I know, they weren’t there (they didn’t reach Manassas Junction from the Valley until July 22). See this post by Andy Hall at his blog Dead Confederates for more on reports of a “Regiment” of black Confederate soldiers at First Bull Run.
I know, they weren’t there (they didn’t reach Manassas Junction from the Valley until July 22). See this post by Andy Hall at his blog Dead Confederates for more on reports of a “Regiment” of black Confederate soldiers at First Bull Run.
Back on March 26 I received an email from reader Griff Bartlett. He had a letter from his great-grandfather, a member of the Washington Artillery at Bull Run, to his brother-in-law. The letter describes the fighting at Blackburn’s Ford on July 18, and was printed in the New Orleans Sunday Delta on July 28, 1861,
Mr. Bartlett included his source for the letter, two typewritten pages numbered 52 & 53. I wanted to at least get the publication info on the book to include in my citation for the letter. Griff wrote back that the images were all he had, and that he had acquired them from the library at the Jackson Barracks in Louisiana. So I checked into things on the internet and found a phone number. After a couple calls I was put in touch with Richard Holloway, archivist for the Louisiana National Guard at Camp Beauregard in Pineville, Louisiana. I described the images to him (and later forwarded them) and he immediately recognized them as part of a set of Works Progress Administration (WPA) volumes that collected and transcribed LA newspaper accounts of LA military units and events from the 1700s up to the 1920s.
So far Mr. Holloway has sent me 30 pages of Bull Run related items from one of the volumes. He has yet to locate the volume containing the two pages provided by Mr. Bartlett, but there was some damage to the library collection as a result of Hurricane Katrina and the volume may have been temporarily misplaced (the collection did undergo extensive preservation and restoration efforts). Mr. Holloway has indicated that there is plenty more where these 30 pages came from.
The long and short of it: this is a great news for Bull Runnings. I’ll have plenty of Louisiana primary accounts to put into the Bull Run Resources section of this site, thanks to Mr. Bartlett and Mr. Holloway.
Thanks to Brett Schulte (one link for each name) for sending the welcome news that the National Tribune is now available online here. This is outstanding news to me, though as Brett explains there are some issues with searchability.
The National Tribune was a publication for Union veterans of the Civil War. Think Confederate Veteran for the good guys. It published first as a monthly, then as a weekly from, 1877 to 1917. It featured current news of interest to vets, but also had contributions from readers recounting the glory days. Columns like Fighting Them Over featured back and forth between veterans with often wildly conflicting recollections of events.
Now all we need is a good, searchable text version. But hey, this is a start. Hopefully I’ll have the patience to start going through and picking out the Bull Run stuff. If any of you readers has an index, that would make things much easier for me…
UPDATE: A reader notes that there are issues missing and this is not a complete run – but it’s more than we’ve had.
Stuart Salling over at Louisiana in the Civil War has this interesting article on what compelled P. G. T. Beauregard to adopt the Rebel battle flag. Check it out. I’ll try to find the original Richmond Daily Dispatch article and put it in the resources section.
Photo courtesy of Craig Swain.
The article is from the Steubenville Daily Herald on August 27, 1861.
The Long Lost “Teen Johnson” turns up at Washington – Has been Impressed into the Secesh Army – His sad Experience of Southern Hospitality and Respect for a “Mud-sill.”
The following letter, with accompanying report, came to hand this morning:
Washington, Aug. 23d, 1861
W.R. Allison – Dear Sir:
The following I found in this evening’s Star – After reading it, in company with Ed. D. Collier, Esq., I repaired to the Central Guard House, and there found the identical, long lost “Teen” Johnson. He looks a little worse for the wear, but is in good spirits waiting a pass from General McClellan to get home. He will, no doubt, reach Steubenville in a few days, where I bespeak him a kind reception from his relation and friends; if coming through “great fires” and hard treatment should entitle him to such, he certainly deserves it.
Your friend, &c
There is now at the Central Guard house in this city a man by the name of Augustine Johnson, who was formerly a citizen of Steubenville, Ohio, where has has or had a few months since a mother and four children living. In the last four months his experiences have not been of the most agreeable kind, as will be seen on reading the following narrative of his adventures during that time. He is quite intelligent, and gave us this morning a detailed account of his “moving accidents by flood and field,” his “hair breadth ‘scapes,” &c. from which we condense the following statement:
Early last spring he embarked on a flatboat for New Orleans, where he arrived after a trip abounding with the usual incidents of life on the river. On the 25th day of April last he and many other Northern men were impressed into the rebel service. To distinguish these Northern VOLUNTEERS from the chivalry their heads were closely shaved so that they might be easily spotted. It was Mr. Johnson’s fate to fall into the 1st Special Battalion of New Orleans, Major Wheat commanding. After much suffering for want of proper food and clothing the battalion found themselves at Manassas Junction, Mr. J. suffering more than his comrades because he was suspected on account of his northern birth. We omit an account of many painful incidents and come at once to the battle of “Stone Bridge,” or “Bull Run.” Major Wheat’s battalion was stationed on the extreme left – our extreme right. Near him was a South Carolina regiment under cover of the pines, separated by an open space from the Federal Infantry, also under cover. Major Wheat advanced his men into this open space and was fired on by the South Carolina regiment. Somewhat confused by this unexpected attack from friends, the battalion wavered, and a deadly fire poured in by the Federal troops, Major Wheat being the first to fall. The loss of life by that line was terrible. Near Mr. Johnson were two other northern men. One of them David Vance of Philadelphia, was instantly killed. The other, a comrade and warm friend of Johnson’s, an Illinoisan, named John H. Hutchinson, was shot under the eye. He was in such agony that Johnson carried him from the field a long way to the hospital, occasionally resting with the wounded man’s head on his lap.
After taking his friend to the hospital, he thought the time had come to try an escape, as in the confusion there were no pickets out. He took his gun and started westward, up a ravine. After getting a considerable distance from the battlefield, he threw away his gun and cartridge box. The uniform of the battalion was cotton pants of the mixed color known as pepper and salt, and a red shirt. Under his red shirt, Johnson had a checkered cotton shirt. He now changed these by putting the checkered shirt outside and the red one under, expecting instant death if he was arrested as a deserter. He heard the firing all day on Sunday and traveled away from it in a Northwest direction. At night he took two shucks of wheat and made a bed, on which he slept soundly, and was awakened by the rain on Monday morning. He shortly afterwards reached a Quaker settlement in Loudoun county, where he found a haven of rest, being kindly taken care of for some weeks. Being anxious to reach his home, he left Loudoun on Friday last and came by way of Harper’s Ferry to this city, where he is waiting for a pass to enable him to go over the roads without interruption, he having no funds to defray his expenses by railroad.
Mr. Johnson says he did not receive one cent of pay whilst in the Confederate service. He says that Loudoun county is devastated, as if it had been overrun by locusts. The horses and wagons have all been seized and the grain and other provisions carried off, barely leaving temporary subsistence for the old people and children left at home.
A while back I posted An Ohio Man’s Experience in the Rebel Army, which is filed in the resources section under Newspaper Accounts – CSA. That bit was sent to me by friend Jon-Erik Gilot. Jon-Erik has forwarded another contemporary newspaper account that sheds a little more light on this story. I’ll post that later today (or tomorrow) and also link to it in the resources section.
Southern Historical Society Papers
Vol. XXXII. Richmond, Va., January-December. 1904, pp. 174-178
Company C, 4th Virginia Infantry, at the First Battle of Manassas, July 18, 1861
THE ORIGINAL REBEL YELL
With Prefatory Note by U. S. Senator, J. W. Daniel
BY J. B. CADDALL
[From the Richmond, Va., Times-Dispatch, Nov. 27, 1904]
Editor of The Times-Dispatch:
SIR,–In forming his line of battle at first Manassas Jackson placed the 4th Virginia Infantry, under Colonel James F. Preston, in rear of his artillery as an immediate support, and the 27th Virginia Infantry, under Lieutenant-Colonel John Echols, in close order directly behind the 4th. The two regiments, except without the line of the 4th, was larger than the 29th, on account of its larger numbers, appeared as one body, four ranks deep. To the left of those two regiments, and almost at a right angle, was the 5th Virginia, under Colonel Kenton Harper, and to their left in the woods, were the 2d Virginia, under Colonel James W. Allen (who was afterwards killed at Gaines’ Mill) and then the 33d Virginia, under Colonel Arthur Cummings, constituted the left flank of the brigade.
When the critical juncture came, Jackson galloped to the right of the Fourth Virginia, called for Colonel Preston, told him in a few sharp words to “order the men behind, up,” and to “charge and drive them to Washington!” “Attention!” “Forward march!” “Left oblique march!” were the commands quickly given; “left oblique,” an order to press the left flank of our artillery, which was between our infantry and Pickett’s and Griffin’s guns, which were to be charged.
Mr. J. B. Caddall, of Pulaski, was then in the 4th Virginia, and he gives an account, afterwards endorsed, with some interesting incidents of this regiment.
It is a notable fact that Jackson’s brigade line furnished the first immovable obstacle to McDowell’s advance, for while all the troops acted gallantly that day those previously engaged had been unable to withstand the weight of numbers thrown against them. The first stand of Jackson and his timely onset, alike checked, halted and repulsed the enemy, and then joined with arriving reinforcements, in driving them from the field.
Mr. Caddall calls attention to the fact that “the rebel yell” made its first appearance in the cheer of Jackson’s men in their charge.
The “four deep” line of the 4th and 27th Virginia was a formation that we do not hear of on any other field. It proved particularly fortunate and efficient on this occasion, but it escapes the notice of most historians, even of Colonel Henderson, one of the most accurate, as well as most wise, graphic and brilliant of military writers. The heaviest loss on Jackson’s regiment fell upon the 27th Virginia, which, namely, 141 killed and wounded, nineteen of whom were killed, and this gallant little regiment was afterwards called “The bloody Twenty-seventh.”
JOHN W. DANIEL
Lynchburg, Va., November 18, 1904
THE PULASKI GUARDS
On the 23d of April, 1861, in the old City Hall, in Richmond, “The Pulaski Guards,” commanded by Captain James A. Walker, was mustered into the service of the State of Virginia by Colonel John B. Baldwin, of Staunton, inspector-general of the militia of the State.
This company, which had been organized a year or more previously, was composed of sixty strong, stalwart young men, ranging in their ages principally from eighteen to thirty years, though there were several older men who had seen service in the United States army in Mexico, and with General Albert Sidney Johnston on the Western plains. Among the veterans were R. D. Gardner, first lieutenant of the company, later noted for his coolness and courage in leading his regiment as lieutenant-colonel into battle; Theophilus J. Cocke, Robert Lorton, John Owens, and David Scantlon, the company’s drummer.
This company, designated as “Company C,” constituted a part of the newly organized 4th Regiment of Virginia infantry, under the command of Colonel James F. Preston, who had been a captain in the Mexican war. The 4th Regiment was ordered to Harper’s Ferry, where it was organized into a brigade, with the 2d, 5th, 27th and 33d Virginia Regiments, and the brigade was known as the 1st Brigade of the Army of the Shenandoah. This brigade was commanded by Brigadier-General T. J. Jackson, and constituted a part of General Joseph E. Johnston’s command in the Valley of Virginia on the 18th of July, 1861. General Johnston, with his forces from the Valley, was ordered to join General Beauregard at Manassas. In the disposition of the forces, Beauregard occupied a line along Bull Run on July 21, 1861. General Johnston was on his left, with his line thrown back at something like a right angle below the stone bridge, to protect the left flank of the army. Jackson’s brigade was placed on the left of Hampton, Bartow and Bee, which commands had previously taken positions on the field, and General Jackson made the following disposition of his force: The Rockbridge Artillery, under the Rev. W. N. Pendleton, as captain, which had been attached to the brigade, was placed in position on the crest of the hill to the right of the Henry house, commanding the plateau towards the stone house on the Sudley road. Immediately in the rear of and supporting this battery was the 4th Regiment, under Colonel James F. Preston, with the 27th Regiment, under Lieutenant-Colonel John Echols, formed a few paces in its rear. The 5th Regiment was on the right of the brigade, and the 33d and 2d Virginia Regiments on the left. This position was maintained for two hours in a broiling July sun in an open field, subjected to a fire from the artillery of the enemy from which the two regiments, 4th and 27th, immediately in rear of the battery, suffered serious loss.
At about 3 o’clock the enemy had pushed forward a strong column of infantry and artillery, and had arrived in close proximity of Jackson’s left flank near the Henry House. At this time the men of the 4th Regiment were lying flat on their faces on the ground in the rear of the battery to escape the heavy artillery fire of the enemy when we were called to attention and ordered forward on the double-quick, and on an oblique move to the left over a stake and brush fence, through a skirt of pines and subject to a heavy fire of musketry. In a very few minutes we were in close contact with the ranks of the enemy of which a very conspicuous body was a Zouave Regiment from New York, with highly decorated uniforms, consisting of loosely fitting red breeches, blue blouses, with Turkish tassel as headgear. Jackson’s men rushed at them, with fixed bayonets, every man yelling at the top of his voice. Here was the origin of the “Rebel yell,” which afterwards became so conspicuous in later battles of the Army of Northern Virginia. The men fired as rapidly as they could load their old smooth-bore muskets, and in a few minutes the Confederates were in full possession of that part of the field, and a fine battery of field artillery, Ricketts, which was in position near the Henry House, was captured.
The charge of Jackson’s brigade on that day turned the tide of battle, which to that time had seemed against the Confederates, and in a short time there was not to be seen an organized body of Federals south of Bull Run, but their forces were in rapid retreat toward Washington.
Company “C,” of which the writer was a member, was the color, or flag company of the regiment, and suffered a heavy loss–seven killed and twenty-three wounded. The flagstaff was shot in two, the color-bearer immediately repairing the damage by lashing a bayonet over the break and proceeded with the regiment in the charge.
David H. Scantlon, who was an enlisted member of Company C, 4th Virginia Infantry (Pulaski Guards), had seen service in the Mexican war and was an expert drummer. He was noted for his orderly habits and his strict obedience and observance of military discipline. He was drummer for the volunteer company before entering the Confederate army, and they had bought for his use a handsome brass kettle drum, which had a clear, ringing tone. Scantlon prized this drum very highly, and at all times exercised for it the most scrupulous care. In the army he was chief drummer for the regiment, and always seemed filled with enthusiasm when, with two other drums and the shrill notes of a couple of fifes playing “Highland Mary,” or “The Girl I Left Behind Me,” he marched at the head of the regiment at dress parade or in review.
Scantlon accompanied the 4th Regiment in the charge of the battle of Manassas, and after the capture of the Rickett’s Battery, the regiment being in some confusion, he was ordered by Colonel Preston to beat “the rally,” which he immediately proceeded to do, after first having turned his back to the enemy. On being asked by an officer near him why he turned his back to the enemy, he replied:
“Do you suppose I want the Yankees to shoot a hole through my new brass drum?”
One more humorous incident: While the 4th was lying in the rear of the Rockbridge Artillery, the men flat on their faces to lessen the exposure to the heavy artillery fire of the enemy, and while their shells were shrieking very close over us or exploding about us, a member of the company was very zealously and earnestly calling upon the Lord for mercy, for protection, and for help in the time of such imminent danger. During his devotions he would tell the Lord that he had been all through Mexico, but he had never seen anything half so bad as that; just then another shell would whistle over in very close proximity, when with the greatest earnestness he would exclaim:
“Oh, Lord, have mercy on me!”
At this point a comrade near his side would respond: “Me, too, Lord,” whether from inability to frame his own supplications or in a spirit of humor, no one then present took occasion to enquire.
J. B. CADDALL
Co. C, 4th Va. Infantry
Thanks to Art Bergeron for sending along this article on the meeting between two brothers at Bull Run. Art sent along the following information on the brothers:
Hubbard, Fred L., Pvt. 3rd Co. Battn. Washington Arty. La. En. May 26, 1861, at New Orleans. La. Roll for July and Aug., Present, sustained injury of right arm. July 21, 1861. Roll for Sept. and Oct., 1861, Discharged Oct. 30, 1861, order of Gen. Beauregard. Record copied from Memorial Hall, New Orleans, La., by the War Dept., Washington, D. C., May, 1903, born New York, age when enlisted 22, single, occupation clerk, Res. New Orleans, La. Right arm injured July 21, 1861. Discharged Oct. 30, 1861. Andrew B. Booth, Records of Louisiana Confederate Soldiers and Louisiana Confederate Commands (New Orleans, 1920)
Hubbard, Henry A., Pvt., Co. H, 1st Minnesota Infantry Regiment. Mustered in April 29, 1861, age 20. Wounded at Bull Run. Discharged for disability December 15, 1861. See www.1stminnesota.net and search for his name in the rosters.
Hillsborough (NC) Recorder, August 14, 1861
Frederick Hubbard of the New Orleans Washington Artillery, and Henry Hubbard, of the 1st Minnesota Infantry, brothers, were both wounded at Manassas, fighting on opposite sides, and after the battle met for the first time in seven years in a stable, where they and nine other wounded men were laid. The artilleryman being the less wounded, was found ministering to his brother. And the case excited so much interest that a surgeon at once dressed the Yankee’s wounds and had him removed to his own hospital.
Richmond Daily Dispatch, August 1, 1861
Camp Near Manassas, July 27th, 1861
To the Editors of the Dispatch:
–I, together with several other gentlemen from Montgomery, a day or two ago, witnessed one of the most singular, at the same time most affecting incidents which will probably occur during this unholy and unnatural war, if it should last for twenty years. We were straggling over the battle-field, examining the ground upon which we had such a bloody conflict and won such a glorious victory, two days before. We came unexpectedly into the Centreville road and seeing a house upon our left with the usual signs betokening a hospital, one of our party being a physician, expressed a wish to get down and examine the wounded. Upon inquiry we learned that a stable just below the house contained thirteen wounded Yankees; we forth with proceeded to the stable, and upon entering found a Washington artilleryman seated by the side of a wounded soldier evidently ministering to him with great care and tenderness. I introduced myself to him and asked if he aided in working the battery which fought with the 1st Virginia Brigade. He told me he did not — he had fought in a battery lower down, and then remarked “that it was very hard to fight as he had fought and turn and find his own brother fighting against him, ” at the same time pointing to the wounded soldier from whose side he had just risen. I asked if it was possible that was his brother. “Yes, sir, he is my brother Henry. The same mother bore us — the same mother nursed us. We meet the first time for seven years. I belong to the Washington Artillery, from New Orleans — he to the 1st Minnesota Infantry. By the merest chance I learned he was here wounded, and sought him out to nurse and attend him. “–Thus they met–one from the far North, the other from the extreme South–on a bloody field in Virginia — in a miserable stable, far away from their mother, home and friends — both wounded — the infantryman by a musket ball in the right shoulder, the artilleryman by the wheel of a caisson over his left hand. Thus they met after an absence of seven years. Their names are Frederick Hubbard, Washington Artillery, and Henry Hubbard, 1st Minnesota Infantry. We met a surgeon of one of the Alabama regiments and related the case to him, and requested, for the sake of the artilleryman, that his brother might be cared for. He immediately examined and dressed his wounds, and sent off in haste for an ambulance to take the wounded “Yankee” to his own regimental hospital.
See notes here.
Image of newspaper page here.
First, thanks to Jon-Erik Gilot for sending this article to me. Good readers make good blogs. This is the kind of thing I was hoping for when I started this project.
Thanks also to two authorities on Louisiana troops who gave me valuable input. Gary Schreckengost is the author of this book on the First Special LA Battalion, and Art Bergeron of the U. S. Army Heritage & Education Center, still commonly referred to as USAMHI, is the author or editor of several books on Louisiana in the Civil War.
Gary provided the following:
All three men [Johnson, Vance & Hutchinson] are listed as being in Wheat’s original company, the Old Dominion Guards, which was the battalion’s first Company E and second Company D after the Guerrillas left. I believe your article is accurate. I’ve listed what’s in the combined service records. Below is what’s in the records [what Gary sent summarizes the info provided by Art] and what’s cool about this is [the article] gives us actual examples of names of the poor suckers who were shanghaied. The uniform, of course, was of his company and not the entire battalion as each company varied to a degree. The OD Guards most matched the other guards—the Walker Guards, Company A.
Art sent in a little more detail from the microfilmed Compiled Service Records in the National Archives, Microcopy No. 320.
Johnson, Aug., Pvt. New Co. D, 1st Special Battn. (Wheat’s) La. Inf. Roll for June 1 to June 30, 1861 (only Roll on file), states Present. Appears on a List of killed, wounded and missing, in the battle of Manassas, Va., July 21, 1861, dated August 29, 1861, “Wounded. Supposed to be dead, but cant be found.” M320, Roll 101
Vance, David, Pvt. New Co. D, 1st Special Battn. (Wheat’s) La. Inf. En. Camp Moore, La., Aug. 9, 1861. Present on Roll to June 30, 1861. Roll to Oct. 30, 1861, Present or absent not stated. Appears on a List of killed, wounded and missing in the battle of Manassas, Va., July 21, 1861, dated August 29, 1861, “Wounded in knee.” Roll Nov. and Dec., 1861, Absent, detached near Manassas. On Hospital Muster Roll of Hospitals at Camp Pickens, Manassas, Va., to Oct. 31, 1861, attached to hospital Oct. 1, cook, present. On Hospital Muster Roll of Hospitals at Camp Pickens, Manassas, Va., for Nov. and Dec. 1861, attached to hospital Oct. 1, cook, transferred to Moore Hospital Dec. 15, 1861. On Hospital Muster Roll of Moore Hospital, Manassas Junction, Va., for Nov. 1, 1861 to Feb. 28, 1862, attached to hospital Oct. 1, nurse, present. On Hospital Muster Roll of General Hospital, Danville, Va., for March and April 1862, attached to hospital Oct. 1, nurse, present. On Hospital Muster Roll of General Hospital, Danville, Va., for May and June 1862, attached to hospital Oct. 1, nurse, present. On a Receipt Roll for clothing, 1st Div. Gen. Hosp., Danville, Va., for 4th Qtr 1863, dates of issue Nov. 9, 21, Dec. 7. M320, Roll 101
Hutchinson, James H., Pvt. New Co. D, 1st Special Battn. (Wheat’s) La. Inf. En. June 9, 1861, Camp Moore, La. Rolls from June to Dec., 1861, Present. Appears on a List of killed, wounded and missing in the battle of Manassas, Va., July 21, 1861, dated Aug. 29, 1861, “Wounded severely in face.” On a Register of C. S. A. General Hospital, Charlottesville, Va., “wounded in face,”admitted July 22, 1861; returned to duty Aug. 31, 1861. On Register of Payments on Descriptive Lists, from Feb. 28 to May 31, 1862, paid June 30, $30.50. On Register of Payments to Discharged Soldiers, discharged Apr. 29, 1863; paid Apr. 29, 1863.
Hutchinson’s discharge payment certificate shows the following: James H. Hutchinson, Private, Captain O. P. Miller’s Co. D, Wheat’s Battalion Louisiana Volunteers. Born in Salem Co., N. J.; aged 23; 5 feet 8 inches high; light complexion; dark eyes; brown hair; occupation, boatman. Enlisted by Capt. Miller at New Orleans on April 25, 1861, for the war. Battalion disbanded by the Secretary of War August 15, 1863. Hutchinson was last paid to include May 30, 1862. Has pay due him from that date to August 15, 1862. Due him $50.00 bounty and $25.00 clothing. Given to him at Richmond on April 29, 1863. Signed by Major R. A. Harris. Paid $27.50 for two months and 15 days; travel from Richmond to New Orleans, $3.00; bounty, $50.00; clothing, $25.00; balance paid $105.50. Received from Major John Ambler (?) at Richmond on April 29, 1863. Hutchinson made his mark. M320, Roll 100.
Art’s not convinced of the impressment claim in the article. Personally, I’m going to need more convincing too. Anyone?
Art also sent me another article of an incident of the battle, an encounter between brothers who fought on opposite sides. I’ll have that for you in the near future.