Robert Hitchcock

22 05 2010

The letters from Lt. Robert Hitchcock, USMC to his parents prior to the Battle of Bull Run were part of a larger article published in the March/April, 1992 Civil War Times Illustrated.  The article consisted of several Hitchcock letters, annotated by David M. Sullivan and including biographical information on Hitchcock.

Robert Emmett Hitchcock: born 9/29/1839 Shoreham, VT; B. S. Norwich University, 1859; appealed to Vermont congressional delegation for a Marine Corps commission 4/1861; drilled recruits of 2nd VT Volunteer Infantry, Waterbury, VT 4/61 – 5/61; reported to Marine Barracks, Washington DC 6/12/61, and appointed 2nd Lt. to date from 6/5/61; with 1st Lt. Alan Ramsey commanded Company C of four companies of the battalion assigned to Porter’s brigade of Hunter’s Division of McDowell’s Army, 7/16/61; while providing support to Hasbrouck’s section of Griffin’s Co. D, 5th U. S. Artillery on Henry House Hill during Battle of First Bull Run, struck in the face by a Confederate shell and killed instantly, 7/21/61; body assumed buried by Confederates on the field and not recovered; memorial in Lakeview Cemetery, Shoreham, VT.

 

Photos from Findagrave.com.

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2nd Lt. Robert Hitchcock, USMC to His Parents on the Eve of Battle

20 05 2010

U. S. Marine Barracks

Washington, D. C.

July 14, 1861

Dear Parents,

Your letter came to hand yesterday.  I was very happy to hear from you at this time in particular.  Last night, after I passed down the line to receive the reports of the companies, I was met by Capt. Jones, who said to me, “Mr. Hitchcock, prepare to take the field on Monday morning.”  So tomorrow morning will see me and five other Lieuts. with 300 Marines, raw recruits in every sense of the term, on our way to Fairfax Court House to take part in a bloody battle which is to take place, it is thought, about Wednesday.  This is unexpected to us, and the Marines are not fit to go into the field, for every man of them is raw as you please, not more than a hundred of them have been here over three weeks.  We have no camp equipage of any kind, not even tents, and after all this, we are expected to take the brunt of battle.  We are to be commanded by Major Reynolds, I suppose.  We shall do as well as we can under the circumstances: just think of it, 300 raw men in the field!  We shall drill all day and work hard.  I have been very busy all day thus far but have taken a little time to write you.  I have left my things with Lieut. Wm. H. Parker, and my watch also.  He has my address and will take good care of my clothes, watch, etc.  By writing to him you can find out about my matters.  In case anything happens to me, he will send my things to you, and you can do as you like with them.  Lieuts. Baker, Burrough and Parker will be left here at the Barracks, and any of them would be pleased to ive you information in regard to me or my matters.  I hope the God of Battles will give me strength and wisdom to act wisely, and do my duty well.  I am not prepared to die, but I am prepared to serve my country, and stand by the Stars and Stripes till the last.  I am well and in good spirits.  May God bless you all, is the wish of your

Affectionate Son,

Robt.

P. S.  My love to all, and best regards to all my friends.  I am just informed that we leave tomorrow evening.

—————————

Camp near Centreville, Virginia

Head Quarters Battalion Marines

Col. Porter’s Brigade,

Corps Reserve

July 20th , 1861

Dear Parents,

We have been in the field nearly a week now and have not had an engagement yet.  The enemy has fled before us as we approached their different positions.  We expected to have a fight at Fairfax Court House but as we approached their works they fled leaving a great quantity of flour, Ham, Pork, spears, shovels, etc.  The works at Fairfax were good and they could have held us in check for a while, but would have been routed after a while by a flank movement.  The Confederates made a stand at Bull Run which is between our camp and Centreville an about two miles from us.

A fight took place at Centreville day before yesterday, the result of which we cannot get at, there are so many different reports.  We have been at this encampment about 36 hours waiting for Patterson’s and McClellan’s to come up with their columns in order to make a combined attack upon Manassas Junction where the rebels are collected in great force.  We shall bring a force of nearly 129,000 men against them: how the battle will terminate I know not.  At Centreville the  forces engaged were the N.Y. 69th and 12th Regts.  The 12th did not stand fire well after a little and went in.  They were in a tight spot.  They were in an angle in the road which was covered by a masqued battery that opened upon them rather unexpectedly.  The killed and wounded amt. to 29, six I think were killed.  I do not know when we shall advance, we may take up the line of march today, and may not leave here for a number of days.  We are without tents or anything of the kind, still we manage to live very well.  I am well.  This is rather a rough life after all, in the field as we are without the usual convenience of camp.  The 23rd Regulars are next to us commanded by Maj. Stiaso, I think.  Just now as I write, four men of the Regt. are receiving 50 lashes for desertion; rather hard I tell you.  I shall write as often as I can.  I cannot write more today.  I was on guard last night and must get rest as to be ready to advance.  I hope you are well at home.  Much love to you and the family.  Give my regards to all that inquire after me.

As every, your aft. son,

Robt.

[Civil War Times Illustrated, March/April 1992 – courtesy of reader Mike Pellegrini]

Notes

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Lieut. Benjamin Rush Smith, Co. G, 6th North Carolina Infantry, On the Battle

3 09 2015

A Letter.

The following letter we copy from the Daily Bulletin, by request, and we think it worthy of a perusal:

Headquarters 6th Regt, N.C.
State Troops, Camp Bulls Run,
July 24th, 1861.

Dear Parents: – Once more I have an opportunity of writing you all, and that after having been exposed for nine hours on a battle field, strongly contested on each side. we achieved a glorious but dear bought victory on last Sunday (July 21st) about 5 miles from the Junction on Bulls Run Creek. Our whole force on the field amounted to near 60,000, while that of the enemy was not less than 80,000, though we only had about 15,000 engaged – the enemy 35,000. The contest began at 6 A. M. and continued with unabated vigor until 4 1/2 P. M., when I saw the enemy flying across the hills with rapid strides. It was the most beautiful sight that one ever beheld to see them retreating with their banners unfurled, and to hear the cheers and huzzas that went up from our ranks. We pursued them for several miles, and that night I slept in the camp that the Yankees occupied Saturday night. Only four Companies in our Regiment were in the chase, (my Company one of them,) the rest being cut off in the early part of the engagement. – We were at Winchester when we received orders to come to Manassas. We arrived here Sunday morning about 6 A. M. I heard the cannonading as soon as I left the cars. A fellow told me that the “Ball” was open, and that we would “get there in time to dance at least one set.” I must say I felt a little queer at first, but fear left me as soon as I got into it. We were immediately marched to the “Ball Room,” and formed into line of battle at 7 1/2 A. M. When we had formed a rifled cannon ball came whistling through my company and passed in between me and the 3rd Serg’t of our company. It was a 12 pounder. We saw it before it got to us and dodged it. You ought to have seen us all squat. It was the first that had been fired at us. I have it now lying by me and will send it home if I can. We were placed in a position where two Regiments had been cut to pieces. The enemy had possession of a hill and we had to advance up a ravine with 2 pieces of Sherman’s battery placed at the mouth of it. We however advanced and silenced the battery in short time. Our Regiment there lost 18 killed and 47 wounded and one prisoner. My company lost of that number 7 killed and 6 wounded, (all privates,) being in the hottest of the fight. After taking possession of it, Col. Fisher advanced beyond the battery some 30 yards, and it was there that he fell pierced with a rifle ball through the head. All the other Officers escaped in our Regiment except Lieut. Mangum, who was wounded; Captain Avery, and Lieut. Col. Lightfoot, slightly. Our Brigadier General (Bee,) was killed. Just before going into battle I put up the most earnest prayer that I ever did, and I know that it was answered, for the balls came by ma as thick as hail stones and the bomb shells bursted all around me, and none but the hand of God could have saved me. I got several trophies off the battle field, and will send some home the first opportunity. It is impossible to give a description of the field after the battle. For 7 miles it was strewed with the dead and dying. You couldn’t advance a step without seeing them; many times I had to step over them. I never thought I could stand such scenes, but it has little effect on me now. I cut a button off a dead Lieutenant (Yankee) Hitchcock’s coat and took his likeness out of his pocket. I got a great many guns but could not carry them. The boy that waits on me got a splendid shot gun and sword off the battle field. This sheet of paper came out of a dead Yankees pocket; it came in very good time as I am almost out. Our cavalry chased them through Centreville and Fairfax also our artillery killing them all the way. I was told this morning that the road from here to Alexandria where they went is lined with those killed on the way, and the wounded and dead they attempted to take from the battle field. Their loss was about 3,000 killed and wounded, and ours was not more than 800. We have taken about 1,500 of them prisoners and they are still coming in. Since I have commenced this letter a Yankee Officer had been brought by, taken this morning a short distance from our camp. We are now encamped on the very spot where we formed our line of battle.

When we left Winchester (July 18th,) we were so hurried that we couldn’t bring our tents, and have been sleeping without them ever since, though last night I had a very good tend made of yankee blankets that they had left on the battle field. Besides the prisoners we took we captured 62 pieces of artillery, 300 wagons, and knapsacks and canteens by the thousand. Our Regiment has the honor of taking two pieces of Shermans battery, the pride of the North. The whole army went to Alexandria with only two pieces of Artillery, the rest being in our possession, and many of the pieces rifled. I think that peace will soon be made now since this important victory. I talked with some of the prisoners, most of them told me that it was not their will to fight against the South; that they had been forced into it, and that they had intended to go home as soon as their time was out. Some said that their time would have been out 1st of August, though I found many who were enlisted for 3 years. We had certainly the flower of the Northern army to contend against; many of them being of the regular U. S. Army, commanded by Generals Scott, McDowell and Patterson. Scott was not on the field himself the day of the battle, but one of the wounded Yankees told me that he reconnoitered the day before, and that he told the soldiers to fight like men and on next Tuesday he would insure them a dinner in Richmond; that he intended to make that place his headquarters. Well he told the truth, for 1,500 will eat there but only as prisoners. We are under orders to march this evening for parts unknown to myself, though I think it very probable it is towards Alexandria.

Jeff Davis now commands the army in person. I saw him the evening after the battle; he made us a short speech.

It was remarked in camp this morning that a flag of truce had been sent by Scott to Davis proposing to treat of peace although it may only be a rumor. I hope it is not for I never want to see such another slaughter as was on last Sunday.

Our Colonel being killed Lieut. Colonel Lightfoot will take his place.

We buried our dead Monday evening on the battle field. The Yankees have been lying there till to day when part of them were buried, though there are now hundreds of them lying where they fell, and a great many horses.

Your affectionate son,

B. Rush Smith

[Charlotte] North Carolina Whig, 8/6/1861

Clipping Image

Contributed by John Hennessy

B. R. Smith in 6th NC Roster

B. R. Smith brief sketch here, and more detail here.





Observer, U. S. Marine Battalion, On the Battle

8 06 2015

U. S. Marines at the Battle of Bull Run.

Correspondence of the Traveller.

Washington, August 9.

The battalion of United States Marines, commanded by Major John Geo. Reynolds, were in the action from the commencement until the retreat sounded. During the day they supported Griffin’s Battery, and in the charges that they made, fought with desperation; and throughout the entire battle behaved with all the coolness of veterans. The most of these men were raw recruits some of them never having been instructed in the drill prior to their departure for the field. All honor is due to our noble and gallant Major (Reynolds), who in so short a space of time raised them to such a state of efficiency, that they could favorably compare with the best men on the field. I think there are very few officers in the United States service who have the art of imparting knowledge to recruits to such a degree as Major Reynolds. On the field he behaved with coolness, and bravely led his battalion against the rebel hordes. When I saw how gallantly he acted, his long white locks streaming in the wind, I felt that I would freely sacrifice my life to have saved his. God has spared him while others have been stricken down. Lieut. Hitchcock was struck dead with a rifled cannon shot. Our officers have all shown, that although young (some of them smelling powder for the first time), they inherit the natural bravery of their ancestors. I think after this the Confederates will give the Marines a wide berth.

Major Leilin[*] was shot through the arm while leading his Company in the final charge. Among others who distinguished themselves was Lieutenant William H. Hale, who acted in a gallant and heroic manner, rallying our men by examples of bravery seldom surpassed. After Sherman’s Battery was taken by the enemy, Gen. McDowell ordered the Marines to advance and retake the guns. Lieut. Hale seized the Battalion Colors, and , while urging the men forward, was struck in the leg with a Minie Rifle Ball, inflicting a severe and dangerous wound. Paying but little attention to the wound, he continued at his post until the order of retreat was given. After having regained the other side, where our own forces were drawn up, he gave up the Colors to his commanding officer, and fell from exhaustion.

The Marines were the last to leave the field, covering the retreat of our retiring forces, and bravely contesting the ground with the rebels, inch by inch. Major Leilin, Major Nicholson, Captain Allan Ramsey, Lieutenants Monroe, Grimes, Baker, and Huntington, all behaved in a gallant and meritorious manner. Fifty-two of the Marines are killed and missing, and 22 wounded.

Major Reynolds is very active at present (having recovered from the fatigues of our long march,) in promoting the proficiency of our corps, drilling the men early and late. The Major is the able constructor and designer of the new Marine Barracks in Boston, said to be convenient, comfortable, and superior to any other Barracks in the United States.

Our men are now ready for the field, and eager for the fray. Gen. McDowell and staff gave our Battalion great credit for the manner in which they conducted themselves while under fire.

Observer.

———————————

[*] Edit – Jacob Zeilin, commanding Co. A of the battalion, would later become the seventh commandant of the U. S. Marine Corps, its first non-brevet general officer, and approved the corps’ eagle, globe, and anchor emblem.

Based on the narrative, it is assumed the author is a member of the battalion.

Boston Daily Evening Traveller, 8/13/1861

Clipping Image

Contributed by John Hennessy





Edward S. Barrett, Civilian, On the Battle (2)

15 09 2014

Scenes on the Battle Field – – – Personal Adventures at the Battle of Bull Run.

From The Boston, Traveller, Aug. 1.

[Concluded.]

Most of these rebels had gray outfits, with black trimmings, very similar to the uniforms of some of our men. Scattered all through this wood were our men and the Alabamians, dead and wounded mingled together. I noticed a splendid bay horse nibbling the leaves from a tree, and was thinking what a fine animal he was, when I saw that one fore leg was shot off, clean as though cut by a knife, and bleeding a stream. Until this time I supposed that everything was being swept before us, as the fire from the batteries had been nearly silenced on the right, and only an occasional discharge was heard. On the enemy’s left the firing was not nearly as vigorous as half an hour previous. I came out of the woods, and to my utter astonishment saw our whole body retreating in utter confusion and disorder – no lines, no companies, no regiments could be distinguished. I stood still a few moments, unable to comprehend the extraordinary spectacle.

I heard my name called, and turning round a lieutenant of the Massachusetts Fifth came towards me. “My God, Ed., what are you here for?” he exclaimed. Without replying, I asked if the Fifth had suffered much; he said that it had, and that the colonel was dangerously wounded. I waited to find others of my friends, but the whole line was drifting back through the valley. I fell in with them and went slowly up the hill, occasionally halting and looking back. I stopped on the brow of a hill while the volume drifted by, and I can compare it to nothing more than a drove of cattle, so entirely broken and disorganized were our lines. The enemy had nearly ceased firing from the batteries on their right and centre, but upon our extreme right, beyond a patch of woods, the fight was going on, and their cannonading was kept up with vigor.

The line where the main battle was fought was a half to three-quarters of a mile in length, the ground uneven and broken by knolls and patches of wood. At no time did we have a fair chance at the enemy in the open field. – They kept behind their intrenchments or under cover of the woods. Our comparatively slight loss may be attributed to the fact that the great body of our troops were posted in the valley in front of the enemy’s batteries, but by keeping as close to the ground as possible, the enemy’s shot passed over their heads, while the cross fire of infantry from their flanks caused us the most damage.

I did not leave the hill until the enemy’s infantry came our from their intrenchments, and slowly moved forward, their guns glistening in the sun; but they showed no disposition to charge, and only advanced a short distance. Had they precipitated their columns upon our panic-stricken army the slaughter would have been dreadful, for so thorough was the panic that no power on earth could have stopped the retreat and make our men turn and fight. They were exhausted with twelve hours marching and fighting, having had little to eat, their mouths parched with thirst, and no water in their canteens; what could be expected of them then? Our men did fight like heroes, and only retreated when they had no officers to control and command them.

I found my horse tied to the tree where I had left him in the morning. Mounting him, I rode up to the hospital headquarters, and stopped some time watching the ambulances bringing their loads of wounded, fearing I might discover a friend or acquaintance. As these loads of wounded men were brought up, blood flowed from the ambulances like water from an ice cart, and their mutilated limbs protruding from the rear had no semblance of humanity.

I left these scenes of blood and carnage and fell into this retreating mass of disorderly and confused soldiery. Then commenced my retreat. None who dragged their weary limbs through the long hours of that night will ever  forget it. Officers of regiments placed themselves in front of a body of their men and besought them to halt and form, for if they did not make a stand their retreat would be cut off. But they might as well have asked the wind to cease blowing; the men heeded them not, but pressed on in retreat. The regiments two or three miles to the rear, which had not been in action, exhorted our men to stop, but all to no purpose; no power could stop them. The various regiments tried to collect as many of their regiment and their State. In some instances they collected together two or three hundred men.

At a narrow place in the road the baggage wagons and artillery got jammed together in a dead lock, and in trying to get through I was hemmed in so completely that for fifteen minutes I could not move in either direction, and in this way I became separated from a remnant of the Fifth, ,and did not see them again till I reached Centreville. I finally extricated myself by breaking down a rail fence, and driving my horse over it, struck across a large corn field, thus cutting off a considerable distance and reaching the road at a point where it entered the oak forest. Shortly after entering the woods the column in front of me suddenly broke and ran into the woods on the left; the panic spread past me and soldiers ran pell mell into the woods, leaving me alone on my horse. I was afraid that in their fright they might shoot me and I shouted lustily “false alarm.”

Turning my horse about not a man could I see, but soon a soldier thrust his head from behind a large oak. I asked him “what the matter was;” he replied “the enemy are in front.” Somewhat provoked at the scare, I made some reflection on his courage, and shouted again still louder, “false alarm,” which was soon taken up along the road, and in five minutes we were going along as before. This was between five and six o’clock in the afternoon. Shortly after I overtook two soldiers helping along a disabled lieutenant; they asked me to take him up behind me, to which I readily assented, although my horse was already encumbered with a pair of saddle-bags and several blankets. The poor man groaned as they lifted him up behind me. – I was fearful he might fall off, and I told him to put both arms round me and hold on tight. Leaning his head upon my shoulder we started on.

He soon felt better, gave me his name, and informed me that he was a first lieutenant of the Marines, and belonged to Connecticut. – He stated that they had in the fight four companies of eighty men each and that Lieutenant Hitchcock (a very dear friend) was killed by his side. A cavalry officer with his arm in a sling, came riding along, and drawing up near me, I asked him if he was much hurt. He replied “that he had received a rifle ball through the fleshy part of his arm.” He also told me that during the fight he had two horses shot under him, and the one on which he was then riding he caught on the field. I questioned him as to the cause of our disaster, and he answered “that our light troops and light batteries could make no headway against the heavy guns of the enemy strongly intrenched.” I asked him how the enemy’s works could be carried; he replied, “by allowing the cavalry to charge, supported by infantry.” He also informed me that we had about one thousand cavalry in the field during the battle.

As we continued our retreat through the wood, the men overcome with weariness, dropped by the roadside, and immediately fell asleep – some completely exhausted, begged to be carried, the wagons being already overloaded with those being unable to walk; and some shrewd ones quietly bargained with the driver of an ordnance wagons for a seat by his side. Passing through this wood we came in sight of the hills of Centreville. I noticed that the column mostly left the road and bore off through and open field, leaving the bridge we had crossed in the morning some distance on our right. I could not account for this deviation from the morning’s course, and I left the main body and continued along some distance farther, determined to keep the main road, as I knew of no other way to cross the creek except by the bridge we had crossed in the morning, but coming up to a line of broken down wagons, it occurred to me that the bridge might be blocked up, as I recollected the passage was quite narrow. I then started off to the left across a level field, but upon looking back I perceived that the wagons still continued on toward the bridge; in fact there was no other way for them to cross. I followed the crowd of soldiers through the field and into some low woods.

Here they scattered in every direction, as there was no path, and each one was compelled to choose his own route. I picked my way among the tangled underbrush till I came to the creek; the bank down to the water was very steep, and I feared my horse could not carry us both down safely; so, dismounting, I led him slowly down, and then mounting, I drove into the stream. The bottom was soft and miry, and my horse sunk in to its belly. I began to think we all should be floundering in the stream; then urging him to his utmost strength we reached the opposite bank in safety. Twice my gallant horse started up the bank and fell back. After crossing this creek I came into a corn field, and soon struck a road leading to Centreville, which village I soon reached, and there my companion met with his captain and he dismounted. Never was a man more grateful for a favor than was this lietenant. With tears in his eyes he thanked me a thousand time, and, wringing my hands, walked away with his friends.

From Centreville I could see the disordered army winding on for some two miles; a portion of the men and all the wagons and artillery took the road over the bridge, while another portion came in nearly the direction I had taken. It was now nearly eight o’clock, and as it grew darker our retreating army kept the main road over the bridge. About two miles from Centreville, on the Southern road was a rebel battery where the fight had taken place the Thursday previous. This battery commanded the bridge above mentioned. Suddenly a cannon shot was fired from the battery and struck our column, crowding across the narrow bridge. The utmost consternation was created by this fire. In their haste wagons and gun carriages were crowded together and overturned; the drivers cut their horse loose who galloped, they scarcely knew whither. Our men plunged into the stream waist deep, and were scattered in every direction, and some who were seen up to this time have not been heard of since.

The enemy still fired from the battery but did not dare sally out, as they were kept in check by our reserve on the heights of Centreville. I reached our camp that we had left in the morning a little after eight o’clock and found that a few of the Fifth had arrived before me. It was then expected we should encamp for the night, but about nine o’clock we received orders to march to Alexandria. We had already travelled from ten to twelve miles, and now our weary soldiers were ordered to march twenty-five or thirty miles farther.

Slowly the fragment of our regiment fell into line and began this dreadful night march. – I took a sick man behind me and followed in the rear of our regiment, and crossing a field to the main road we fell in with the drifting mass. A friend of mine from the Fifth, who could hardly walk, approached me. I offered him my horse if he would hold the sick man, who was groaning at every step. Tho this he readily assented, so I dismounted. I saw no more of my horse till morning, but trudged along all night without once sitting down to rest, only occasionally stopping to get water.

I felt comparatively fresh when compared with my companions. The dust was intolerable, and, not having any canteen, I suffered exceedingly from thirst. Men dropped down along the road by scores; some, completely exhausted, pleaded piteously to be helped along; some took hold of the rear of the wagons, which was considerable support to theme, and many a horse had two men on his back, with another helped along by its tail; in fact, a horse carrying but one was an exception. – I assisted one fine fellow along for a long distance, who told me he was taken with bleeding at the lungs while on the field; he was very weak, and in vain I tried to find an opportunity for him to ride, but he bore up manfully through the night, and I saw him the next day in Washington.

After passing Fairfax Court House some of the regiments, or such a portion as could be collected together, bivouacked for the night., but the men were so scattered that I doubt if half a regiment halted at any one spot. I still walked on, never once resting, fearing if I did I should feel worse when I started again. Towards morning my feet began to be blistered and the cords of my legs worked like rusty wires, giving me great pain at every step. – Gladly did I hail the first faint streak of light in the East.

At daylight we were within five miles of Alexandria. About this time we came to where the Washington road branches off from the main road to Alexandria, and here our column divided. I continued on towards Alexandria, and in about an hour came in sight of Shuter’s hill. I then felt my journey was nearly accomplished, but the two miles seemed needless.

I stopped at a small house just back of Fort Ellsworth and asked the old negro woman for some breakfast. Two Zouaves were there when I entered, and soon four more came in. She knew them all, as they had paid her frequent visits while encamped in that neighborhood. She gladly got us the best she had, and those six Zouaves and myself, nearly famished as we were, sat down to that breakfast of fried port, hoe cake and coffee, served to us by this old slave woman, with greater delight than ever a king seated himself at a banquet.

The Zouaves each had their story of the battle to relate, but the charge of the Black Horse Cavalry was their especial theme. One of the, pulling a large Colt’s pistol from his pocket, said, “There, I gave that fellow h–l, and he wasn’t the only one, either.” I coveted this pistol, and soon bargained for it, and now have it in my possession. One barrel only had been fired. The Zouaves gradually dropped off, and after paying the slave woman for the meal I started over the hill for the camp of the Fifth, where I arrived about half past eight o’clock, and found that my horse, with his riders, had arrived safely some time before.

Part 1

New London (CT) Chronicle, 8/7/1861

Clipping Image

Edward S. Barrett* bio

Edward S. Barrett* at Ancestry.com

Barrett, Edwin Shepard What I Saw at Bull Run

Contributed by John Hennessy

*Likely the letter writer





The Marine Battalion’s Bull Run Flag

19 01 2011

Friend Craig Swain sent this image of the flag carried by the U. S. Marine Battalion at First Bull Run. 

The flag is in the National Museum of the Marine Corps in Triangle, VA.

Per Craig:

The caption under the flag reads:

Civil War Marine Corps Colors.

Maj. John Reynolds’ Marine Battalion reportedly carried this flag at the First Battle of Manassas, 21 July 1861.  The battalion, comprised primarily of raw recruits with three weeks’ service, suffered the same fate as the rest of the Federal army in their defeat by the Confederate Army.

Artifact tag number is 1974.2768.1.

You can view this and other images from Craig’s trip to the museum here.

Read more about the Marines at First Bull Run here, here, here, and here.





Getting Them to Get It

17 12 2009

See this story of Columbus Bluejackets coach – and Civil War enthusiast – Ken Hitchcock’s difficulties in communicating with his young hockey team.  Seems like his problem is not unlike that of getting young folks interested in history.

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#36 – Maj. John G. Reynolds

22 07 2008

Report of Maj. John G. Reynolds, Commanding Battalion of U. S. Marines

O.R.– SERIES I–VOLUME 2 [S# 2] — CHAPTER IX, pp.391-392

MARINE BARRACKS HEADQUARTERS,

Washington, July 24, 1861

CAPTAIN: I have the honor to report the movements and operations of the battalion of marines under my command detailed to co-operate with the Army.

The battalion left the barracks at headquarters in time to reach the Virginia end of the Potomac Long Bridge at 3 p.m. July 16, and proceeded up the Columbia turnpike until an officer, purporting to be the assistant adjutant-general of Colonel Porter’s brigade, came up and assigned us position in the line of march, which placed us immediately in the rear of Captain Griffin’s battery of flying artillery. This assignment was continued up to the period of the battle at Bull Run.

On reaching the field, and for some hours previously, the battery’s accelerated march was such as to keep my command more or less in double-quick time; consequently the men became fatigued or exhausted in strength. Being obliged at this period to halt, in order to afford those in the rear an opportunity of closing up and taking their proper place in line, the battery was lost to protection from the force under my command. This I stated to Colonel Porter, who was ever present, watching the events of the day. The position of the battery was pointed out, and I was directed to afford the necessary support. In taking this position the battalion was exposed to a galling fire. Whilst holding it General McDowell ordered the battalion to cover or support the Fourteenth New York Regiment which was about to be engaged. The battalion, in consequence, took the position indicated by the general, but was unable to hold it, owing to the heavy fire which was opened upon them. They broke three several times, but as frequently formed, and urged back to their position, where finally a general rout took place, in which the marines participated. No effort on the part of their officers could induce them to rally.

I am constrained to call your attention to the fact that, when taking into consideration the command was composed entirely of recruits–not one being in service over three weeks, and many had hardly learned their facings, the officers likewise being but a short time in the service–their conduct was such as to elicit only the highest commendation.

Of the three hundred and fifty officers and enlisted men under my command, there were but two staff officers, two captains, one first lieutenant, and nine non-commissioned officers and two musicians who were experienced from length of service. The remainder were, of course, raw recruits, which being considered, I am happy to report the good conduct of officers and men. The officers, although but little experienced, were zealous in their efforts to carry out my orders.

In the death of Lieutenant Hitchcock the corps has been deprived of a valuable acquisition. On the field he was ever present and zealous. He sought and won the approbation of his commanding and brother officers.

Inclosed please find a return of the battalion, showing its present strength, with casualties, &c.(*)

The abrupt and hasty retreat from the field of battle presents a deplorable deficiency in both arms and equipments.

The rout being of such a general character, the men of all arms commingled, the only alternative left was to hasten to the ground occupied by the brigade to which we were attached on the morning of the day of the battle. On my way thither I had the good fortune to fall in with General Meigs, whose consternation at the disastrous retreat was depicted upon his countenance. He was of the opinion the Army should hasten to Arlington, fearing otherwise the enemy would follow up their successes and cut us off on the road. My men being weary and much exhausted, without blankets and other necessaries, I determined to strengthen such as should pass the wagons by hot coffee, and move on to headquarters at Washington City, where their wants could be supplied. But few came up; others continued on to the Long Bridge, where, on my arrival, I found some seventy or more, who, at my urgent solicitation, were permitted to accompany me to the barracks.

In assuming the responsibility of the return to headquarters, I trust my course will meet the approbation of authority.

Blankets were thrown aside by my order on entering the field, which from force of circumstances we were afterwards unable to recover.

All of which is respectfully submitted.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JNO. GEO. REYNOLDS,

Major, Commanding Battalion Marines

Capt. W. W. AVERELL,

A. A. A. G., First Brigade, Second Division, Arlington

(*) Embodied in division return, p. 387





#32 – Col. Andrew Porter

25 05 2008

Report of Col. Andrew Porter, Sixteenth U. S. Infantry, Commanding Second Division and First Brigade, Second Division

O.R.– SERIES I–VOLUME 2 [S# 2] — CHAPTER IX, pp.383-387

HDQRS. FIRST BRIGADE, SECOND DIVISION,

Arlington, Va., July 25, 1861

SIR: I have the honor to submit the following account of the operations of the First Brigade, Second Division, of the Army, in the battle before Manassas, on the 21st instant.(*) The brigade was silently paraded in light marching order at 2 o’clock in the morning of that day, composed as follows, viz: Griffin’s battery; marines, Major Reynolds; Twenty-seventh New York Volunteers, Colonel Slocum; Fourteenth New York State Militia, Colonel Wood; Eighth New York State Militia, Colonel Lyons; battalion regulars, Major Sykes; one company Second Dragoons, two companies First Cavalry, four companies Second Cavalry, Major Palmer. Total strength, 3,700. The marines were recruits, but through the constant exertions of their officers had been brought to present a fine military appearance, without being able to render much active service. They were therefore attached to the battery as its permanent support through the day.

Owing to frequent delays in the march of troops in front, the brigade did not reach Centreville until 4.30 a.m., and it was an hour after sunrise when the head of it was turned to the right to commence the flank movement. The slow and intermittent movements of the Second Brigade (Burnside’s) were then followed through the woods for four hours, which brought the head of our division to Bull Run and Sudley’s Mill, where a halt of half an hour took place, to rest and refresh the men and horses. From the heights on this side of the run a vast column of the enemy could be plainly descried, at the distance of a mile or more on our left, moving rapidly towards our line of march in front. Some disposition of skirmishers was then directed to be made at the head of the Column by the division commander, in which Colonel Slocum, of the Second Rhode Island Regiment, was observed to bear an active part. The column moved forward, however, before they were completed, and in about thirty minutes emerged from the timber, when the rattle of musketry and occasional crash of round shot through the leaves and branches of the trees in our vicinity betokened the opening of battle.

The head of the brigade was immediately turned slightly to the right, in order to gain time and room for deployment on the right of the Second Brigade. Griffin’s battery found its way through the timber to the fields beyond, followed promptly by the marines, while the Twenty-seventh took direction more to the left, and the Fourteenth followed upon the trail of the battery, all moving up at a double-quick step. The enemy appeared drawn up in a long line, extending along the Warrenton turnpike from a house and haystacks upon our extreme right to a house beyond the left of the division. Behind that house there was a heavy masked battery, which, with three others along his line on the heights beyond, covered the ground upon which we were advancing with all sorts of projectiles. A grove in front of his right wing afforded it shelter and protection, while the shrubbery along the road, with fences, screened somewhat his left wing. Griffin advanced to within a thousand yards, and opened a deadly and unerring fire upon his batteries, which were soon silenced or driven away. Our right was rapidly developed by the marines, Twenty-seventh, Fourteenth, and Eighth, with the cavalry in rear of the right, the enemy retreating with more precipitation than order as our line advanced.

The Second Brigade (Burnside’s) was at this time attacking the enemy’s right with, perhaps, too hasty vigor. The enemy clung to the protecting wood with great tenacity, and the Rhode Island Battery became so much endangered as to impel the commander of the Second Brigade to call for the assistance of the battalion of regulars. At this time I received the information through Capt. W. D. Whipple, A. A. G., that Colonel Hunter was seriously wounded, and had directed him to report to me as commander of the division; and in reply to the urgent request of Colonel Burnside, I detached the battalion of regulars to his assistance. For an account of its operations I would respectfully beg a reference to the inclosed report of its commander, Major Sykes [No. 35].

The rebels soon came flying from the woods towards the right, and the Twenty-seventh completed their rout by charging directly upon their center in the face of a scorching fire, while the Fourteenth and Eighth moved down the turnpike to cut off the retiring foe, and to support the Twenty-seventh, which had lost its gallant colonel, but was standing the brunt of the action, with its ranks thinning in the dreadful fire. Now the resistance of the enemy’s left was so obstinate that the beaten right retired in safety.

The head of Heintzelman’s column at this moment appeared upon the field, and the Eleventh and Fifth Massachusetts Regiments moved forward to the support of our center, while staff officers could be seen galloping rapidly in every direction, endeavoring to rally the broken Eighth; but this laudable purpose was only partially attained, owing to the inefficiency of some of its field officers.

The Fourteenth, though it had broken, was soon rallied in rear of Griffin’s battery, which soon took up a position farther to the front and right, from which his fire was delivered with such precision and rapidity as to compel the batteries of the enemy to retire in consternation far behind the brow of the hill in front. At this time my brigade occupied a line considerably in advance of that first occupied by the left wing of the enemy. The battery was pouring its withering fire into the batteries and columns of the enemy whenever they exposed themselves. The cavalry were engaged in feeling the left flank of the enemy’s positions, in doing which some important captures were made–one by Sergeant Sacks, of the Second Dragoons, of a General George Steuart, of Baltimore. Our cavalry also emptied the saddles of a number of the mounted rebels.

General Tyler’s division was engaged with the enemy’s right. The Twenty-seventh was resting in the edge of the woods, in the center, covered by a hill, upon which lay the Eleventh and Fifth Massachusetts, occasionally delivering a scattering fire. The Fourteenth was moving to the right flank. The Eighth had lost its organization. The marines were moving up in fine style in rear of the Fourteenth, and Captain Arnold was occupying a height on the middle ground with his battery. At this juncture there was a temporary lull in the firing from the rebels, who appeared only occasionally on the heights in irregular formations, but to serve as marks for Griffin’s guns.

The prestige of success had thus far attended the efforts of our inexperienced, but gallant, troops. The lines of the enemy had been forcibly shifted nearly a mile to their left and rear. The flags of eight regiments, though borne somewhat wearily, now pointed towards the hill from which disordered masses of rebels had been seen hastily retiring.

Griffin’s and Ricketts’ batteries were ordered by the commanding general to the top of the hill on our right, supporting them with Fire Zouaves and marines, while the Fourteenth entered the skirt of woods on their right, to protect that flank, and a column, composed of the Twenty-seventh New York, Eleventh and Fifth Massachusetts, First Minnesota, and Sixty ninth New York, moved up towards the left flank of the batteries; but so soon as they were in position, and before the flanking supports had reached theirs, a murderous fire of musketry and rifles, opened at pistol range, cut down every cannoneer and a large number of horses. The fire came from some infantry of the enemy, which had been mistaken for our own forces, an officer on the field having stated that it was a regiment sent by Colonel Heintzelman to support the batteries.

The evanescent courage of the zouaves prompted them to fire perhaps a hundred shots, when they broke and fled, leaving the batteries open to a charge of the enemy’s cavalry, which took place immediately. The marines also, in spite of the exertions of their gallant officers, gave way in disorder; the Fourteenth on the right and the column on the left hesitatingly retired, with the exception of the Sixty-ninth and Thirty-eighth New York, who nobly stood and returned the fire of the enemy for fifteen minutes. Soon the slopes behind us were swarming with our retreating and disorganized forces, whilst riderless horses and artillery teams ran furiously through the flying crowd. All further efforts were futile; the words, gestures, and threats of our officers were thrown away upon men who had lost all presence of mind and only longed for absence of body. Some of our noblest and best officers lost their lives in trying to rally them.

Upon our first position the Twenty-seventh was the first to rally, under the command of Major Bartlett, and around it the other regiments engaged soon collected their scattered fragments. The battalion of regulars, in the mean time, moved steadily across the held from the left to the right, and took up a position where it held the entire forces of the rebels in check until our forces were somewhat rallied. The commanding general then ordered a retreat upon Centreville, at the same time directing me to cover it with the battalion of regulars, the cavalry, and a section of artillery. The rear guard thus organized followed our panic-stricken people to Centreville, resisting the attacks of the rebel cavalry and artillery, and saving them from the inevitable destruction which awaited them had not this body been interposed.

Among those who deserve especial mention I beg leave to place the following names, viz:

Captain Griffin, for his coolness and promptitude in action, and for the handsome manner in which he handled his battery. 

Lieutenant Ames, of the same battery, who, after being wounded, gallantly served with it in action, and being unable to ride on horseback, was helped on and off a caisson in changes of position.

Captain Tillinghast, A. Q. M., who was ever present where his services were needed, carrying orders, rallying troops, and serving with the batteries, and finally, I have to state with the deepest sorrow, was mortally wounded.

Major Sykes and the officers of his command, three of whom (Lieutenants Latimer, Dickinson, and Kent) were wounded, who by their discipline, steadiness, and heroic fortitude, gave eclat to our attacks upon the enemy, and averted the dangers of a final overthrow.

Major Palmer and the cavalry officers under him, who by their daring intrepidity made the effectiveness of that corps all that it could be upon such a field in supporting batteries, feeling the enemy’s position, and covering our retreat.

Major Reynolds, marines, whose zealous efforts were well sustained by his subordinates, two of whom, Brevet Major Zeilin and Lieutenant Hale, were wounded, and one, Lieutenant Hitchcock, lost his life.

Col. H. W. Slocum, who was wounded while leading his gallant Twenty-seventh New York to the charge, and Maj. J. J. Bartlett, who subsequently commanded it, and by his enthusiasm and valor kept it in action and out of the panic. His conduct was imitated by his subordinates, of whom two, Capt. H. C. Rodgers and Lieut. H. C. Jackson, were wounded, and one, Ensign Asa Park, was killed.

In the last attack Col. A.M. Wood, of the Fourteenth New York State Militia, was wounded, together with Capts. R. B. Jordan and C. F. Baldwin, and Lieuts. J. A. Jones, T. R. Salter, R. A. Goodenough, and C. Scholes, and Adjutant Laidlaw.

The officers of the Fourteenth, especially Maj. James Jourdan, were distinguished by their display of spirit and efficiency throughout the action.

Surg. Charles C. Keeney, of the medical department, who by his professional skill, promptitude, and cheerfulness made the condition of the wounded of the Second Division comparatively comfortable. (He was assisted to a great extent by Dr. Rouch, of Chicago, a citizen.)

During the entire engagement I received extremely valuable aid and assistance from my aides-de-camp, Lieuts. C. F. Trowbridge and F. M. Bache, both of the Sixteenth Infantry.

Lieut. J. B. Howard, Fourteenth New York State Militia, A. A. Q. M. for the brigade, who by zealous attention to his duties succeeded in safely bringing the wagons of my brigade to Arlington.

The staff officers of the Second Division commander, viz, Capt. W. D. Whipple, Lieutenants Cross and Flagler, served with me after the fall of Colonel Hunter, and I am indebted to them for gallant, faithful services during the day. Captain Whipple had his horse killed under him by a cannon ball.

Acting Asst. Adjt. General Lieut. W. W. Averell sustained the high reputation he had before won for himself as a brave and skillful officer, and to him I am very greatly indebted for aid and assistance, not only in performing with the greatest promptitude the duties of his position, but by exposing himself most fearlessly in rallying and leading forward the troops, he contributed largely to their general effectiveness against the enemy. I desire to call the attention of the commanding general particularly to him.

In conclusion, I beg leave to submit the inclosed return of killed, wounded, and missing in my brigade.(+) Since the above reports were handed in many of the missing have returned, perhaps one-third of those reported. The inclosed report of Colonel Burnside, [No. 39], commanding Second Brigade, was sent to me after the above report was written. While respectfully calling the attention of the general commanding to it, I would also ask leave to notice some misconceptions under which the colonel commanding the Second Brigade seems to have labored at the time of writing his report, viz: Of his agency in the management or formation of the Second Division, on the field; 2d, of the time that his brigade was entirely out of the action, with the exception of the New Hampshire Regiment; 3d, of the position of his brigade in the retreat, and particularly of the position of the Seventy-first New York, as he may have mistaken the rear guard, organized under my direction by your orders, for the enemy.

Captain Arnold’s battery and the cavalry were directed and placed in their positions by my senior staff officer up to the time when Colonel Heintzelman ordered the cavalry to the front of the column.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. PORTER,

Colonel Sixteenth Infantry, U. S. Army, Comdg

Brig. and Div. Capt. J. B. FRY,

Assistant Adjutant-General

* See also No. 39, p. 395

+ Division return shows 126 killed, 297 wounded, 346 missing

Table – Return of casualties in the Second Division (Union) of Northeastern Virginia, at the Battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861





Correspondence – USA Private

11 05 2008

Soldiers

“4th”, 4th Maine Infantry, On the Battle and Retreat, With Regimental Casualties

“A,” Co. I, 2nd Wisconsin, On the March, Blackburn’s Ford, Battle, and Retreat

Albert, Co. G, 3rd Maine Volunteer Infantry, On the Battle

G. S. A., Co, C, 3rd Maine Infantry, On the Capt. W. E. Jarvis in the Battle

G. W. B.,  Co. C, 3rd Connecticut Volunteers, On the Battle

Capt. William H. Baird, Co. H, 38th New York Infantry, On the Battle

Maj. Sullivan Ballou, 2nd Rhode Island Volunteers, to his Wife

Capt. Henry Alanson Barnum, Co. I, 12th New York Infantry, On Blackburn’s Ford (1)

Capt. Henry Alanson Barnum, Co. I, 12th New York Infantry, On the March and Blackburn’s Ford (2)

Capt. Henry Alanson Barnum, Co. I, 12th New York Infantry, On the Battle and Retreat (3)

Surgeon Norman S. Barnes, 27th New York Infantry, On the Retreat

Pvt. William Barrett, U. S. Marine Battalion, On the Battle

Pvt. Edward H. Bassett, Co. G., 1st Minnesota Infantry, On the Battle (1)

Pvt. Edward H. Bassett, Co. G., 1st Minnesota Infantry, On the Battle (2)

Pvt. Caleb H. Beal, Co. H, 14th New York State Militia, On the Battle

Leonard Belding, Co. K, 2nd Rhode Island Infantry, On the Battle

Dr. Luther V. Bell, Surgeon, 11th Massachusetts Infantry, On the Battle

Col. Hiram Berry, 4th ME Infantry, On the March to Manassas and the Battle

Lieutenant Lucius L. Bolles,  Co. A, 3rd Connecticut Volunteers, On the Battle

Pvt. Samuel Bond, Co. I, 71st New York State Militia, Last Letter

Hospital Steward Daniel W. Bosley, Co. E, 27th New York Infantry, On the Battle

Pvt. Augustus E. Bronson, Co. I, 3rd Connecticut Infantry, On the Advance and Blackburn’s Ford

Pvt. Duncan L. Brown, Co. E, 27th New York Infantry, On the Battle and Retreat

Pvt. John Clay Brown, 14th Brooklyn, on his Return to the Battlefield

Pvt. George Coles Brown, Co. A, 3rd Connecticut Infantry, On the Battle

Lt. Col. William H. Browne, 31st New York Infantry, On the Campaign

Sgt. Mark J. Bunnell, Co. B, 13th New York Infantry, On the Battle

Sgt. Mark J. Bunnell, Co. B, 13th New York Infantry, On the Aftermath of the Battle

Lieut. William H. Burnett, Co. C, 14th NYSM, On the Battle

Corp. Alfred W. Burnham, Co. C, 2nd New Hampshire Infantry, On the Battle and His Wounding

Pvt. John W. Burrows, Co. D, 27th New York Infantry, On the Battle

Pvt. Worcester Burrows, Co. C, 27th New York Infantry, On the Battle and the Retreat

Pvt. Robert Porter Bush, Co. D, 12th New York Infantry, On Blackburn’s Ford

Byron, 13th New York Infantry, On Blackburn’s Ford

“C”, Co. K, 27th New York Infantry, On the March and the Retreat

“C.”, 2nd Wisconsin, On the Battle

A [?.] C., Co. A, 13th New York Infantry, On the Battle and Retreat

Pvt. Alexander Campbell, Co. F, 79th NY, Describes the Battle to His Wife

“Canonicus”, 2nd Rhode Island Infantry (?), On the March to Manassas (1)

Pvt. Alexander Carolin, Co. A, 69th NYSM, On the Battle

Pvt. James A. Coburn, Co. K, 38th New York Infantry, On the Battle, Wounding, and Imprisonment

Pvt. Richard F. Cole, Co. H, 14th New York State Militia, On the Campaign

Pvt. Henry Harrison Comer, Co. A, 1st Ohio Infantry, On the Battle

Pvt. Wilbur D. Cook, Co. E, 13th New York Infantry, On the Return of the Regiment from the Field

Pvt. John Alden Copeland, Co. G, 27th New York Infantry, On the Battle and Retreat

Col. Michael Corcoran’s Account of His Capture

M. Crosbie, Co. E, 69th NYSM, On the Battle

Pvt. John W. Day, Co. H, 1st Massachusetts, On the March, Blackburn’s Ford, and the Battle

“DeW”, 1st Rhode Island Infantry, On the March to Manassas

“DeW”, 1st Rhode Island Infantry, On the Battle (1)

“DeW”, 1st Rhode Island Infantry, On the Battle (2)

Sgt. Harrison Dewey, Co. E, 2nd Vermont Infantry, On the Campaign

Capt. Calvin S. DeWitt, Co. I, 38th New York Infantry, On the Battle

Pvt. Edward P. Doherty, Co. A, 71st New York State Militia, On the Battle, Capture, and Escape – With Casualty List

Pvt. John E. Donovan, Co. B, 2nd Wisconsin, On His Wounding In the Battle

Pvt. George W. Doty, Co. F, 2nd Vermont Infantry, On the Battle

Lt. James P. Drouillard, Aide to Maj. George Sykes, U. S. Regular Battalion, On the Battle

H. J. E., 5th Maine, On the Battle

Ed, 12th New York Infantry, on Blackburn’s Ford

Pvt. Charles N. Elliott, Co. D, 27th New York Infantry, On the Battle

John Ellis and the 71st NY at Bull Run

Dr. P. W. Ellsworth, Connecticut Brigade, On the Battle

Corp. Samuel J. English, Co. D, 2nd Rhode Island Infantry, On the Advance, Battle, and Retreat

J. J. F., 69th New York State Militia, On the Battle 

Pvt. Charles W. Farrand, Co. F, 1st Michigan Infantry, On the Battle

Pvt George Field*, Co. H, 2nd Maine Infantry, On the Battle and Retreat

Capt. Richard Fitzgibbon, Co. H, 1st Connecticut Volunteers, On the Campaign

Sgt. Charles W. Fletcher, Co. F, 2nd New Hampshire Infantry, On the Battle and Retreat

Lt. Walter M. Fleming, Co. G (1st), 13th New York Infantry*, On His Brother’s Return to Washington

Sgt. William L. Fleming, Co. G (1st), 13th New York Infantry*, On the Battle

W. H. Foote, Co. D, 2nd Wisconsin, On the Battle

Sgt. Abraham Ford, Co. H, 2nd Vermont Infantry, On the Battle

Pvt. Frederick Fowler, Co. D, 27th New York Infantry, On the Battle

Capt. Frederick Frye, Infantry Co. D, 3rd Connecticut Infantry, On the Battle and Retreat

Lt. Eugene P. Fuller, Co. K, 13th New York Infantry, On the Battle

Capt. Silas M. Fuller, Co. K, 4th Maine Infantry, On the Battle

Cpl. John Fulton, Co. L (Engineers), 14th New York State Militia, On the Campaign

“G.”, 2nd Connecticut Volunteers, On the 91Battle

J. H. G., Co. H, 71st NYSM, On the Battle (1)

J. H. G., Co. H, 71st NYSM, On the Battle (2)

Sgt. William H. Garrison, Co. I, 71st New York State Militia, On the Battle and Company Casualties

Pvt. Franklin E. Gates, Co. G, 12th New York Infantry, On Blackburn’s Ford and the Battle

“Georgie,” Co. I, 71st New York State Militia, On the Battle and Retreat

Lt. Edwin S. Gilbert, Co. D, 13th New York Infantry, On the Battle

Pvt. Oliver S. Glenn, Co. A, 2nd Ohio Infantry (Regimental Band), On the Battle

Pvt. John Glennon (Glennen) Co. I, 79th New York Infantry, On the Battle

Pvt. Ezra C. Goodwin*, Co. D, 2nd New Hampshire Infantry, On the March, Battle, and Retreat

Pvt. John E. Goundry, Co. B, 1st Minnesota Infantry, On the Battle

Pvt. Thomas Green, Co. B, 11th Massachusetts Volunteers, On the Battle

Pvt. Ezra Greene, Co. H, 2nd Rhode Island Volunteer Infantry, On the Battle

Fifer Sherman Greig, Co. A 13th New York Infantry, On the Campaign

Capt. Simon Goodell Griffin, Co. B, 2nd New Hampshire Infantry, On the Battle

“H”, Co. C, 1st Rhode Island Infantry, On the Battle

Pvt. John C. Hallock, Co. A, 38th New York Infantry, On the Battle

Surgeon Frank Hamilton, 31st NY, to The American Medical Times

Lt. Samuel M. Harmon, Co. I, 27th New York Infantry, On the Battle and Retreat

Pvt. Samuel S. Hersey, Jr., Co. K, 4th Maine Infantry, On the Battle

Pvt. Clarence D. Hess, Co. B, 13th New York Infantry, On the Battle

Pvt. Louis. L. Hingle, Co. E, 14th N. Y. S. M., On the Battle

2nd Lt. Robert Hitchcock, USMC to His Parents on the Eve of Battle

Pvt. Anson Hobart, Co. G (1st) F, 13th New York Infantry, On the Battle

Sgt. William P. Holden, Co. H, 2nd Maine Infantry, On the Battle

Pvt. Charles Henry Howard*, Col O. O. Howard’s Brigade Staff, On the Battle and Retreat

Surgeon George H. Hubbard, 2nd New Hampshire Infantry, Casualty List for the Regiment

Capt. Robert B. Jordan, Co. A, 14th New York State Militia, On Lt. Col. Edward B. Fowler in the Battle

Major Charles Herbert Joyce, 2nd Vermont, On the Battle

“Juvenis,” Battery A (Reynolds), 1st Rhode Island Light Artillery, On the Battle and Retreat

2nd Lt. Gustav Kast, Co. A, 2nd Michigan Infantry, On Blackburn’s Ford

Pvt. James Kelley, Co. G, 2nd Maine Infantry, On the Battle and Retreat

Sgt. John S. King, Co. D, 18th New York Infantry, On the Campaign

Lt. Edward Burgin Knox Co. A, 11th New York at Bull Run

J. B. L., Co. F, 2nd Vermont Infantry, On the Battle

Pvt. Harry Lazarus, Co. G, 11th New York Infantry, On the Battle

Pvt. Joseph Leavitt, Co. G, 5th Maine, On the Battle (1)

Pvt. Joseph Leavitt, Co. G, 5th Maine, On the Battle (2)

Pvt. Henry W. Link, Co. E, 11th New York Infantry, On the Battle

Sgt. Lincoln Litchfield, Co. A, 3rd Maine Volunteer Infantry, On the Campaign

Surgeon Charles W. Le Boutillier, 1st Minnesota Infantry, On the Battle and Captivity

Sgt. Frank L. Lemont, Co. E, 5th Maine Infantry, On the Battle

Asst. Quartermaster Ensign Jacob Leonard, 38th New York Infantry, On the Battle

Capt. Milo W. Locke, Co. F, 12th New York Infantry, On the March and Blackburn’s Ford

Pvt. Michael P. Long, Co. E, 3rd Michigan Infantry, On the Battle

C. A. M., Co. B, 2nd New Hampshire Infantry, On the Eve of the Campaign

Sgt. Charles McFadden, Co. K, 79th New York Infantry, On the Battle

Pvt. William H. McMahon, Co. G, 27th New York Infantry, On the Retreat

Pvt. Thomas McQuade, Co. F, 69th New York State Militia, On Blackburn’s Ford and the Battle

Lieut. Col. Stephen A. Miller, 1st Minnesota Infantry, On the Battle

Lt. Col. Stephen Miller, 1st Minnesota Infantry, On the March to Centreville

Corp. George M. Morris, Co. B, 13th New York Infantry, On the Battle

Pvt. John H. Morrison, Co. H, 38th New York Infantry, On the Battle

Chaplain Reverend Edward D. Neill, 1st Minnesota Infantry, On the Battle

Chaplain Edward Duffield Neill*, 1st Minnesota Infantry, On the Regiment’s Casualties

Pvt. William Nixon, Co. A, 1st Minnesota Infantry, On the Battle

Capt. Adolph Nolte, Co. C, 13th New York Infantry, On the Battle

Capt. Adolph Nolte, Co. C, 13th New York Infantry, On the March and Blackburn’s Ford

Thomas D. Norris, Co. A, 69th NYSM, On the Battle

Sgt. Albert G. Northrup, Co. D, 27th New York Infantry, On the Battle and Retreat

Observer, U. S. Marine Battalion, On the Battle

Pvt. John. W. Odlin, Co. B, 2nd New Hampshire Infantry, On the Campaign

Lt. Patrick O’Rorke’s Account of the Campaign

Lt. Patrick H. O’Rorke, ADC to Brig. Gen. Daniel Tyler, On the Aftermath, with Biographical Sketch

Pvt. Peter W. Ostrander, Engineer Corps, 14th N. Y. S. M., On the Battle

W. B. P., 12th New York Infantry, On Blackburn’s Ford

Maj. Buel Palmer, 16th New York Infantry, On the Battle

2nd Lieut. Charles E. Palmer, Co. F, 2nd Connecticut Infantry, On the Battle and Retreat

2nd Lieut. Charles E. Palmer, Co. F, 2nd Connecticut Infantry, On the Advance and Blackburn’s Ford

Pvt. Robert S. Parker, Co. G (1st)*, 13th New York Infantry, On the Death of Pvt. Ferdinand Willson

Lieut. Warren H. Parmenter, Co. D, 2nd New Hampshire Infantry, On the Battle and Retreat

Lt. Joab N. Patterson, Co. H, 2nd New Hampshire Infantry, On the Battle

Pvt. Delos Payne, Co. D, 27th New York Infantry, On the Battle

Letter to Pvt. Albert Penno, Co. D, 1st RI

“Pequot,” 2nd New York State Militia, On the Campaign

Pvt. Edward F. Phelps, Co. G, 5th Massachusetts Infantry, On the Campaign

Pvt. John T. Phillips, Co. A, 2nd Ct Infantry, On the Wounding of James F. Wilkinson 

Pvt. John T. Phillips, Co. A, 2nd Connecticut Infantry, On the Battle

Charles H. Pierce, Co. D, Marine Battalion, On the Eve of the Battle

Corp. William Pittenger, Company G, 2nd Ohio Volunteer Infantry, On the Campaign

Pvt. George Plaskett, Co. E, 14th New York State Militia, On the Battle

Pvt. Leonard Powell, Co. D, 2nd Wisconsin, On the Battle

G. H. Price, 14th New York State Militia, On the Campaign

Private, Co. A*, 1st Minnesota Infantry, On the Battle and Retreat

Private (2), Co. A, 1st Minnesota Infantry, On the Return to Washington and Incidents of the Battle

Lt. Israel H. Putnam, Co. G (1st), 13th New York Infantry*, On the Battle

“Q”, 5th Maine, On the Battle

“R”,  5th Massachusetts Infantry, On the Battle

“R.”, Co. K, 69th NYSM, On the Battle

Pvt. Jeremiah Rathbun, Co. E, 2nd Rhode Island Infantry, On the Battle

Sgt. Hugh R. “Rennie” Richardson, Co. F, 2nd New Hampshire Infantry, On the Battle

Pvt. James Rorty, Co. G, 69th NYSM, On the Battle, Imprisonment, and Escape

Capt. Jerome Rowe, Co. A, 32nd New York Infantry, On the Retreat

John Valentine Ruehle,  Co. A, 2nd Michigan Infantry, On the Campaign

Officers’ Clerk George L. Russell, 38th New York Infantry, On the Battle

“P. J. R.”, Co. D, 69th NYSM, On the Fight at Blackburn’s Ford and the Battle

Richard, 8th New York State Militia, On the Battle

J. S.*, Co. H, 14th N. Y. S. M., On the Battle

J. A. S., 11th New York Infantry, On the Campaign

“Sergeant”, 2nd Rhode Island Battery, On the Battle

Pvt. Mattison C. Sanborn, Co. A, 2nd New Hampshire Infantry, On the March and Battle

Pvt. Joseph Sands, Co. A, 14th New York State Militia, On the Battle

Sgt. George F. Saunders, Co. D, 2nd Wisconsin, On the Battle

Pvt. Daniel A. Sharpe, Co. A, 13th New York Infantry, On the Battle

Lieutenant John P. Shaw, Co. F, 2nd Rhode Island Infantry, On the Battle

Col. W. T. Sherman, to His Wife, On Preparations to March (1)

Col. W. T. Sherman, to His Wife, On Preparations to March (2)

Col. W. T. Sherman, to His Brother, On Preparations to March

Col. W. T. Sherman, to His Wife, On Blackburn’s Ford

Col. W. T. Sherman, to His Brother, On Blackburn’s Ford

Col. W. T. Sherman, to His Wife, On the Battle

2nd Lt. Fred W. Shipman, Co. F, 38th New York Infantry, On the Battle

Pvt. David Sloane, Co. E, 1st Connecticut Infantry, On Blackburn’s Ford

Corporal Benjamin Freeman Smart, Co. D, 2nd Maine, on The Battle

Pvt. George L. Smith, Co. C, 1st Minnesota Infantry, On the Battle

Sgt. Lyman H. Smith, Co. E, 2nd Wisconsin, On the Battle

Corp. William E. Smith, Co. E, 2nd Rhode Island Infantry, On the Battle

Capt. Thomas Snow, Co.F, 2nd New Hampshire Infantry, On the Battle (Casualty List)

“Soldier,” 16th New York Infantry, On the Battle and Retreat

Pvt. Benjamin Franklin Spencer, Co. D, 27th New York Infantry, On the Battle

John Stacom, Co. E, 69th NYSM, On the Battle

Capt. William L. B. Stears, Co. E, 14th New York State Militia, On Company Casualties

Major Josiah Stevens, Jr., 2nd New Hampshire Infantry, On the Battle

“Stephen”, 2nd Maine Infantry, On the Battle

Pvt. Mortimer Stimpson*, 1st Minnesota Infantry, On the Battle

Lt. John H. Styles, Co. A, 14th New York State Militia, On the Fate of Col. Alfred M. Wood

Cpl. Joseph S. Sweatt, Co. E, 2nd New Hampshire Infantry, On the Battle (1)

Cpl. Joseph S. Sweatt, Co. E, 2nd New Hampshire Infantry, On the Battle (2)

Sgt. Eldon A. Tilden, Co. D*, 2nd Vermont Infantry, On the Battle, Retreat, and Sun-Stroke

“Tockwotton”, 2nd Rhode Island Infantry, On the March to Manassas (1)

“Tockwotton”, 2nd Rhode Island Infantry, On the March to Manassas (2)

“Tockwotton”, 2nd Rhode Island Infantry, On the March to Manassas (3)

“Tockwotton”, 2nd Rhode Island Infantry, On the Battle

“Tockwotton”, 2nd Rhode Island Infantry, On the Battle’s Toll

“Corporal Trim,” 2nd New Hampshire Infantry, On the Advance

Pvt. George Trimble, Co. F, 13th New York Infantry, On the Battle

Typo, Co. B, 5th Maine Volunteer Infantry, On the Battle

Unknown, 5th Maine, On the Battle

Unknown, Co. D, 5th Maine Infantry, On the Battle and Retreat

Unknown, Co. B, 5th Maine Volunteer Infantry, On the Battle and Retreat

Unknown, 5th Massachusetts Infantry, On the Battle

Unknown, Co. I,  5th Massachusetts Infantry, On the Battle

Unknown, 2nd NYSM, On the Battle

Unknown, Co. E, 13th New York Infantry, On the Battle

Unknown, 32nd New York Infantry, On the Battle

Unknown, Co. K, 38th New York Infantry, On the Battle

Unknown, 71st New York State Militia, On the Battle

Unknown, 79th New York Infantry, On the Battle, Retreat, and Aftermath

Unknown, 1st Rhode Island Infantry, On the Battle

Unknown, Co. C, 1st Rhode Island Infantry, On the March to Manassas

Unknown, 2nd Rhode Island Battery, On the Battle (1)

Unknown, Co. K, 2nd Vermont Infantry, On the Battle

Unknown Captain, 2nd New York State Militia, On the March to Manassas, the Battle, and the Retreat

Unknown Captain*, 2nd Vermont Infantry, On the Battle and Retreat

Unknown Irishman, Co. B, 2nd Vermont Infantry, On the Battle and Retreat

Unknown Officer, 1st Minnesota, On the Battle

Unknown Officer, Co. C, 1st Rhode Island Infantry, On the March to Manassas

Unknown Officer , Co. C, 1st Rhode Island Infantry, On the Battle

Unknown Officer, 2nd Rhode Island Infantry, On the Aftermath of Fighting on Matthews Hill

Unknown Pvt., 3rd Connecticut Infantry, On the Battle and Retreat

Unknown Sgt., Co. K, 38th New York Infantry, On the Battle

J. A. V., 16th New York Infantry, On the Battle

Sgt. John Vliet, Co. D, 14th New York State Militia, On the Battle and Retreat

“W”, 2nd Vermont Infantry, On the March to Manassas

“W”, 2nd Vermont Infantry, Sets the Record Straight

“W”, Co. I, 5th Massachusetts Infantry, On the Battle and Retreat

“W”, Co. E, 13th New York Infantry, On the Sick Left Behind in Camp

“W”, Co. G (1st), 13th New York Infantry, On the Battle

E. T. W., 14th New York State Militia, On the Retreat and Aftermath

Lieut. Prentice B. Wager, Co. I, 32nd New York Infantry, On the Campaign

Col. Ezra L. Walrath, 12th New York Infantry, On Blackburn’s Ford (1)

Col. Ezra L. Walrath, 12th New York Infantry, On Blackburn’s Ford (2)

Sgt. James A. Ward, Co. E, 2nd Rhode Island Infantry, On the Battle and Company Casualties

Major Alexander Warner, 3rd Connecticut Infantry, On Dr. John McGregor at the Battle

Lt . Luther C. Warner, Co. C, 1st Rhode Island Infantry, On the Battle

Cpl. Guilford Wiley Wells, Co. G, 27th New York Infantry, In the Battle and Retreat

Pvt. William Ray Wells, 12th NY, on Action at Blackburn’s Ford (1)

Pvt. William Ray Wells, 12th NY, on Action at Blackburn’s Ford (2)

Pvt. Thomas Westcott. Co. F, 13th New York Infantry, On the Battle and Retreat

Lieutenant Rinaldo B. Wiggin, Co. A, 2nd Maine Infantry, On the Battle

Captain Alexander Wilkin, Co. A, 1st MN, On the Battle

Col. Orlando B. Willcox, On the March to Manassas

Chaplain Junius M. Willey, 3rd Connecticut Volunteers, On the Battle

Capt. Henry B. Williams, Co. H (1st), 13th New York Infantry, On the Battle

Pvt. Charles Winters, Co. D, 27th New York Infantry, On the Battle and Retreat

Pvt. Miles O. Wright, Co. B, 13th New York Infantry, On the Battle

2nd Lieut. Harrison D. F. Young, Co. F, 2nd New Hampshire Infantry, On the Battle

Civilians

Charles Francis Adams, Jr., On the Consequences of the Defeat

S. A., Personal Secretary to Secretary of the Senate, On Washington After the Battle

Edward S. Barrett, Civilian, On the Battle (1)

Edward S. Barrett, Civilian, On the Battle (2)

Rev. Clement M. Butler, D. D., On the “Manacle” Story and Public Sentiment After the Battle

T. H. C., On the 2nd Vermont Infantry In the Battle

William Augustus Croffut, On Sudley Church Hospital During the Battle

Andrew E. Elmore, On the 2nd Wisconsin After the Battle

Uncle of E. J. Goodspeed, A Civilian’s Eyewitness Account of the Battle

Elizabeth Blair Lee on the Battle

George Palmer Putnam, Publisher, On the Retreat, With Incidents of the Battle

Senator, On the Wounding of Col. Gilman Marston, 2nd New Hampshire Infantry