Comments : Leave a Comment »
Tags: Civil War Trust, Digital History, Facebook, Henry Hill, History on Film
Categories : Digital History, Facebook, History on Film, The Battle, The Battlefield
Comments : 1 Comment »
Tags: Civil War Trust, Digital History, Facebook, Garry Adelman, Henry Hill, History on Film
Categories : Digital History, Facebook, History on Film, The Battle
I’ve been hemming and hawing over one of the things I’ve been working on with regards to the “history” of the First Battle of Bull Run these past many months. “Working” is a relative term, and in this case it consists mostly of thinking. I’ve been firming up these thoughts, writing things down, pulling together sources, and most important bouncing them off a few people whose opinions I respect. So here’s the nutshell: I believe that the standard story of what Irvin McDowell was trying to do, and what he expected to confront, with regards to Beauregard’s force outside Manassas – which typically is covered within no more than a paragraph in most (maybe all) studies of the campaign written within the last, oh, say, 90 years – is not right. That is, it is not supported by the primary documents, and it is not supported by McDowell’s actions up to and including July 21st, 1861. Or, at least, there is an alternative interpretation.
Lots of factors play into this. As a wise man once said:
This is a very complicated case, Maude. You know, a lotta ins, lotta outs, lotta what-have-you’s. And, uh, lotta strands to keep in my head, man. Lotta strands in old Duder’s head. Luckily I’m adhering to a pretty strict, uh, drug regimen to keep my mind limber.
OK, except for the drug regimen it applies (mine is not really all that strict.) Thankfully a few of the assumptions of the accepted line of thought are refuted so thoroughly by the documentary evidence that there’s little room for argument (at least, in my mind.) This weekend I was very encouraged by a knowledgeable and respected military historian who implied, or at least from whom I inferred, that I’m not completely nuts. More on this as we get closer to the big reveal in Columbus come March.
Comments : 2 Comments »
Tags: Articles, Irvin McDowell, McDowell's Plan
Categories : Articles, The Battle
As I’ve no doubt mentioned before, I’ve been s-l-o-w-l-y annotating a 1911 Cosmopolitan article written by Peter Conover Hains, The First Gun at Bull Run. Fresh out of West Point, at First Bull Run Lieutenant Hains was in command of a 30-pdr Parrott rifle, detached from Company G of the 1st U. S. Artillery. The gun, generally referred to as Long Tom, was chosen to fire the opening shot of the battle of July 21st, and did so right around 6 A. M. (accounts of the precise time vary.) While just about every study of the battle written after 1911 relies to varying degrees on Hains’s memoir, there’s a lot wrong with it; some things just don’t jive with the facts. So I’ve decided to not take anything Hains writes in this piece at face value. Including this:
I was assigned to train a gun-crew over at what is now known as Fort Meyer, Virginia, just across the river from Washington. It was a great gun – a thirty-pounder Parrott rifle, drawn by ten horses as green as could be, horses from the farm that had not been trained even to pull together. There were five riders or drivers, one man to each pair, and six men rode the caisson and limber as cannoneers. Two wagons followed, carrying the ammunition. Some two hundred men were attached to the gun to escort it, to help it along, and to render whatever aid I needed. In all two hundred and fifty men filed out with the gun in July when I received orders to report to General Tyler at Alexandria, Virginia.
Two hundred men attached as escort? Why so darn many? Well, it’s not as odd as it may sound, all things considered:
We sallied forth. The roads promised much, and at first the gun behaved very well indeed. But we soon came to a hill. The ten horses threw themselves into their collars. The gun started up a bit, then the pace slowed, paused, and – then the giant gun began slowly to drift backward down the grade. We quickly blocked the wheels , and there were no brakes. I rode up and down the line, cheering on the men. The drivers yelled, and lashed their horses; the ten animals strained and tugged – but the gun remained motionless.
“Get out the prolonges ,” I ordered, and these lines, of about three-inch rope and knotted together to about a hundred feet in length, were quickly hooked to the axle of the gun. Two hundred men instantly trailed onto them. With wild yells and cheers they started that gun forward, the ten horses and two hundred men soon dragging it upward to the crest. It was great. And most of us were very young indeed.
That makes sense. But, who were these 200 men (though I can’t figure out how you get 200 men to pull on a 100 foot rope)? It’s likely they were infantry. So, from what regiments were they detached? I’ve been keeping an eye out in letters for some mention of the detachment here and there of small groups, or even one or two large ones. But I did stumble across one reference, in Alan Gaff’s history of the 2nd Wisconsin at First Bull Run, If This is War pp. 186-187:
Captain Ayres’ battery unlimbered well in front of Captain Stevens’ Company A behind a screen of bushes and trees, while the thirty-pound Parrott rifled cannon, manned by a detachment under Lieutenant Peter C. Hains, was positioned right in the road. The Parrott gun had proved to be almost impossible to manage, requiring large detachments of horses and men to manhandle it over the hills and valleys. While the Wisconsin regiment occupied the position in support of the artillery, Lieutenant Tom Bishop and thirty men from Company I were detailed to assist Hains and did not serve with the main body during the remainder of the day.
Gaff cites the Daily Wisconsin 8/21/1861; Milwaukee Sentinel 7/30/1861; Wisconsin State Journal 7/30/1861; Mineral Point Tribune, 8/6/1861; a letter in a manuscript collection; and Tyler’s report (which doesn’t mention the detachment) for the above. I’ll try to find the two newspaper letters, maybe in the Quiner Collection. But it would appear that detachments of infantry were assigned to assist Hains at various points. But in the case of the 2nd WI, it was as support.
Also in If This is War I found a reference to another nickname for the 30-pdr Parrott, The Baby-Waker. I first heard the term during a tour years ago, but haven’t run across any other use except for this in Gaff, p. 187:
“At precisely 6 o’clock” Lieutenant Hains ordered his gunners to fire the monster Parrott rifle, dubbed “President Lincoln’s Baby-waker” by the Badgers.
The sources for the above paragraph are the Wisconsin State Journal of July 30, 1861 and the Milwaukee Sentinel of the same date, and a letter in a manuscript collection. More work to do!
UPDATE: Reader Jonathan Soffe, who hosts a great site on First Bull Run, contributes the following:
Two companies of the 11th Massachusetts Infantry, under the command of Captain J H Davis, Company B, were assigned to escort Hains on the march to Centreville on 16 July, 1861.
[This is from] A Narrative of the Formation and Services of the Eleventh Massachusetts Volunteers, from 15 April, 1861, to 14 July, 1865, by Gustavus B Hutchinson [p. 22]
“When the regiment arrived at the road leading to Fairfax, Companies A and G were left, under the command of Capt. Davis, to escort a detachment having in charge a thirty-pound Parrott gun, which, on account of the bad road, they were unable to bring up until the next morning.”
Comments : 5 Comments »
Tags: 2nd Wisconsin, Articles, Peter Hains, U. S. Artillery
Categories : Articles, The Battle
A few weeks ago I received a copy of Blaikie Hines’s The Battle of First Bull Run Manassas Campaign – July 16-22, 1861: An Illustrated Atlas and Battlefield Guide. Anything with a title like that deserves some attention from a blog with a name like this one’s, and I plan on going into deeper detail with an author interview in the future, but I just wanted to get the word out. This is a pretty nice book, even if it does have several elements that are eerily similar to something I’ve been working on myself. No, I’m not accusing anyone of espionage, and really it’s only one of many elements in this book and on a much smaller scale than what I’m thinking about. Mr. Hines gave Bull Runnings a very nice acknowledgement (no, I did not see or even hear of this one until it was finished), but I’ll use that to point out a problem with the book: the web address in the acknowledgement is wrong. He left out the “.wordpress” part of it. No, I’m not whining, but here’s why I bring it up: this book is self-published. There’s nothing wrong with that in and of itself, but a problem often seen in self-published works is weak editing. The narrative here does suffer from typos and grammatical errors that drive a Chicago Manual of Style toting geek like me to distraction. Call me pedantic, call me what you will. I’m not going to dwell on the mistakes of grammar, punctuation, or fact at this point.
OK, now that we have that out of the way, let me briefly describe this oversized, landscape oriented book. It’s paperback, and the pages are a glossy, heavy stock. That’s good for taking out onto the field, and that’s where it’s meant to be taken. The layout is a little unconventional, but Hines has touched all the bases, giving an overview of events leading up to the battle, descriptions of the players, plenty of photographs (many labeled with landmarks), various maps including some utilizing satellite imagery, orders of battle, then and now photos, narrative vignettes, descriptions of arms, equipment, and uniforms, I can go on. At first glance, here’s what I think: if you have a particular interest in First Bull Run, you really should get your hands on a copy, if you can afford it. Stay tuned here for more.
Comments : 3 Comments »
Tags: ACW Books, Articles, Blaikie Hines
Categories : Articles, Books, bull run, Maps of Bull Run, The Battle, The Battlefield
Over the past week or so I’ve been sharing on Facebook and retweeting on Twitter various articles, images, and videos relating to the Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) that have swamped the web as the 150th anniversary of the battle approached and was commemorated. There were a bunch of them. Here are links to a few of the more significant items (I’ll add to this any that pop up afterwards, too). There are some worthy of posting to the resources section, and as I check them out and get any necessary permissions I will do so. Get comfortable, this will take a while. If I missed anything big, let me know!
Update 8/3/2011: I noticed I had fouled up a few of these links. I think they’re fixed now, so check them out again if you couldn’t get through.
Good Battle Stuff
- 2nd ME at Bull Run
- 4th SC at Bull Run
- 8th GA at Bull Run
- 17th VA at Blackburn’s Ford
- Alexander Wilken of 1st MN to His Father After the Battle – Private Correspondence
- Captain James Haggerty of the 69th NYSM
- The Campbell Rangers of the 30th VA
- Capture of Ambrose Burnside’s Valet
- Conduct of McDowell’s Army on Virginia Part I
- Conduct of McDowell’s Army in Virginia Part II
- Confederate Slaves at Bull Run
- Encyclopedia Virginia’s Entry on First Bull Run
- Fayetteville Observer Reports on the 6th NC in the Battle – Newspaper Article
- J. A. McPherson of 6th NC Reports on Battle – Private Correspondence in Fayetteville Observer
- James McKay Rorty of the 69th NYSM
- John Casler of the 33rd VA
- John Grabil of the 33rd VA
- Marcus Conant, 11th MA, POW
- Mary Henry, Daughter of Smithsonian Sec’y, Recalls the Battle – includes diary entries and images
- Raleigh Register Reports on Return of 6th NC’s Col. Fisher – Newspaper Article
- St. Paul Daily Press on “Want of Cavalry” at the Battle – Newspaper Article
- Weather on the Day of the Battle
- William Hite of the 33rd VA
- Craig Swain on Identity and Bull Run
- Ed Ayres on the Meaning of Bull Run
- Gary Gallagher: Where Ignorant Armies Clash
- James Lundberg on “On to Richmond”
- Robert Moore on Familial Connections to the Battle
- Robinson House (Not) On the Battlefield
- Dennis Frye on the 2nd VA in Manassas Campaign Part I
- Dennis Frye on the 2nd VA in Manassas Campaign Part II
- Ethan Rafuse on First Bull Run for Gettysburg College Civil War Institute
- Loretta Velasquez Reenactor
- Maine at Bull Run
- Panel Discussion – Mobilizing for War, Gettysburg College Civil War Institute
- Peter Carmichael Gives Overview of 1861 for Gettysburg College Civil War Institute
- Ray Brown’s Tour for Gettysburg College Civil War Institute
- Renee Fleming Reads Sullivan Ballou
Comments : 2 Comments »
Tags: Articles, Blogroll, Digital History, Sesquicentennial
Categories : Articles, Civil War Blogroll, Civil War On the Web, The Battle
Craig Swain has this very cool bit giving a virtual tour of the critical gun positions at Bull Run. Check it out!
Comments : Leave a Comment »
Tags: Articles, Artillery, Blogroll, Craig Swain, Digital History, To The Sount of the Guns
Categories : Articles, Civil War Blogroll, Civil War On the Web, Digital History, The Battle