accouterments, and about one thousand arms for cavalry, and the like number of sets of accouterments. Some of the companies already here have knapsacks, but most of them are without them, and those likely to come hereafter will be entirely unprovided in that particular. There are not quite enough tents, of an inferior quality and make, for the troops that are here, and no suitable material is to be found at this place for making more. There are not enough mess-pans and camp-kettles for the troops that have been mustered into service, and the assistant quartermaster, Captain Gilmer, informs me that he has orders from the head of the Quartermaster’s Department to make no contract for the manufacture of any articles without orders from headquarters. There are several establishments here in which mess-pans, camp-kettles, and canteens can be manufactured, and I suggest that orders be given to that effect. If knapsacks cannot be furnished from Richmond, the men can make out pretty well by rolling up their clothes in their blankets and wrapping pieces of coarse cloth around them; and there are several large tobacco factories, which are idle, and can be procured as quarters for the troops, so that if arms can be furnished we can get along. If there are plenty of good flint-lock muskets they will do very well if percussion muskets cannot be furnished to all.

I find matters here in quite a confused state, owing to the inexperience of the officers of all the departments. Lieutenant-Colonel Langhorne has made no apportionment of troops among the counties to rendezvous here, and, in fact, has made no call, specifying the number to be received at this place. He has merely given notice, in the papers, that he would muster into service volunteer companies from the counties designated. This has produced a good deal of uncertainty and confusion. I do not wish this to be considered as a complaint against Colonel Langhorne. It results from his entire want of experience in such matters. I am satisfied he has been endeavoring to discharge his duty faithfully; but I would very respectfully suggest that it is rather out of the usual course to intrust to a mustering officer, of inferior rank, so large a discretion in regard to calling out volunteers. It strikes me that a call stating the number of regiments to be received here and the number and kind of companies to be raised in each county would facilitate the business very much. Some of the counties, as, for instance, Henry, Patrick, Carroll, Giles, Mercer, Tazewell, Wise, Buchanan, and McDowell, are remote from the lines of railroad, and cannot be communicated with very expeditiously; and, therefore, it is important that the call upon them should be definite. I would also suggest that it is not likely that there will be more cavalry companies from the counties east of the mountains except the two already mustered and one from Franklin unless, perhaps, one may be raised in Campbell. The counties west of the Alleghany must be relied on to furnish the remainder of the companies required to make out a regiment. Colonel Radford has reported, and he would prefer having command of the regiment of cavalry, and I think it would be better to give it to him, as he will, in all likelihood, be the only colonel that will be available who has had experience as a cavalry officer. I do not understand exactly the last orders in regard to the troops from Campbell, Bedford, Botetourt, Roanoke, and Craig (letter from Major-General Lee, of May 9). Am I to organize a regiment out of said troops, and give Colonel Radford the command of it, or shall I give him command of the whole, including the cavalry companies, and order him to report with them to Colonel Cocke? Shall I send off said troops before they are armed, or wait for their arms?

Lieutenant-Colonel Langhorne informs me that he received instructions to send Captain Moorman’s company (called the Beauregard Rifles) to Richmond, to be armed. The order, however, has been mislaid, and, as he may have misunderstood its tenor, and the instructions are inconsistent with the orders to me to send the troops from Campbell, &c., to Colonel Cocke, I have thought proper to wait for further orders, which, for dispatch, can be sent by telegraph, if the company is to be sent to Richmond.

A Mr. Eugene Carrington has exhibited to me an order from Major Ficklin, quartermaster, appointing him transportation agent here, and directing all orders for transporting troops, &c., from this place to emanate from him. I had thought that the quartermaster here would have control of the arrangements for transportation from this point, but I confess I am little acquainted with such matters, and I submit whether the appointment by Major Ficklin of a transportation agent here (while there is a quartermaster here) is regular.

I hardly think much can be done in the way of arming cavalry companies with double-barreled guns in this region. A number of the men have not got them, and have not the means of purchasing them if they were to be had.

You will pardon the length of this letter, but I thought it better to embrace all the matters about which I want instructions, and about which it is necessary to communicate with you, in one letter than several.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

Colonel, Volunteers, Commanding at Lynchburg, Va.

Unknown, 30th Virginia (Cavalry), On the Battle

4 09 2020

The Thirtieth Virginia Regiment – A correspondent of the Lynchburg Virginian thus narrates the exploits of this regiment in the battle of Manassas:

Early in the morning of the 21st, and indeed during the previous night, the approach of the enemy was known in the Southern camp; but at what point on Bull Run creek the attack would be made, was unknown; therefore, every point was guarded by infantry and cavalry. For this reason, the 30th Regiment was stationed in squads at different points on the creek. At 10:00 A. M., it was evident that the design of the enemy was to attack the left wing of our army, at the point known as Stone Bridge. Near this point Col. Radford had concentrated, and remined much exposed to the enemy’s artillery and infantry during the engagement of six or eight hours, at the end of which time, however, the enemy’s column began to give way and Col. Radford was ordered to charge. This order was properly obeyed, and with such terrific valor as to cause a perfect stampede with the enemy. They broke their lines and run in every direction, throwing down their arms and divesting themselves of everything that would render their escape doubtful. Many surrendered themselves prisoners of war, and begged our brave soldiers not to shoot them. In this charge we succeeded in taking from 40 to 60 prisoners, killed 25 artillery horses, captured 15 0r 20 wagons, and left from 60 to 100 of the enemy killed and wounded on the field. Then it was, in the foremost of the fight, the gallant and intrepid Capt. Winston Radford, of the “Radford Rangers,” received a mortal wound, from which he died an hour afterwards, in the arms of a stranger friend, upon the soil of his own native State; and truly ‘tis a proud legacy to those who mourn his loss to say that the last sound that greeted the ears of the brave, dying man, was the tramp of the retreating foe. Truly, Capt. Radford died a hero, as did, at the same time, his companion in arms, the lamented Irvine. Shortly afterward, and but a few hundred yards further down the road, a second charge was made, which resulted, without the loss of a man of this regiment, in the capture of 60 prisoners, 14 pieces of artillery, 30 wagons and ambulances, a large number of horses, besides various other articles of value belonging to the enemy. At this point 42 invaders were killed, and a large number wounded. From this it may be seen why it is the Northern press attribute their great loss of artillery and other Federal property to the Confederate cavalry, in their retreat from Bull Run. And it is no disparagement to other regiments and companies, who did their duty nobly, to say that the 30th Regiment, Mounted Rangers, under their daring and fearless commander, Colonel Radford, did their whole duty.

Richmond (VA) Dispatch, 8/10/1861

Clipping Image

Lt. William Brockenbrough Newton, Hanover Light Dragoons, 30th Virginia Cavalry, On the Campaign

14 05 2016

Centreville, July 22d 1861

My Dearest Wife,

For the last four days we have never been longer in one place than two hours – have slept every night upon the ground in good weather and bad, eaten nothing but hard crackers and fried bacon, and rested little at any time. For all of which privations, and a thousand others, we have been more than compensated – thanks to the just God who governs the courses of history, and decrees the destiny of nations – in the glorious results of yesterday. My last was from Fairfax Court House.

On the morning of the 17th we had received reliable information that the enemy were advancing, over 50,000 strong, and were not surprised at 5 o’clock in the morning to hear the fire of our pickets who were slowly retiring before the advancing foe. The order was given to pack – in ten minutes baggage was packed, tents struck, and the wagons driven to the rear, and the whole command formed in line of battle. In a few moments the glittering bayonets of the enemy lined the neighboring hills. From the heavy signal guns being fired at intervals along our line commencing at Germantown, and stretching along to Fairfax Court House, it was evident that the enemy were endeavoring to surround our little band. But our “little Trump,” as the men call Beauregard, was not to be taken by any such game.

Every preparation was made to deceive the enemy by inducing him to believe that we meditated a vigorous resistance – meantime our column defiled through a densely wooded road, and was for on the road to Centreville when the enemy discovered his mistake. He followed on very cautiously. Our troop, with Kemper’s battery, was assigned to post of honour, and charged with the duty of covering the retreat. We were the last to leave the village, and as we went out at one end of the street, his column appeared at the other. We halted at this place (Centreville) about 4 o’clock in the afternoon, again made show of battle, slept until 12 o’clock at the heads of our horses, and silently left the place, the enemy’s pickets being within talking distance of ours.

At daybreak we were across Bull Run, having marched very slowly to keep pace with the infantry. We found beds of leaves in the woods, wrapped ourselves in our blankets, and slept for an hour or two, until roused by the roar of the enemy’s guns, as he opened his batteries upon our lines. For two mortal hours, shot and shell flew thick along our whole line. This day’s work was evidently intended only to draw the fire of our artillery and show where our batteries were. In consequence of which, our gunners were ordered not to fire a single shot until within point blank range. After thus opening the ball, two dense masses of infantry were seen to defile to the right and left, to make two separate attacks. It was indeed a beautiful sight, as they came down in perfect order, and with the steady step of veterans. They came nearer and yet nearer, and yet no shot from our guns. Men began to mutter and say that we were preparing for another retreat. But, in a few moments, the appointed time arrived, a single shot from the Washington Artillery gave the signal of death, and for half an hour there was nothing but a continuous sheet of flame along the right of our line. The enemy fell back, rallied and charged again with a like result; again they rested and rushed forward; but old Virginia was true to herself, and the gallant 1st and 17th regiments met them, though twice their numbers, charged them with the bayonet, and drove them back in utter confusion.

The cavalry were held in reserved, and although within range of the artillery and continually experiencing the sensations which men may be supposed to indulge, who know there is a hidden danger hovering in the air, without knowing where it is to light, took no part in the action. Our time came yesterday, however. Our troop was for four hours in the hottest of the fight, and every man in it won the applause and approbation of the whole camp.

The action commenced at 8 o’clock of a sweet Sabbath morning. The enemy commenced with quite a heavy cannonade upon our right, which proved to be a mere feint to distract our attention, as his main attack was directed to our left wing. At ten o’clock the enemy had crossed the river on our left, and the fight commenced in earnest. From the hill on which we stood, we could see the smoke and dust, although at the distance of several miles from the fight waged on our left. Some thought our men had fallen back; others, that the enemy were retreating. It was an hour of painful interest.

At eleven o’clock, and aid-de-camp rode up in a gallop, and said our men were retiring, and the cavalry was ordered to the left. We were temporarily attached to Radford’s regiment. Ours was the first company, and mine the front platoon. On we dashed at a gallop. As we passed within range of a battery of rifled cannon, a ball was fired at us, and passed just between W___ and myself, knocking up clouds of dust. Without wavering in their ranks, the men and horses dashed forward at a gallop. As we reached the scene of action, the sight was discouraging in the extreme. The enemy had a first the advantage of every attacking party. He had concentrated all his forces for an attack upon one point. The 1st Louisiana regiment and the 4th Alabama were assailed in flank and center by 30,000 men, and literally cut to pieces. They refused to surrender but retired slowly, disputing every inch of the ground. As we rode up, we met parts of companies which had literally been overwhelmed, the men wounded, heir arms broken, while some of them were carrying off their dead in blankets. Every thing looked like retreat.

We were ordered up to within 500 yards of the enemies artillery, behind a hill which afforded some protection against their destructive fire. For an hour the firing raged with incessant fury, a ball passed over the hill and through our ranks, grazing one of our men; a shell exploded right under Radford’s horse, and every moment shot and shell were continually whistling by us. I can give you no conception of that awful hour. Not a man shrank from his post; two of our men were taken deadly sick, one fainting from heat and excitement; such calmness and composure I never witnessed. To make the matter worse, despondency, if not despair was fast writing itself on every face. The fire was evidently approaching us, and our friends were retiring, and the whispered rumour passed from lip to lip that our artillery ammunition was running low.

In a moment, however, a cloud of dust in our rear showed the approach of our wagons coming up at a dashing rate with a fresh supply. Our reinforcements now commenced pouring in. Georgia, Alabama, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Mississippi swept by in their glittering array with the calm light of battle on their faces, and their bayonets gleaming in the quiet Sabbath sunshine. No man faltered, no man lagged behind. Neither the groans of the dying, nor the shrieks of the wounded, as they passed to the rear in crowded ambulances, seemed to produce any impression, except to fix the determination upon the countenance of all – to win or die upon the field.

The tide now seemed to ebb just enough to keep us from despair. The firing did not advance, although the explosion of their shell was terrific in the extreme. A gleam of hope, too, gradually broke in upon us when Kemper’s battery, which had been posted in our centre, galloped up and opened a destructive fire upon our extreme left. The advance was evidently checked, when a loud cheer in the front told us that something unusual had happened. What was it? Was it the triumph of our enemies over our stricken friends, or was it some advantage gained in defence of right? The suspense was awful. Men stood straight in their stirrups and stretched their eyes as if they would pierce the rugged bosom of the barren hill which raised its sc[?]rred front before them.

An aid passes up – his message is written on his face, and, before he speaks a word, a wild shout breaks from the throats of thousands. When he speaks, another, and another, and another round of cheers told the story of our hitherto sinking hearts. The 4th Virginia regiment had taken Sprague’s Rhode Island battery of six pieces at the point of the bayonet. Scarcely had the echo of our cheers died upon the air, when again the noise of shouting broke upon us. What was it? Had the enemy rallied and retaken the guns? Fear struggled with hope. But, no! the gallant 27th, envious of the glorious achievement of the 4th, at a sing[?]e dash, had charged a regiment of regulars, swept them from the field, and taken every gun in Sherman’s battery. The firing of musketry and the rattling of bayonets was now terrific beyond description. For an hour there was an incessant crackling of rifles, without a single moment’s pause. The enemy were evidently retiring, and, unless reinforced from their left and centre, the day was ours.

To prevent this, our field telegraph had already given the signal for movement upon our own right, and a heavy fire of musketry and artillery told us that Bonham’s brigade, to which we had been attached in the morning, had crossed the run and were pouring it into the enemy’s centre. The South Carolina boys dashed up the hill, in the face of a murderous fire, bayoneted the gunners, and took quiet possession of their centre battery. It was now 3 o’clock, and the day was ours. The Washington Artillery galloped up the hill on which we were posted and opened a perfect Vesuvius of shot and shell upon the receding foe.

Colonel Lay now galloped up and told us the time for us to act had arrived – our whole force of cavalry – now rushed like the wind to the front. It was indeed a brilliant spectacle, as with slackened reins and sabres drawn, the whole command dashed past. The whole line resounded with continued cheering. The force was divided into different detachments. Col. Radford, with six companies, was ordered to cross a short distance below the enemy’s extreme right, and intercept his column; our company was in front, ,and I was riding in front of my platoon – when after crossing the swamp we came suddenly upon a detachment of the enemy concealed in the bushes, with their pieces levelled. The Colonel ordered the charge, and our boys dashed on. (1)

Poor E. F. was at my side when we rode over two of them, and they grounded their arms to E. W. just in our rear. We galloped on in pursuit of the rest, who retreated across a field toward the road on which the enemy was retreating. F. was just behind me; Saunders, a fine young fellow, just 24, and splendidly mounted, rushed past us. The enemy had concealed themselves behind a fence. We rode up and I demanded their surrender. They made no reply. I ordered Saunders to fire. Before he levelled his carbine, the whole squad poured in a volley. Saunders fell dead at my feet, and Fontaine reeled in his saddle, and exclaimed, “save me, boys, I am killed.” He was caught in the arms of his cousin, who was in the rear. Three of my platoon fired, and the two who had shot Saunders and Fontaine fell dead in their tracks. (2)

We were now in full view of the enemy’s line, passing in rapid and disordered retreat along the road, with two pieces of artillery, a large number of baggage wagons and some officers’ carriages. – Col. Radford, who is a soldier of experience, knew the strength of the enemy, and ordered a halt, commanding the men to form; but such a thing as forming was utterly impossible. The men seemed perfectly delirious with excitement, and with a wild shout of the guns, the guns,” our whole company rushed on pell-mell upon the battery, which proved to be another detachment of the Rhode Island Artillery. Such a scene of wild excitement I never witnessed.

My platoon had become detached from the company, and the company from the regiment. There were two caissons and two guns; the guns behind the caissons. My platoon, which was furthest down the road, rushed upon the men who guarded them – one fellow, standing upon the caisson, whipping the horses to make them run. They had become so much alarmed that they stood perfectly still and trembled. I made a blow at him with my sabre, knocked him off the caisson, and he was shot twice by our men before he hit the ground.

Meantime W., (who, by the way, performed admirably,) with the main body, crossed the road higher up and when the main body of the regiment came up, our company, with some of the Alexandria cavalry, had killed and wounded every man at the guns and driven their infantry supports into rapid retreat. When we left, we expected to be supported by infantry and artillery, and you may imagine our astonishment when, with not quite 300 men, we found that we had merely cut into the enemy’s column, and upon looking one hundred yards down the road, we found them preparing to open upon us with two guns, supported by six regiments of infantry. The Colonel at once ordered a retreat, so we shot the horses to the caissons, so as to block up the road, and retreated, not, however, before they had poured in upon us four rounds of grape and canister at 150 yards distance. How we escaped a perfect massacre I cannot say. Had they not been so close to us, the slaughter would have been terrible. Four of our men were killed, and Captain Radford, brother of the Colonel, was literally blown to pieces, I escaped without a scratch (as did all the rest of the officers), excepting quite a severe bruise, caused by my horse’s pressing my leg against the wheel of the gun carriage. We brought off several prisoners, a great many pistols, and several horses. (3)

Just ahead of the guns was an open carriage, very handsome; as soon as they saw us – such a rush you never saw. It is suspected, or rather hoped, that Wilson, of Massachusetts (who was, it is known, on the field,) was in it; for one of our men, Lindsay by name, took it into his head that Scott was in it, pursued and overtook it, and, at the distance of thirty steps, fired his musketoon, with eighteen buckshot, into the back window. (4)

As we returned to camp, a melancholy mistake occurred. B (our Second Lieutenant,) who was carrying poor F. to the hospital, with one or two others, met with a detachment of four of the Appomattox Cavalry, who hailed him. It is said that, instead of giving the signal agreed upon in our camp, by raising the hand to the top of the head, he took them for the enemy, and answered, Federal troops – they fired and he fell dead. (5)

Our company received, upon its return, the congratulations of every officer in General Bonham’s staff, to whom Colonel Radford had spoken of the conduct of our men.

To-day it has been raining all day. Our column pushed on this morning to this place. Our company was assigned the advanced guard; and this morning at 10 o’clock, I had the honor, with eight mounted men, of “occupying” the city of Centreville. The citizens tell us, that about 12 o’clock last night, the cry passed throughout the camp that the d—-d Virginia horsemen were upon them, when they left in utter confusion.

Our triumph has been complete. In two days our noble army has driven them back to Alexandria, captured 42 guns, many colors, and taken how many prisoners I will not venture to say. After we reached here we were ordered to explore the surrounding country in quest of fugitives. We took eighteen prisoners, and got back just at night, very wet. Such a collection of property left in their flight, you never saw. Hundreds of muskets, wagons, horses, gun carriages, thousands of knapsacks, oil-cloths, blankets, hogsheads of sugar, barrels of pork, beans – in short, everything you can conceive. We found to-day over five hundred splendid army over-coats in one pile, at one of their deserted camps, besides many tents, not struck. I helped myself to a magnificent officer’s blanket and oi-cloth to fit over the head, and the men all got over-coats.

The men are amusing themselves to-night with reading their letters, of which there are thousands left on the road. Many of them were directed to Mr. So-and so, expected at Manassas Junction. Some asked for a piece of the floor of the house on which Ellsworth was killed, with blood on it; others confidently express the belief that Beauregard’s scalp will be taken to Washington. When I tell you that we supped to-night on Yankee crackers – Yankee coffee, and nice beef tongue, actually left on the hearth of one of the officers quarters, in a kettle, ready to set on the fire – that this is written in pencil given me by one of the men, upon paper taken from their baggage wagons, that I am sitting on a Yankee camp stool, writing by a Yankee candle, you can form some idea of their utter route.

I send K a pincushion, picked up on the field, and L a needlecase. Tell W I have a nice sword for him, taken from one of the Vermont volunteers. I came very near taking a drum for him, of which we found six yesterday, but thought of the noise, and declined. (6)

Our troops occupy Fairfax Court House, to-night. – Good night; God bless and protect you, as I feel he has protected me in the last few days, in answer to your prayers. I hope I feel sufficiently grateful for my preservation.

Your husband,

W. B. N.

I had secured a beautiful Enfield rifle for uncle William, but it was paced in charge of one of the men, who has lost it. I will endeavor to procure another for him. Bowyer Brockenbrough, in command of a part of Pendleton’s battery, was knocked off his horse by a fragment of a shell, and slightly wounded. Raleigh Colston, who was a captain on one of the Berkely companies, had his pants perforated, and his leg grazed by a ball while advancing on Sherman’s battery. Willoughby Brockenbrough escaped untouched.


Richmond Daily Whig, July 29, 1861

From transcription in Civil War Times magazine, July 2007, Used with Permission. The letter was annotated by Joseph Pierro, who identified some of the lesser known or cryptically referenced individuals described by Newton, and they are listed below:

1 – Col. George W. Lay, Bonham’s AAG
2 – E. F. – Sgt. Maj. Edmond Fontaine, Jr.; Saunders – Pvt. Richard W. Saunders
3 – Captain Radford – Edmund W. Radford
4 – Wilson, of Massachusetts – Sen. Henry Wilson.
5 – B – Boldman H. Bowles
6 – K, L, & W – Newton’s children, Kate (3), Lucy (4), and Willoughby (7)