#116 – Col. Wade Hampton

14 08 2008

Report of Col. Wade Hampton, Commanding Hampton Legion

O.R.– SERIES I–VOLUME 2 [S# 2] — CHAPTER IX, pp.566-567

HEADQUARTERS HAMPTON LEGION,

Camp Johnson, Broad Run, July 29, 1861

GENERAL: I have the honor to report that with six hundred infantry of my command I reached Manassas on the morning of the 21st, after thirty hours’ detention on the cars from Richmond. In obedience to orders to take position in the direction of stone bridge, ready to support any of the troops engaged in that quarter, I advanced with six infantry companies to Lewis’ house, the headquarters of General Cocke. On my way to this point a scout informed me that the enemy in great force had turned our left flank and were rapidly advancing. I immediately turned to my left at a right angle to the course I had been pursuing, and guided by the sound of a heavy fire which had just opened, marched towards their advancing lines.

Finding one of our batteries engaging the enemy, I took position to support it and remained for some time near it, but seeing that the enemy were closing in on my right flank, I moved forward to a farm house belonging to a free negro named Robinson, and took possession of the ground immediately around it. After being exposed to a heavy fire from Ricketts’ battery and musketry, I formed my men on the turnpike road leading to stone bridge in front of the farm-yard. A large body of the enemy, who were in advance of the main column, and who were within two hundred yards of the turnpike, opened fire on me as the line was formed. Under this fire Lieut. Col. B. J. Johnson fell, and in his fall the service sustained a great loss, while the Legion has met with an irreparable misfortune. He fell as, with the utmost coolness and gallantry, he was placing our men in position. In his death Carolina is called to mourn over one of her most devoted sons. As soon as my men came into position they returned the fire of the enemy and drove them back with loss into the woods on the top of the hill in front of us.

Their right wing then opened upon us, but after a brisk exchange of fire they retreated and planted a battery in the position they had just left. After this had played upon us for some time a strong force was thrown out, apparently with the view of charging upon us, but a single volley dispersed them in great confusion. They then formed beyond the crest of the hill and moved down to the turnpike on my left flank out of the range of my rifles. As soon as they reached the road they planted a battery in it, enfilading my position. As I was entirely exposed, I made my men fall back and form over the brow of the hill, where they were protected from the fire of the guns but not from that of the rifles. Here we were attacked by a column which came from the direction of the headquarters of General Evans, almost on our right, and we were nearly surrounded, the enemy being on three sides of us, and Generals Bee and Evans having both advised me to fall back, I gave orders to this effect, having held this position unsupported for at least two hours in the face of the enemy, greatly superior in numbers and well provided with artillery.

A short time before we retired, General Evans and Bartow, with the remnants of their commands, came upon the ground, joined with us in our fire on the enemy, and fell back with us. My men retired in good order to the hill just in our rear, bearing off our wounded, and formed near a battery (Imboden’s and Walton’s), which was just then put in position. Here, after indicating the place you wished me to occupy, you directed me to remain until you sent for me. The order to charge soon came from you, and we advanced to the Spring Hill farm house, (Mrs. Henry’s) under a heavy fire of cannon and musketry. In the face if this my men advanced as rapidly as their worn-out condition would allow, and after delivering a well-directed fire, I ordered them to charge upon the battery under the hill.

In leading this charge I received a wound which, though slight, deprived me of the honor of participating in the capture of the guns which had done us so much injury during the day. After being wounded I gave command of the Legion to Capt. James Conner, the senior officer present. He formed the Legion on the right of the regiment of Colonel Withers (Eighteenth Virginia), advanced directly upon the battery, passing by the right of the farm house down upon the two guns, which were taken. Captain Ricketts, who had command of this battery, was here wounded and taken prisoner. The enemy being driven back at all points, began to retreat before the forces which were rapidly brought up, and in the pursuit which followed the Legion joined, advancing two miles beyond the stone bridge.

The death of Colonel Johnson in the early part of the day having deprived me of the only field officer who was on the ground, I was greatly embarrassed in extending the necessary orders, and but for the constant and efficient assistance given to me by my staff officers in the extension of these orders, my position would have been rendered as critical as it was embarrassing.

The unflinching courage of the brave men who sustained their exposed and isolated position under the trying circumstances of that eventful day inspires in me a pride which it is due to them I should express in the most emphatic terms, under the terrible uncertainty of the first half hour as to the positions of both friend and foe. Compelled frequently during the day from the same cause to receive an increasing fire from different quarters while they withheld their own, the self-devotion of these faithful soldiers was only equaled by the gallantry of the officers whom they so trustingly obeyed. To the officers and men who followed and upheld our flag steadfastly during the bloody fight which resulted so gloriously to our army I beg to express my warmest thanks. Their conduct has my unqualified approbation, and I trust it has met the approval of their general commanding.

I regret to report a loss of fifteen killed upon the battlefield, four since dead, one hundred wounded, and two missing.

I have the honor to be, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WADE HAMPTON,

Colonel, Commanding Legion

Brigadier-General BEAUREGARD,

Commanding Army of the Potomac





#115 – Brig. Gen. T. H. Holmes

14 08 2008

Report of Brig. Gen. T. H. Holmes, C. S. Army, Commanding Reserve Brigade

O.R.– SERIES I–VOLUME 2 [S# 2] — CHAPTER IX, pp. 565-566

HEADQUARTERS BROOKE’S STATION, July 26, 1861

GENERAL: On Wednesday, the 18th of July, I received orders from the headquarters of the Army to hold my brigade in readiness to support your army if called on by you. I proceeded with two regiments (the Second Tennessee and First Arkansas Volunteers) and Walker’s battery that afternoon towards Manassas, and on my arrival at Camp Chopawamsic sent an officer to communicate with you. Soon after the officer left I received your telegram to Lieutenant-Colonel Green urging me forward. The march was resumed, and I encamped near Brentsville.

On reporting to you in person on Friday morning I was ordered to Camp Wigfall as a support to Ewell’s brigade, charged with the defense of Union Mills and its neighborhood. My brigade rested on Saturday.

About 9 o’clock on Sunday, the 21st, I received a copy of your note to General Ewell, directing him to hold himself in readiness to take the offensive at a moment’s notice, to be supported by my brigade. This order caused me to move nearer to Ewell’s position, where, after waiting about two hours, another order was received through Ewell to resume our former places. Up to this time the firing was comparatively slow. About 12 o’clock m., or a few minutes sooner, the firing on our left became very heavy. About 2 o’clock p.m. I received a copy of a note from you to General Jones, dated at a point one mile south of Union Mills, directing me, among other movements, to repair to you.

I immediately marched in the direction of the firing, and on my arrival at Camp Walker received the first order directed to myself. This was a verbal one, requiring me to hasten forward as soon as possible. The march from thence to Lewis’ house was made in good time. The brigade was halted there by order of General Johnston, and did not participate in the fight, as the enemy commenced to retreat within a few moments after my arrival. I ordered Walker’s rifled guns to fire at the retreating enemy, and Scott’s cavalry to join in the pursuit. The fire of the former was exceedingly accurate, and did much execution, and the pursuit of the latter was very effective, taking many prisoners and capturing much property.

I cannot speak too highly of the spirit and enthusiasm of my brigade.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

T. H. HOLMES

Brigadier-General, Commanding Brigade

General G. T. BEAUREGARD, Camp Manassas





Society of (Mostly) Civil War Historians Part III

3 07 2008

Continued from here.

Tuesday, the third and final day of the conference, began with Conscription and Consequences.  The panel was chaired by Robert Kenzer of the University of Richmond, who also commented on the papers.  This could have been a subset of the Beleaguered Cincinnatus panel from the day before.  First up was Christine Dee with “Now is a Time when Strange Men and Strange Things are in Vogue”:  The Provost Marshal’s Agents and the Meaning of Local Resistance in Northern Communities.  In this Dee detailed the processes by which communities resisted conscription and the provost marshals’ attempts to enforce it.  Attempts by provost marshals to “embed” themselves in communities were resented by residents, and sometimes violence resulted, prompted by both citizens and the PMs.  Also complicating enforcement were ethnic differences and contested citizenship.  PMs during the war deputized locals and formed paramilitary bands to gather up deserters and evaders, and bounties were awarded.  Even after the war, the PMs continued their activities in communities, not only in collecting deserters and evaders but also others who committed crimes against the military. 

John Sacher’s paper, titled Confederate Substitutes and Principals: A Preliminary Analysis, covered a topic that is rarely discussed, that of the policy of the hiring of substitutes by men (principals) drafted into the Confederate army.  While the policy was outlawed and all principals were subsequently ordered into the army, Sacher argues that the use of compliance of principals with the order as a sign of Confederate loyalty is a slim reed.  Rockingham County, VA is the focus of Sacher’s study.  (An interesting tidbit – at one point newspapers encouraged women to mail petticoats to principals.)

The 10:30 session was to be chaired by Ethan Rafuse, whose misadventures resulting in his inability to attend can be found here.  Susannah Bruce, who was to comment, took on the additional duty of chairing The Influence of Military Operations on Politics and Policy in the Trans-Mississippi.  I took more notes during this session than in any other, perhaps because it dealt with the Trans-Miss theatre, with which I am least familiar.  Fellow blogger Drew Wagenhoffer would have been in heaven, I think.  Terry Beckenbaugh started things off with The Economics of Race: Major General Samuel Ryan Curtis’ Policies toward African-Americans and Native Americans in the Trans-Mississippi, 1862-1864.  Perhaps best known for his victory at Pea Ridge, Curtis was a Whig turned Republican who repudiated racial equality while at the same time believing that a person could not be property.  As his Army of the Southwest marched through Arkansas (cutting his supply line and living off the land well before the idea occurred to the likes of Grant and Sherman), Curtis freed slaves and gave them confiscated cotton, thus vesting their interest in Union victory.  Curtis believed that the possibility of being accused of inciting servile insurrection was worth the risk if his actions damaged the enemy.  Later, Curtis’ treatment of the Indians when he moved further west was very severe, giving John Chivington justification for the Sand Creek Massacre when he said there could be “no peace until the Indians suffer more”.  While contrabands were working toward the same end as Curtis – Union victory – the Indians were not; they were in the way.

Jeff Prushankin’s paper, Politics as War by Other Means: The Gray-Lewis Louisiana Congressional Campaign of 1864, examined yet another little discussed topic – the effect of the conduct of the war on political elections in the Confederacy.  The war didn’t last long enough for the effect to be realized on a national level, but the Gray-Lewis campaigns illustrate how it manifested on a smaller scale.  There was a good deal of conflict between Richard Taylor’s command in Louisiana and that of Edmund Kirby Smith’s in Arkansas – it would seem that Smith was behaving somewhat selfishly (I don’t know much about it, but imagine you can find out more in Jeff’s fine book which I have yet to read).  Orders were given and disobeyed, reenforcements withheld, arrests made.  Taking advantage of this Crisis in Confederate Command was Union general Nathaniel Banks.  It was no surprise that the Confederate public took sides with Taylor or Smith.  Two candidates for a vacant congressional seat emerged, with one being perceived to support Taylor (Henry Gray) and one Smith (John Langdon, though his camp denied any ties to Smith).  The election turned into a referendum on Smith and Taylor, with the Taylor candidate (Gray) winning.  Gray went to Richmond and presented evidence tying Smith to the illegal cotton trade, and the tide of public opinion turned decidedly against Smith across the Confederacy.

In Pressured on Every Side: Conflicts between Military and Civilian Priorities planning the Camden Expedition of 1864, Alfred Wallace (yet another Penn Stater) looked at the conciliatory policy practiced in Arkansas by Frederick Steele.  Steele encouraged his troops to fraternize with the residents of Little Rock, where in 1863 there seemed to be a significant Union sentiment.  While the ranks seemed to support Steele, his cavalry commander, Davidson, angry that Steele was breaking down his horses in frivolous races, claimed his conciliatory policy was folly and that only long-hidden Unionists were taking the loyalty oath.  The rumor soon spread that Daniel Sickles was headed to Arkansas to displace Steele.  While that didn’t come about, General James Blunt arrived in Fort Smith, found conditions unfavorable and began lobbying for Steele’s job.  All of these factors affected planning for the upcoming Camden Expedition.  Wallace seemed to feel much of the criticism of Steele was warranted.

 I went once again to McGillan’s for lunch, alone this time as Dana had left that morning and Tom and Angela were visiting Independence Hall.  After lunch I hit the book vendors once again, making four purchases at a hefty discount – it seems the booksellers were very anxious to move product as the conference came to a close.

For the final, 2:30 session of the conference I chose Gearing Up for the Civil War Centennial in the High School Classroom, chaired by Andrew Slap with coments by Ronald Maggiano of West Springfield High School in Virginia.  This panel was organized by fellow blogger Kevin Levin, which makes this summary easy: his presentation is posted by him here, and he briefly recapped the conference here.  I’ll let Kevin speak for himself, and just add that his paper, Using Ken Burns’s The Civil War in the Classroom, was superbly delivered and well received.  James Percoco, whose book Summers with Lincoln I had just purchased upstairs, was next with Monumental Memories of the Sixteenth President.  His PowerPoint slide presentation was an encapsulation of his book: Percoco uses the stories of seven important sculptures to tell the larger tale of Lincoln, the Civil War, and emancipation.  After the session was over Mr. Percoco was kind enough to sign my copy of his book.

Afterwards I went out into the hallway and said my goodbyes.  I made sure to again thank Carol Reardon to hepping me to the shindig – I was really glad I went.  I took a quick circuit around the first and second floors one more time to get a last look at the fine artwork (I’ll talk about that and more in Part IV).  Just before leaving, I was checking out a plaque memorializing the nine regiments raised by the Union League during the war.  Kevin Levin crept up behind and whispered “Take a long look Harry; it’s probably the last time they’ll let us in this place.”  For the most part, he’s probably right, but the League is absorbing the old Civil War and Underground Railroad Museum collection into its own impressive holdings and will house the whole thing in their building, which will be accessible by the public.

I walked to meet my ride to the airport at The Locust Bar at 9th & Locust, had a couple of cold ones, and was off to catch my 8:00 PM flight for Pittsburgh.  It was a nice surprise to see Lesley Gordon sitting in the seat behind me, though that arrangement wasn’t conducive to much conversation.

All in all the Society of Civil War Historians first conference appeared to me a success, and I think I’ll keep my membership active with the intent to attend the 2010 conference in Richmond.  I hope to see many of you there.

Part I

Part II 

Part IV





#114 – Capt. John D. Alexander

29 06 2008

 

Report of Capt. John D. Alexander, Commanding Campbell Rangers

O.R.– SERIES I–VOLUME 2 [S# 2] — CHAPTER IX, pp. 564-565

CAMP NEAR STONE BRIDGE, July, 1861

SIR: In obedience to your orders, on the morning of the 21st instant I reported with my company of cavalry to Major Wheat, who had been thrown forward with his battalion, and occupied a position upon our extreme left in the immediate vicinity of the enemy. By command of Major Wheat, I forthwith proceeded with my whole company to the front for the purpose of reconnoitering, and advanced in close proximity to the enemy’s lines. Having ascertained as precisely as possible his progress and position, I returned and reported the same to Major Wheat. I then by his direction took position a short distance in rear of his left wing, and held my command in reserve, ready to take advantage of any confusion in the enemy’s ranks or to perform any service that might be required. This post I occupied until Major Wheat’s command, with the Fourth South Carolina Regiment, under Colonel Sloan, having gallantly maintained the action for a considerable time, was forced at length to retire before the overwhelming numbers of the enemy and tremendous fire of his batteries. I fell back slowly and without the slightest confusion before the advancing line of the enemy, halting at short intervals and every available point, and holding my company ready for instant service. In this manner I retired, along with Captain Terry’s company, until we fell in with Colonel Radford’s command near Lewis’ house. Major Wheat having fallen from a severe wound received by him early in the action, I joined Colonel Radford’s battalion of cavalry and remained with him the rest of the day.

After the enemy was repulsed and forced back upon our left we received orders with Colonel Radford’s battalion to make a circuit of several miles to our right for the purpose of charging and intercepting the enemy on the turnpike in the direction of Centreville upon their retreat. This order was received by our men with enthusiasm, they having remained the whole day patiently under the enemy’s fire. We came out into the turnpike near the White House, about two miles from the stone bridge. Near this house, and about three hundred yards in rear of the point where we came into the turnpike, the enemy had planted a battery so as to command the road, and in the woods adjacent to the road on either side of the battery they were posted in considerable force. On the opposite side of the road the enemy was retreating rapidly and in great numbers. A portion of the battalion, and among them my company, charged up the turnpike towards the battery, when a tremendous fire was opened upon us from the battery, and also from the whole force stationed in its vicinity. By this fire I lost several horses, but no men. This was the last stand made by the enemy. After they were broken here the rout became general and irresistible. Some of my men joined in the pursuit and became somewhat scattered, but were all collected that night and reported to you the next morning at these headquarters.

I should perhaps mention in appropriate terms the conduct of the officers and men under my command. From the commencement of the action in the morning until late in the evening they were under the enemy’s fire and within point-blank range of their batteries, and at times almost enveloped in their musketry. They remained firm and unshaken, exhibiting an anxiety only to meet the enemy, and awaiting patiently an opportunity to strike an effective blow. I am gratified to inform you that my officers and men all escaped without personal injury. I received a slight wound in my leg, which did not disable me, and in the charge upon the enemy in the evening at the turnpike, which I have mentioned, Lieutenant Page’s horse was shot, and fell dead while in his proper place at the head of the company. During the day we lost four other horses either killed or permanently disabled. I commend the conduct of all my officers and men to your favorable consideration. It gives me pleasure to inform you that my company is now ready to take the field again and to perform effective service.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN D. ALEXANDER,

Captain of Campbell Rangers

Brig. Gen. N. G. EVANS





#111 – Col. J. B. E. Sloan

29 06 2008

 

Report of Col. J. B. E. Sloan, Fourth South Carolina Infantry

O.R.– SERIES I–VOLUME 2 [S# 2] — CHAPTER IX, pp. 560-562

HDQRS. FOURTH REGIMENT SOUTH CAROLINA VOLS.,

Stone Bridge, Bull Run, Prince William Co., Va., July 23, 1861

GENERAL: I have the honor to report that about 3 o’clock a.m. Sunday, July 21, the officer of the guard awoke me and stated that my picket towards the stone house reported that he heard commands in the woods beyond, as if some one was commanding forces. I ordered him to report the same to you. Towards 4 o’clock I heard the firing of pickets on the opposite side of Bull Run from my camp, and at once ordered the men to be waked up. In a few moments afterwards your orders came, ordering me to get ready and move up on the hill at once. I ordered the men to fall in, and before 5 o’clock formed in line of battle on the left side of the road, covered by an undulation near the bluff of the hill, about six hundred yards distant from stone bridge.

I sent out, as ordered by you, Captain Kilpatrick’s company, Calhoun Mountaineers, to deploy as skirmishers on the left of the bridge, and Captain Anderson’s company, Confederate Guards, to the right of the bridge, both of them sending their advance skirmishers to the bank of Bull Run. Captain Dean’s company and the Palmetto Riflemen, the latter commanded by Lieutenant Earle, was left at the camp, some three hundred yards distant, as a reserve. The enemy could be seen in the woods opposite. About six o’clock the enemy sent a man out with a flag, which he attempted to plant in the road about two hundred yards from the bridge. Captain Kilpatrick fired at him five or six shots. The man with the color fled precipitately to the woods. The enemy’s battery, which was planted on the left side of the road in the edge of the woods, then commenced firing at intervals in different directions, as if to make us show our position, which was still concealed from them. Sometimes they would burst a shell about the bridge; again, fire a ball from a rifled cannon just over us. I could also hear firing of cannon below. Up to 8.20 they had fired six times towards us.

About 8.30 o’clock you ordered me to get ready and move up on the ridge, leaving the reserve and the companies sent out as skirmishers. After advancing one-fourth mile I formed in line of battle on the left of Major Wheat’s battalion, he having already formed on the right of the field. Your cannon formed in our front. I had not occupied this position but a few moments when, by your orders, I moved a little to the front and about three-fourths of a mile to the left, and formed in line of battle in a ravine, my left resting on the pike road leading from stone bridge by Sudley’s Mill, and about two hundred yards in advance of the stone house, and sent out Captain Hawthorn’s company as skirmishers in the woods, resting on our right.

Major Wheat’s battalion, which had been left with the cannon, advanced in front of the woods and was fired into by my skirmishers, which was returned by Major Wheat’s. My skirmishers sustained no loss, but wounded two of Major Wheat’s men. My skirmishers then returned, both Major Wheat and Captain Hawthorn having discovered the mistake. Major Wheat at once opened fire on the enemy and kept it up vigorously for about five rounds. I sent Captain Hawthorn to assist him as soon as he returned. I ordered the cannon to open on the enemy, who had commenced filing out in large force to our left. I then ordered the battalion to open fire by company, and then moved up to the left and advanced through the woods to the field in front. Major Wheat having rallied part of his forces and formed on my left, at that time General Bee came up on my right and advanced part of his force on my right and commenced a vigorous fire. At the same time I sent forward part of Captain Hollingsworth’s company as skirmishers. I had the fence pulled down to charge to the front when the skirmishers and General Bee’s forces advanced to the right. Major Wheat at the same time advancing on the left, the enemy’s battery and musketry opened on us in large force, which was returned, principally directed about the center of the regiment. The regiment retired to the rear of the woods. Captain Shanklin rallied his company around the colors until the entire force had left the ground. I discovered the enemy attempting to flank us in large force, to which I called the attention of General Bee, who, seeing the force, said that we had better retreat and form on the opposite side of the hill, after which re-enforcements came up and the engagement became general.

Lieutenant Earle, commanding Company B (Palmetto Riflemen), and Captain Dean’s company (C), both reserves, occupied the position first held by the regiment (on the left of the road near the bridge) until after the battery retired, when they also retreated toward Lewis’ house and were then formed into a battalion, with portions of Captain Shanklin’s company, under Lieutenant Cherry, and Captain Long’s company and the New Orleans Zouaves, Captain ——-, and some Alabamians, under Major Whither and Colonel Thomas, of Maryland, and by them led to the field of battle on our extreme left. They charged a battery of the enemy, and, after a severe conflict, repulsed him. Sergeant Maxwell planted the colors of the Fourth Regiment South Carolina Volunteers on the cannon of the enemy and maintained his position until after his comrades had been repulsed by a superior force, who had deceived our men and prevented their firing upon them by using our colors and sign of recognition. During this contest Major Whitner had his horse shot under him while endeavoring to rally the men led to the charge. Captain Kilpatrick held the position on the left of the bridge until the enemy advanced in large force to the left and near the bridge, when he left and attached his company to Colonel Hampton’s Legion. Captain Anderson remained on the right side of the bridge till near 1 o’clock, when he retreated toward Lewis’ house and then formed on some forces said to be under command of Ex-Governor Smith, and advanced with them into the field, engaged the enemy’s battery, when the forces under command of Colonel Thomas and Major Whitner came up, when he united with them in a charge on the battery which is above mentioned, in which our colors were planted on the cannon, but afterwards repulsed. I rallied the other remnants of companies on Captain Kilpatrick’s company on the right of Hampton’s Legion and led them up to three different advances. Afterward the men under my command worked the battery under the direction of Captain Ferguson, aide to General Beauregard, who made several telling fires on the enemy, assisted by Lieutenant Sloan, commanding fragments of companies.

Captain Kilpatrick behaved most gallantly, and was shot through the sword hand while bravely cheering his men onward. His first lieutenant, Horton, was shot in the head in a charge. Lieutenant Hunt, of Company H, deserves particular credit for his bravery in reorganizing the company. Sergeants Hawthorne and Fuller both acted their part well; the former was exceeded in gallant daring by no one. Captain Anderson sustained his character as an officer. Many of the officers and soldiers behaved well, among whom were Captain Hollingsworth, Corporal Williams, Privates Ferguson, Smith, and Wilkinson, of Company I. The Palmetto Riflemen were very efficient and behaved well. Lieutenant-Colonel Mattison was active in my assistance during the day in encouraging the men to do their duty. Captain Pool and his second and third lieutenants were all seriously, if not mortally, wounded.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. B. E. SLOAN,

Colonel Fourth Regiment S.C. Volunteers

General N. G. EVANS





#109 – Col. Jubal A. Early

1 06 2008

Report of Col. Jubal A. Early, Commanding Sixth Brigade, First Corps, Army of the Potomac

O.R.– SERIES I–VOLUME 2 [S# 2] — CHAPTER IX, pp. 555-558

HDQRS. SIXTH BRIG., FIRST CORPS, ARMY POTOMAC,

August 1, 1861

COLONEL: I submit the following report of the operations of my brigade on the 21st ultimo:

My position on the morning of the 21st was in the pines on the road from Camp Walker to the gate in front of McLean’s farm house, to which place my brigade had been removed on the day before from Blackburn’s Ford, on Bull Run, where it had been since the action on Thursday, the 18th. The portion of the brigade with me consisted of Colonel Kemper’s regiment, Seventh Virginia; Col. Harry T. Hays’ regiment, Seventh Louisiana, and six companies of my own regiment, the Twenty-fourth Virginia.

At an early hour in the morning the enemy’s batteries near Blackburn’s Ford opened fire, and I received an order from General Beauregard through one of his aides to move my brigade to the cover of the pines between McLean’s Ford and the road leading to Blackburn’s Ford, so as to be ready to support either General Longstreet or General Jones, as might be necessary. A short time after taking this position I received a request from General Longstreet to send him a regiment, which request I complied with by sending him the six companies of my own regiment, under Lieutenant-Colonel Hairston, and two companies of Colonel Hays’ regiment, under Major Penn. I proceeded also to General Longstreet’s position at Blackburn’s Ford, and after the companies I had sent him were posted as he desired, I returned to the place where the rest of the brigade was, and in a short time received a further request from General Longstreet to furnish him another regiment, which I complied with by carrying him the residue of Hays’ regiment.

Upon arriving at the ford I found the companies I had before sent had crossed over Bull Run and were in position with General Longstreet’s command, awaiting the signal for an assault on the enemy’s batteries, which were constantly firing in every direction. Hays’ companies were drawn up in double column in rear of the ford, where they remained for some time, when I received an order from General Longstreet to march Hays’ regiment back, and with that and Kemper’s cross McLean’s Ford and attack the enemy’s batteries in the rear. Hays’ regiment was immediately marched back to where Kemper’s regiment was, sustaining during its march a fire of the enemy’s batteries, which was directed by the cloud of dust it raised in marching, and a shell exploded in the ranks, wounding three or four men.

I proceeded with Hays’ and Kemper’s regiments to cross at McLean’s Ford for the purpose of attacking the batteries in the rear, but before the whole of the regiments had crossed, the general’s aide, Colonel Chisolm, arrived with orders requiring me to resume my position. I then sent Kemper’s regiment back to its place in the pines, and marched Hays’ regiment up the run to Blackburn’s Ford. General Longstreet then directed me to carry the regiment back to where Kemper’s was, and after the men were rested a few minutes they were marched down the run by way of the intrenchments which had been occupied by General Jones’ brigade at McLean’s Ford. Upon arriving there I found General Jones had returned with his brigade to the intrenchments, and I was informed by him that General Beauregard had directed that I should join him (General Beauregard) with my brigade.

I immediately proceeded to comply with this order, and sent to General Longstreet for the six companies of my own regiment, and received a reply stating that I could take in lieu thereof the Thirteenth Mississippi Regiment, under Colonel Barksdale, which had been ordered to report to him, and thus save both regiments from the fire of the enemy’s batteries, which they would have to sustain in marching to and from Blackburn’s Ford.

I accepted this proposition, and immediately put the two regiments of my brigade, with Colonel Barksdale’s Thirteenth Mississippi Regiment, which I found in the pines on the road leading from McLean’s farm house toward Mitchell’s Ford, in motion to comply with General Beauregard’s directions, having previously sent Captain Gardner ahead to ascertain where the general was. I marched in rear of Mitchell’s Ford in the direction of the ground on which the battle was being fought, near the stone bridge, and after proceeding some distance was met by Captain Gardner, who informed me he had been unable to find the general, but had ascertained that his headquarters were at Lewis’ house, in the direction of the fighting. I continued to advance through the fields as fast as my men could move, guided by the roar of the cannon and the volleys of musketry, until we reached the neighborhood of the battle-ground, when I sent Captain Gardner again ahead to ascertain, if he could, where the general desired me to go, my brigade being still kept on the march.

Captain Gardner met with Col. John S. Preston, one of the general’s aides, who informed him that the general had gone to the front, and that the order was that all re-enforcements should go to the front. The captain soon returned with this information, and I still continued to advance until I was met by Colonel Preston, who informed me that General Beauregard had gone to where the fighting was on the right, but that General Johnston was just in front, and his directions were that we should proceed to the left, where there was a heavy fire of musketry. I immediately inclined to the left in a direction pointed out by Colonel Preston, and soon met with General Johnston, who directed me to proceed to the extreme left of our line and attack the enemy on their right flank. This direction I complied with, marching in rear of the woods in which General Elzey’s brigade had just taken position, as I afterward ascertained, until we had cleared entirely the woods and got into some fields on the left of our line, where we found Colonel Stuart, with a body of cavalry and some pieces of artillery, belonging, as I understood, to Captain Beckham’s battery.

Here I turned to the front, and a body of the enemy soon appeared in front of my column on the crest of a hill deployed as skirmishers. Colonel Kemper’s regiment, which was in advance, was formed in the open field in front of the enemy under a heavy shower of minie balls, and advanced towards the enemy. Colonel Barksdale’s and Colonel Hays’ regiments were successively formed towards the left, and also advanced, thus outflanking the enemy. At the same time that my brigade advanced the pieces of artillery above mentioned and Stuart’s cavalry moved to our left, so as to command a view of a very large portion of the ground occupied by the enemy. With the advance of my brigade and the cavalry and artillery above mentioned the enemy retired rapidly behind the hill, though the advance of my brigade was delayed a short time by information from one of General Elzey’s aides, who had gone to the top of the hill, that the body of men in front of us and who had fired upon my brigade, was the Thirteenth Virginia Regiment. This turned out to be an entire misapprehension; and in the mean time a considerable body of the enemy appeared to the right of my position, on an extension of the same hill, bearing what I felt confident was the Confederate flag. It was soon, however, discovered to be a regiment of the enemy’s forces, and was dispersed by one or two well-directed fires from our artillery on the left.

As soon as the misapprehension in regard to the character of the troops was corrected, my brigade advanced to the top of the hill that had been occupied by the enemy, and we ascertained that they had retired precipitately, and a large body of them was discovered in the fields in the rear of Dogan’s house, and west of the turnpike. Here Colonel Cocke, with one of his regiments, joined us, and our pieces of artillery were advanced, and fired upon the enemy’s column with considerable effect, causing them to disperse, and we soon discovered that they were in full retreat. My brigade and Colonel Cocke’s command were advanced in a direction so as to pass over the ground that had been occupied by the enemy’s main body, crossing a ravine and the turnpike, and passing to the west of Dogan’s house by Matthews’ house and to the west of Carter’s house. My own brigade advanced as far as Bull Run, to the north of Carter’s house, and one mile above stone bridge, where it bivouacked for the night. Colonel Cocke crossed the river at a ford to the left, and I saw no more of him for that night.

We saw the evidences of the fight all along our march, and unmistakable indications of the overwhelming character of the enemy’s defeat, in the shape of abandoned guns and equipments. It was impossible for me to pursue the enemy farther, as well because I was utterly unacquainted with the crossings of the run and the roads in front, as because most of the men belonging to my brigade had been marching the greater part of the day, and were very much exhausted; but pursuit with infantry would have been unavailing, as the enemy retreated with such rapidity that they could not have been overtaken by any other than mounted troops. On the next day we found a great many articles that the enemy had abandoned in their flight, showing that no expense or trouble had been spared in equipping their army.

The number of men composing my brigade as it went into the action was less than fifteen hundred, but I am unable to give exact returns, as we bivouacked eight or ten miles from our baggage, with which were all the rolls and returns, and the brigade has since been separated and reorganized.

Colonel Kemper’s regiment, embracing less than 400 men at the time, lost in killed 9, wounded 38; Colonel Hays’ regiment lost in killed 3, wounded 20; Colonel Barksdale’s regiment lost in wounded 6; making in killed 12, wounded 64; in all. 76.

Without intending to be invidious, I must say that Colonels Kemper and Hays displayed great coolness and gallantry in front of their regiments while they were being formed under a galling fire from the enemy’s sharpshooters, who, from their appearance, I took to be regular troops. My aide and acting assistant adjutant-general, Capt. Fleming Gardner, rendered me very efficient service during the whole day, and a Lieutenant Willis, who volunteered to act as aide, and did so, was also of great service to me. I have not seen him for several days, and did not learn the particular corps to which he belongs, but I believe he belongs to a company of Rappahannock cavalry.

A company from Rappahannock joined Colonel Kemper’s regiment in the early part of the day, and a South Carolina company joined Colonel Hays’ regiment just after it arrived in front of the enemy.

The companies of my own regiment remained all day, until the retreat of the enemy at Blackburn’s Ford, with General Longstreet, under an annoying fire from the enemy’s batteries, but without sustaining any loss, and afterwards joined in the pursuit, under General Longstreet, towards Centreville.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. A. EARLY,

Colonel, Comdg. Sixth Brig., First Corps, Army of the Potomac

Col. THOMAS JORDAN,

Assistant Adjutant-General, First Corps, Army of the Potomac





#108 – Capt. Arthur L. Rogers

1 06 2008

Report of Capt. Arthur L. Rogers, Loudoun Artillery

O.R.– SERIES I–VOLUME 2 [S# 2] — CHAPTER IX, pp. 554-555

SIR: I have the honor to report that the first section of Loudoun Artillery, under my immediate command, was on the day of the battle of Manassas held in reserve until about 11 o’clock a.m., when by your order I proceeded to the crest of the hill on the west side of Bull Run, commanding stone bridge, from which Latham’s half battery had been withdrawn by Major Evans, to resist the enemy’s attack in front of our forces. Here I posted my section of artillery, and opened a brisk fire upon a column of the enemy’s infantry, supposed to be two regiments, advancing towards me, and supported by his battery of rifled cannon on the hills opposite. These poured into my section a steady fire of shot and shell. After giving them some fifty rounds I succeeded in heading his column, and turned it up Bull Run to a ford about one mile above stone bridge, where, with the regiments which followed, they crossed, and proceeded to join the rest of the enemy’s forces in front of the main body of our army. After having exhausted my ammunition I retired, with a section of the Louisiana Washington Artillery posted in my rear, to Lewis’ house, to replenish my limber-boxes, having no caisson with my section and being supported by but a small force of infantry. By the time I had procured more ammunition the enemy’s fire ceased upon the right wing of the Army, upon which we were engaged.

The other section of my battery, under command of Lieutenant Heaton, was posted by Captain Harris, of the Engineers, on the west bank of Bull Run, on a bluff, where it assisted in silencing the enemy’s batteries in the pines opposite, and being ordered forward, was conducted by Captain Harris to a position in front of the enemy, upon the eastern verge of the plateau upon which Mrs. Henry’s house is placed, and about six hundred yards distant therefrom, where it was posted, under a heavy fire, supported by Colonel Smith’s battalion of infantry. It kept up an effectual fire upon the enemy until its ammunition was also exhausted, when it retired to Lewis’, for the purpose of replenishing.

My whole battery then being united, we received your order that we should leave it to the rifled cannon to fire at long range, as the enemy were retreating, and that we must cease firing; after which we were ordered by General Beauregard to Camp Walker, eight miles from the battle field, below Manassas Junction, with General Elzey’s brigade, where we marched that night.

I refer to annexed statements of the casualties of the day.

Casualties.–3 privates wounded, 1 supposed mortally; 2 horses wounded.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ARTH. L. ROGERS

Commanding Loudon Artillery

Col. PHILIP ST. GEORGE COCKE,

Commanding Fifth Brigade





#105 – Col. William Smith

24 05 2008

Report of Col. William Smith, Forty-ninth Virginia Infantry

O.R.– SERIES I–VOLUME 2 [S# 2] — CHAPTER IX, pp.551-552

HDQRS. FORTY-NINTH REGIMENT, VIRGINIA VOLS.,

July 31, 1861

SIR: On the morning of the 21st instant I was posted, by order of Colonel Cocke, on Bull Run, nearly north from Lewis’ house, to protect a detachment of Rogers’ battery of two guns, under the command of Lieutenant [Heaton]. The enemy made his appearance in the pines some three or four hundred yards distant, but some three or four well-directed shots induced him to retire.

About 1.30 o’clock p.m. I received your order if not in the presence of an enemy to join you promptly with my command. I did so; two Mississippi companies of Colonel Moore’s regiment having fallen in at my call promptly on my left on the way. On reporting to you I was ordered to fall in on the left of the line then formed and forming, which I promptly proceeded to do, you accompanying us for a quarter of a mile or more.

My battalion, the right under the immediate command of Lieut. Col. Edward Murray, and the left under the similar command of Maj. Caleb Smith, had scarcely taken their position when they found themselves in the presence of two of the enemy’s batteries, which were afterwards gallantly carried. My left had scarcely opened its fire before a heavy column of the enemy advanced from my left on the crest of the ridge or hill on a line parallel with our line of battle, with every prospect of having my flank turned without difficulty. At this critical moment two regiments came up, posted themselves on my left, protected my flank, and opened upon the enemy at a distance of about eighty yards, with admirable effect. I do not know the names of these regiments nor of their commanding officers, and have to regret it, as it would afford me pleasure to name them on account of the critical and efficient service which they rendered. From some persons acquainted with these regiments I ascertained that one was from Mississippi, and I have an impression that the other was from North Carolina.

I went into action with but three companies of my regiment, forming a battalion consisting of about two hundred and ten men, and regret to inform you that my loss was very severe, being ten killed and thirty wounded. Maj. Caleb Smith and Capt. H. C. Ward fell early in the action; Major Smith badly wounded, with a leg broken and fractured a little below the hip, and still in a critical condition, and Captain Ward of a wound in the abdomen, from which he died about 12 at night in a state of delirium, cheering on his men to the charge.

I hope I may say one word in praise of my men. But three days together–strangers to each other, of course–without that confidence essential to combined effort, and without discipline, and in their first battle, they yet met the crisis in which circumstances placed them with a hardihood and courage which command my admiration.

I have the honor, general, to be, with high consideration, your obedient servant,

WM. SMITH,

Colonel Forty-ninth Regiment Virginia Volunteers

Gen. G. T. BEAUREGARD





#103 – Col. R. E. Withers

18 04 2008

 

Report of Col. R. E. Withers, Eighteenth Virginia Infantry

O.R.– SERIES I–VOLUME 2 [S# 2] — CHAPTER IX, pp. 546-548

Colonel: I have the honor to transmit a report of the share taken by the Eighteenth Regiment in the battle of the 21st of July.

The position occupied by my command was, as you are aware, on the north side of Bull Run, at Ball’s Ford, which we were ordered to defend. This position they had occupied for three days, sleeping on their arms, as their position was very much exposed. Colonel Preston’s regiment (Twenty-eighth) was on my right.

Early on the morning of the 21st I heard firing in the direction of my advance picket. Supposing it caused by an advance of the enemy on my position I hastened to the point, and found that the firing was caused by an advance of the enemy along the Warrenton turnpike, driving in the pickets of Major Evans on that road. I could distinctly hear the moving of a very large number of men and many ammunition wagons, indicating that a formidable attack was designed upon our lines. Causing two companies to be deployed as skirmishers on my left and in front I awaited further developments. No attack having been made on us we remained in position until 2 o’clock p.m. At this time, being enabled to see from my position the progress of the fight, and that the extreme left of the position of our army had been turned by the enemy crossing Bull Run at Sudley’s Mill, some distance above stone bridge, and were outflanking and forcing back by immensely superior numbers our forces on the left and center, I crossed the run and formed my regiment in readiness for immediate action. Soon after Colonel Cocke sent down by one of his aides an order to bring my regiment into action as speedily as possible. We moved forward in double-quick time, and soon came under fire of the enemy’s battery about Lewis’ house. Continuing to advance beyond the house, I was ordered by General Beauregard to conduct my regiment obliquely to the left and attack the center of the enemy. On approaching their position I found a pretty strong force posted in a thicket of pines, in some places almost impenetrable. With a cheer we dashed into the thicket and pushed forward, the enemy retiring as we advanced.

They were composed principally of the Fourteenth New York Chasseurs, and several of their number were killed and captured by the left wing of my regiment. Emerging from the pines I halted and reformed the regiment, which had been thrown into some disorder whilst advancing through the pines. I now found myself exposed to a hot fire of musketry, and could not clearly distinguish friends from foes. Ordering my men to lie down in a slight depression of the field, so as to protect them as far as possible, I rode to the left of the line, and after some trouble was enabled to discover the U.S. flag with about two regiments on a hill opposite our position and across the Sudley road. A pretty sharp fire at long range was kept up between these troops and my command for some time.  Just at this time a number of troops to my right, who had been stationed around an old house (Mrs. Henry’s), fell back in a good deal of confusion, but rallied as soon as they passed my line.  One of the captains came up, and, announcing that they constituted a part of the Hampton Legion, and had no field officers left to take charge of them, as their colonel was wounded and lieutenant-colonel killed, desired to know what they should do. I directed them to form on the right of my regiment, which they did with promptness. I was then told that they had been forced back from a battery which they had taken from the enemy, but which they seemed determined to regain, as their skirmishers had advanced very nearly to the guns, supported by a heavy force of infantry. I ordered the whole regiment to charge, which they did in beautiful style, driving back the enemy (not only the skirmishers, but the supporting infantry) beyond the hill.

This battery consisted of eight rifled cannon, and I was told constituted a part of the celebrated Sherman battery. They were posted between Mrs. Henry’s house and the Sudley road, in a little triangular plat of grass land. It was as immediately proposed to turn their guns on them. I ordered the two rear companies of my command, Company I and Company K, to drag the guns into proper position. They immediately brought up two of the guns and ammunition. Captain Claiborne, of Company B, Adjutant Withers, and Lieutenant Shields, of Company E, assisted by a gallant South Carolina officer, afterwards understood to be Green, and several others, soon loaded one of the pieces, and brought it to bear upon a large number of men who were congregated near a two-story house beyond the turnpike. Just as we were about to fire I discovered among them the Confederate flag, and ordered them not to fire. I know in this I am not mistaken, as it was first recognized by the naked eye, and an examination with a good field-glass confirmed my first opinion. Whilst debating the question amongst ourselves I saw two other bodies of troops passing up the hill towards the house, amongst whom the U.S. flag was dearly visible. They joined the party first seen, and proving thus that they were enemies and had raised our flag with the intention of deceiving us, we no longer hesitated to open fire upon them from their own cannon.

The South Carolinian alluded to above fired the first gun, and a most effective one it seemed to be. A few shots sufficed to drive all the enemy out of sight. My regiment was then ordered by General Beauregard to push for the turnpike at stone bridge and cut off, if possible, the retreating enemy at that point. We reached the run and crossed it just below the cut timber east of the stone bridge, and entered the turnpike road just beyond that point. The enemy, however, had retreated by the Sudley’s Mill and other points above.

Soon after we crossed the run we were joined by two South Carolina regiments, commanded respectively by Colonels Kershaw and Cash, and together we pursued the enemy along the turnpike road in the direction of Centreville, until I was recalled by an order to fall back to stone bridge. Before reaching the point we designed to occupy we were met by another order to march immediately to Manassas Junction, as an attack was apprehended that night. Although it was now after sunset, and my men had had no food all day, when the command to march to Manassas was given they cheerfully took the route to that place. On arriving in the immediate neighborhood of that place I was directed to carry my command to Camp Walker, a mile or two below. This place we reached late at night, and our wearied men threw themselves on the ground and slept till morning. On the 22d we were ordered back to our former position on Bull Run, and the next day to the position we now occupy, near suspension bridge, on Cub Run.

Too much praise cannot be awarded to the Eighteenth Regiment for their conduct during the memorable action of the 21st. Officers and men, with one or two individual exceptions, exhibited the utmost coolness and determined bravery. The last charge made by them was most brilliant and successful, and enabled us to retain possession of their cannon. I believe these pieces had been captured once or twice before during the action, but I claim for the Eighteenth the honor of holding the guns and turning them upon the enemy.

During the action Lieutenant-Colonel Carrington and Major Cabell rendered efficient and valuable service, as did Adjutant Withers and all the staff officers. Indeed, the officers generally displayed so much valor and determination that it would be invidious to draw distinctions. The whole command, indeed, exhibited a steadiness under fire remarkable for raw troops.

Considering the length of time we were under fire our loss was very small. I append the report.(#)

Captain Matthews, Company H, was among the wounded, but fortunately not very seriously. No other commissioned officer was hurt.

I would respectfully mention the necessity that exists for supplying many of the men with knapsacks, blankets, &c. As they advanced into battle, by my orders they threw away everything except their guns and ammunition, and, having subsequently marched to Camp Walker the same night, they had no opportunity of getting their clothing and blankets again.

I would also request that those of my companies who are now armed with the smooth-bore altered musket may be permitted to exchange them for the more efficient Enfield or minie gun.

With much respect, I am, your most obedient servant,

R. E. WITHERS,

Colonel Eighteenth Regiment Virginia Volunteers

Col. PHILIP ST. GEORGE COCKE,

Commanding Fifth Brigade, Virginia Volunteers.

*The nominal list shows 6 killed, 23 wounded, and 1 missing.

#Which shows 5 killed, 16 wounded, and 1 missing.





#100 – Brig. Gen. James Longstreet

26 03 2008

 

Report of Brig. Gen. James Longstreet, C. S. Army, Commanding Fourth Brigade, First Corps

O.R.– SERIES I–VOLUME 2 [S# 2] — CHAPTER IX, pp 543-544

HEADQUARTERS FOURTH BRIGADE, July 28, 1861

In obedience to the general’s orders of the 20th to assume the offensive, my command was moved across Bull Run at an early hour on the 21st. I found my troops much exposed to the fire of the enemy’s artillery, my front being particularly exposed to a double cross-fire as well as a direct one. Garland’s regiment, Eleventh Virginia, was placed in position to carry by assault the battery immediately in my front. McRae’s regiment, Fifth North Carolina, under Lieutenant-Colonel Jones, the colonel being sick, was posted in front of the battery on my right, and with same purpose in regard to this battery. Strong bodies of skirmishers were thrown out in front of each column, with orders to lead in the assault, and at the same time to keep up a sharp fire, so as to confuse as much as possible the fire of the enemy, and thereby protect the columns, which were not to fire again before the batteries were ours. The columns were to be supported, the first by the First Virginia Regiment, under Major Skinner, the second by the Seventeenth Virginia Regiment, under Colonel Corse. The Twenty-fourth Virginia Regiment, trader Colonel Hairston, was the reserve in column of division in mass, convenient to the support of either column. Arrangements being complete, the troops were ordered to lie down and cover themselves from the artillery fire as much as possible.

About an hour after my position was taken it was discovered by a reconnaissance made by Colonels Terry and Lubbock that the enemy was moving in heavy columns towards our left, the position that the general had always supposed he would take. This information was at once sent to headquarters, and I soon received orders to fall back upon my original position, the right bank of the run. Colonels Terry and Lubbock then volunteered to make a reconnaissance of the position of the enemy’s batteries. They made a very gallant and complete one, and a hasty sketch of his entire left. This information was forwarded to the commanding general, with the suggestion that the batteries be taken.

The general’s orders were promptly issued to that effect, and I again moved across the run, but some of the troops ordered to co-operate failed to get their orders. After awaiting the movement some time, I received a peculiar order to hold my position only. In a few minutes, however, the enemy were reported routed, and I was again ordered forward. The troops were again moved across the run and advanced towards Centreville, the Fifth North Carolina Regiment being left to hold the ford. Advancing to the attack of the routed column I had the First, Eleventh, Seventeenth, and Twenty-fourth Virginia Regiments, Garnett’s section of the Washington Artillery, and Whitehead’s troop of cavalry. The artillery and cavalry were at once put in pursuit, followed as rapidly as possible by the infantry.

General Bonham, who was pursuing on our left, finding it difficult to advance through the fields, &c., moved his command to the road, put it in advance of mine, and the march towards Centreville was continued about a mile farther. Night coming on, the general deemed it advisable to halt. After lying in this position about an hour the general directed that the troops should be marched back to Bull Run for water.

Early next day I sent Colonel Terry forward, under the protection of Captain Whitehead’s troop, to pick up stragglers, ordnance, ordnance stores, and other property that had been abandoned by the enemy. I have been too much occupied to get the names or the number of prisoners. As I had no means of taking care of them I at once sent them to headquarters.  Colonel Terry captured the Federal flag said to have been made, in anticipation of victory, to be hoisted over our position at Manassas. He also shot from the cupola of the court-house at Fairfax the Federal flag left there. These were also duly forwarded to the commanding general.

About noon of the 22d Colonel Garland was ordered with his regiment to the late battle-ground to collect and preserve the property, &c., that had been abandoned in that direction. Colonel Garland’s report and inventory of other property and stores brought in to headquarters and listed by Captain Sorrel, of my staff, and the regimental reports of killed and wounded are herewith inclosed.(*)

My command, although not actively engaged against the enemy, was under the fire of his artillery for nine hours during the day. The officers and men exhibited great coolness and patience during the time.

To our kind and efficient medical officers, Surgeons Cullen, Thornhill, and Lewis, Assistant Surgeons Maury, Chalmers, and Snowden, we owe many thanks. Lieut. F. S. Armistead, acting assistant adjutant-general, and Lieut. P. T. Manning were very active and zealous.

Volunteer Staff.–Colonel Riddick, assistant adjutant-general, North Carolina, was of great assistance in conveying orders, assisting in the distribution of troops, and infusing proper spirit among them. Cols. B. F. Terry and T. Lubbock were very active and energetic. When unoccupied, they repeatedly volunteered their services to make reconnaissances. They were very gallantly seconded by Capts. T. Goree and Chichester, who were also very useful in conveying orders. Capts. T. Walton and C. M. Thompson were very active and prompt in the discharge of their duties. Captain Sorrel joined me as a volunteer aide in the midst of the fight. He came into the battle as gaily as a beau, and seemed to receive orders which threw him into more exposed positions with peculiar delight.

I remain, sir, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

JAMES LONGSTREET,

Brigadier-General

(*) Not Found, but see pp. 570, 571








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