Pvt. William C. File, Co. G, 18th Mississippi Infantry, On the Campaign

10 09 2020

The following private letter from a private in one of the Mississippi Regiments, was handed us for publication. Many of our readers are doubtless quite familiar with the author, as he was once a cititzen of this place. As it may afford some information to our readers, we give it publicity:

Camp near Fairfax, Va.
July 24th, 1861.

Dear Farther and all at Home:

If you received my last letter, you may not be surprised at getting this one. It is now one week since we left our camp at the Junction, shifting about from one place to another. We are now farther off than we have been yet. I will tell you what we have been doing the past week. About 10 o’clock A. M., last Wednesday, our whole Brigade was suddenly called to march. We got ready in a short time, taking nothing with us but our blankets, provisions, (raw meet and crackers) and marched out about one and a half miles to Bulls Run. Here we remained all day. The next day, three companies, (including ours) crossed the creek, lying in the bushes all day as scouts. About noon they commenced fighting in our rear, a mile or so off, and for about 3 ½ hours, cannon and small arms kept an incessant firing. We heard the cannon balls but were out of their range. The Yankees were routed and fled in confusion. We heard that our loss was 45 killed and wounded, that of the enemy, 7 or 800. At night, we had very thick bushes to cover us, and taking dry oats from a field near by, made a first rate bed, but just as we had got in a good way for sleeping, a little shower of rain fell, wetting our blankets and beds, so we had the pleasure of sleeping under wet blankets the balance of the night, but we managed to pass a tolerable comfortable night. – Next day we remained lying about in the bushes. At night we heard a good deal of firing. We crossed and re-crossed the Creek again, and took our stand in the pine bushes, lying on our arms all night. We were roused up several times during the night, by firing, but the enemy did not come. Leaning up against a pine, gun in hand, I slept until sun up. We remained here during Saturday. On the next day, (Sunday,) the enemy, some two miles distant, commenced throwing bombs but all fell over our encampment or exploding in the air, doing us no damage. Our Brigade then crossed the creek, and lay in the woods some 3 or 4 hours. We could from this time until in the evening, hear the roar of cannon and small arms, at Stone Bridge, some eight miles distant. Jeff. Davis and Beauregard were there, The Yankees were again driven off the field with great loss. We have heard they had some 60,000 engaged: ours only 18 or 20,000; their loss some 15,000; ours about 5,000. We took about 500 prisoners, some 30 pieces of their best artillery, and a great quantity of baggage, &c. But I wish to tell you of our little fight.

In the evening our Brigade advanced upon the Battery that had been playing on us in the morning. We advanced to a steep hill, and were forming a line of battle at its foot, our left flank exposed to the enemy’s batty, when suddenly they opened upon us and cannon balls and grape shot, fell upon us like hail. Some of the men in front commenced hollowing like the victory was won, and at one wild rush, the whole brigade rushed up the hill – all confusion – every one became his own captain – great many shooting at their own men. Our officers tried hard to rally them, but in vain. We were where we could not see the enemy for the bushes in front of us, while we were exposed to a severe fire all the time. I saw a great many shooting but finding they were firing at our own men, I did not fire my gun.

All then run to the foot of the hill, where we first formed, and ran to an old pne field in our rear, to rally. I followed some of our company to the pines, the balls whistling around my head, plowing up the ground all around me. As I crossed the fence I saw our flag-bearer fall, exclaiming, “I’m dead.” Our captain was found dead near by, the next day, also another of our company, with 8 or 10 others. I made my way to our Regiment again. We made the attack in a bad manner. We have the honor of taking the place. Col. Longstreet came up on the other side, as we were leaving, and they run without firing hardly a gun. Our company lost two killed, three wounded; our flag-bearer dangerously. The whole brigade lost 13 killed; I don’t know how many wounded.

On Monday we paid our last respects to our captain; it was raining all day, but we buried him with military honors, firing three rounds over his grave. Yesterday we came to this place. The enemy have all left the country; gone over the river, and I expect our troops have possession of Alexandria, at this time. But I must close. – Write soon and direct as before.

Remaining till death,
W. C. File

The Carolina Flag (Concord, NC), 8/2/1861

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William C. File at Ancestry.com

William C. File at Fold3





“Ensis,” Co. C*, 18th Mississippi Infantry, On the Battle and Aftermath

30 06 2020

Correspondence of the Citizen.
—————

Camp Near Stone Bridge, Va.,
July 30, 1861.

Dear Citizen: – The 17th and 18th Regiments now find themselves at this new encampment, after much marching and exposure to the weather, and are attached to a new brigade. This re-organization, so decidedly agreeable to us, has been brought about, we suspect, by the freely expressed dissatisfaction which was felt by the two regiments, both in rank and file, towards our former Brigadier (D. R. Jones,) and we have now the pleasure to claim as our official head, the cool, chivalrous and experienced Gen. Evans.

You have doubtless been fully informed that the partial failure of our attack upon the enemy’s left wing battery, in the engagement on Sunday last, was entirely owing to the mismanagement, ignorance, and, I must say, military incompetence of our immediate leader. Being ordered to charge bayonets when at a distance of five hundred yards from an overwhelming enemy posted and entrenched upon and almost inaccessible hill, with two tremendous hills and a ravine at least seventy-five feet between us, we think displayed too rash and an indifference about the welfare of his men and too little of the general to be borne by regiments which, by their integral composition and proficiency in drill, are in every way prepared to sustain the high honor of their State. The ravine was utterly impassible in the charge; and to have stood there upon it’s brink, in the midst of the deadly and terrific storm of grape, canister and bombs which about ten heavy pieces of artillery thundered upon them, would have been sheer madness. The order to retire was therefore given, and although the Yankees immediately retreated and joined the general rout, yet, in the minds of some persons, uninformed as to the facts, our regiments sustained some discredit.

Our 2nd Lieutenant was a few days ago taken from us by the “Camden Rifles,” to supply the place of their lamented Captain (Adam McWillie); and the result of an election in the “Confederates,” to fill the place of Judge Hill, has just this moment been announced in favor of our popular Sergeant Hugh Love, for whose gallantry in action and agreeability in camp, every soldier can vouch. The unsuccessful aspirant was our worthy friend Sergeant Rucker.*

We are now encamped upon the edge of the main battle field. There remains to mark the spot only a few dead horses, the scars of the cannon-shot and graves of the fallen. The marks of the enemy’s flight are all over the country, and most remarkably did they exemplify the scriptural assertion, “the wicked flee when no man pursueth.” No idea of the utter consternation which attended their flight can be formed till the broken wheels and guns, the scattered clothes and provisions, the deserted tents and the tremendous quantity of relinquished booty of every description, all along the route from Bull’s Run to Alexandria is seen.

I have seen sixty-one pieces of the fine artillery which we took; and every wayside house has been converted into an arsenal, prison and hospital for their deserted equipments, the terror-stricken captives and poor wounded wretches. The moral force and the exaltation of the South, and her holy self-defence, which the news of this victory and unequaled defeat will carry throughout America and into the ears of astonished Europe (which the bragging North has ever attempted to deafen to the truth). Is the most grateful blessing which a kind God could grant to the Southern patriot and soldier.

The health of our company and regiment is only tolerable. We start soon for Leesburg, about twenty-five miles distant.

Mr. Hardy is still with us.

Dr. Divine, who has won the golden opinion of the regiment by his readiness in camp and upon the field, with his instruments and his rifle, is yet the welcome confrere of the company.

We miss the luxury of fruit and vegetables, which our friends at home are enjoying about now; but we, here, have this honorable war.

In haste, your friend,
Ensis.**

(Canton, MS) American Citizen, 8/10/1861

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Contributed by John Hennessy

18th Mississippi Infantry Roster 

* Hugh Love and William W. Rucker, both in Co. C per roster above. Co. C was raised in Canton, Madison County, MS.

** An ensis is a saltwater clam.