Capt. John C. Tidball, Co. A, 2nd U. S. Artillery, On Battle and Retreat

6 02 2021

As previously stated I was with Blenker’s brigade of Miles’s division, the duty of which was to guard Blackburn’s and other fords. Early on the forenoon of the 21st (July) I took post on a prominent knoll overlooking the valley of Bull Run. Here I remained in readiness to move my battery quickly to any point where its service might be required. Stretched out before me was a beautiful prospect. To the south, directly in front of me, distance about five miles, was Manassas Junction, where we could perceive trains arriving and departing. Those coming from the direction of Manassas were carrying Johnston’s troops from the Shenandoah. Around towards our right was the Sudley Springs country, nearing which the turning column now was. All the country in that direction appeared from our point of view, to be a dense forest, and a good of it was in woods, the foliage and buildings only were discernible. Among these were the Robinson and Henry houses, and the fields upon the plateau soon to become famous in history as the scene of deadly strife. Still further around to our right and rear, distant about a mile was Centreville, a mere village of the “Old Virginny” type. Through it ran the old dilapidated turnpike from Alexandria to Warrenton. By this road soon commenced to arrive a throng of sightseers from Washington. They came in all manner of ways, some in stylish carriages, others in city hacks, and still others in buggies, on horseback and even on foot. Apparently everything in the shape of vehicles in and around Washington had been pressed into service for the occasion. It was Sunday and everybody seemed to have taken a general holiday; that is all the male population, for I saw none of the other sex there, except a few huxter women who had driven out in carts loaded wit pies and other edibles. All manner of people were represented in this crowd, from most grave and noble senators to hotel waiters. As they approached the projecting knoll on which I was posted seemed to them an eligible point of view, and to it they came in throngs, leaving their carriages along side of the road with the horses hitched to the worm fence at either side, When all available space along the road was occupied they drove into the vacant fields behind me and hitched their horses to the bushes with which it was in a measure overgrown. As a rule, they made directly for my battery, eagerly scanning the country before them from which now came the roar of artillery and from which could occasionally be heard the faint rattle of musketry. White smoke rising here and there showing distinctly against the dark green foliage, indicated the spot where the battle was in progress. I was plied with questions innumerably. To those with whom I thought it worth while I explained, so far as I could, the plan of the operation then in progress. But invariably I was asked why I was posted where I was, and why I was not around where the fighting was going on. To all of which I could only reply that the plan of the battle required that we should guard the left until the proper time came for us to engage. To make my explanation more lucid I said if the enemy were allowed freedom to break through here where would you all be. Most of the sightseers were evidently disappointed at that they saw, or rather did not see. They no doubt expected to see a battle as represented in pictures; the opposing lines drawn up as on parade with horsemen galloping hither and thither, and probably expecting to see something of the sort by a nearer view of the field they hurried on in the direction of the sound of battle, leaving their carriages by the roadside or in the fields. These were the people that made such a panic at the Cub Run bridge.

Among those who thus halted a little while with me were several that I knew. One party in particular attracted my attention. This was Dr. Nichols, then in charge of the government Insane Asylum; Senator Wilson from Massachusetts, Chairman of the Senate Military Committee; “Old Ben” Wade, Senator from Ohio, and a wheel horse of the Republican part; and “Old Jim” Lane, senator from Kansas, and another political war horse. All of these were full of the “On to Richmond” fever, and were impatient to see more of the battle. I endeavored to dissuade them from proceeding further, that if they would only remain awhile they would probably see as much of it as they would care to see. But Old Jim was firey, he said he must have a hand in it himself. His friends not wishing to go so far as that tried to convince him that he could do no good in the fight without a gun. “O never mind that,” he said, “I can easily find a musket on the field. I have been there before and know that guns are easily found where fighting is going on. I have been there before and know what it is.” He had been colonel of an Indiana regimt during the Mexican ware, and this was the old war fire sparkling out again. Nothing could hold him back and off the parted started down the slope and over the fields in the direction of the firing. I saw nothing more of them until late in the afternoon.

About 4. P. M. an aid (Major Wadsworth) came hurredly to me with instructions from General McDowell, to hasten with my battery down the turnpike towards the Stone Bridge. I supposed this was simply in accordance with the developments of the battle, and that the turning movemt had now progressed so far that we could now cross over and take part in it. To get on the turnpike I had to go through Centreville, where I saw Colonel Miles, our division commander, airing himself on the porch of the village inn. By this time the road was pretty well crowded with ambulances carrying the wounded, and other vehicles, all hurredly pressing to the rear. Miles, evidently in ignorance of what was transpiring at the front, asked me what was up. I could only answer that I had been ordered to proceed down towards the Stone Bridge; and then I proceeded, but the farther I proceeded the thicker the throng because of wagons, ambulances and other vehicles. The road being cut on the side of a hill had a steep bank up on its left and a steep bank down on the left, so that I could not take to the fields on either side. My horses were scraped and jammed by the vehicles struggling to pass me in the opposite direction. As far as I could see ahead the road was crowded in like manner. Finally it became impossible for me to gain another inch, and while standing waiting for a thinning out of the struggling mass, a man came riding up towards me, inquiring excitedly, “whose battery is this.” I told him that I commanded it. “Reverse it immediately and get out of here, I have orders from General McDowell to clear this road” and added that the army had been ignominiously and was now retreating. He was curious, wild looking individual. Although the day was oppressively hot he had on an overcoat – evidently a soldier’s overcoat dyed a brownish black. On his head he wore a soft felt hat the broad brim of which flopped up and down at each of his energetic motions. But notwithstanding the broadness of the brim it did not protect his face from sunburn, and his nose was red and peeling from the effects of it. He had no signs of an officer about him and I would have taken him for an orderly had he not had with him a handsome young officer whom I subsequently came well acquainted with, as Lieutenant afterwards Colonel Audenried. Seeing this young officer was acquainted with my lieutenant, afterwards General Webb, of Gettysburg game, I sidled up to them and inquired of him who the stranger was giving me such peremptory orders. He told me that he was Colonel Sherman, to whom I now turned and begged him pardon for not recognizing him before. I told him what my orders were, but he said it made no difference, the road must be cleared, and added that I could do no good if I were up at the Stone Bridge. I then reversed my battery by unlimbering the carriages, and after proceeding a short distance to the rear, where the bank was less steep, turned out into the field, where I put my guns in position on a knoll overlooking the valley towards Cun Run. In the distance I could see a line of skirmishers from which proceeded occasional puffs of smoke. This was Sykes’ battalion of regulars covering the rear.

I had not been in this position long before I saw three of my friends of the forenoon, Wilson, Wade and Lane, hurrying through the field up the slope toward me. Dr. Nichols was not now part of the party. Being younger and more active than the others he had probably outstripped them in the race. Lane was the first to pass me; he was mounted horsebacked on an old flea-bitten gray horse with rusty harness on, taken probably from some of the huxter wagons that had crowded to the front. Across the harness lay his coat, and on it was a musket which, sure enough, he had found, and for ought I know may have done valorous deeds with it before starting back in the panic. He was long, slender and hay-seed looking. His long legs kept kicking far back to the rear to urge his old beast to greater speed. And so he sped on.

Next came Wilson, hot and red in the face from exertion. When young he had been of athletic shape but was now rather stout for up-hill running. He too was in his shirt sleeves, carrying his coat on his arm. When he reached my battery he halted for a moment, looked back and mopping the perspiration from his face exclaimed, “Cowards! Why don’t they turn and beat back the scoundrels?” I tried to get from him some points of what had taken place across the Run, but he was too short of breath to say much, Seeing Wade was toiling wearily up the hill he halloed to him, “Hurry up, Ben, hurry up”, and then without waiting for “Old Ben” he hurried on with a pace renewed by the few moments of breathing spell he had enjoyed.

Then came Wade who, considerably the senior of his comrades, had fallen some distance behind. The heat and fatigue he was undergoing brought palor to his countenance instead of color as in the case of Wilson. He was trailing his coat on the ground as though too much exhausted to carry it. As he approached me I thought I had never beheld so sorrowful a countenance. His face, naturally long, was still more lengthened by the weight of his heavy under-jaws, so heavy that it seemed to overtax his exhausted strength to keep his mouth shut, I advised him to rest himself for a few minutes, and gave him a drink of whiskey from a remnant I was saving for an emergency. Refreshed by this he pushed on. Of these three Senators two, Wade and Wilson, became Vice Presidents of the United States, while the third, Lane, committed suicide, ad did also, before him, his brother, an officer in the army, who in Florida, threw himself on the point of his sword in the Roman fashion. One of the statesmen who had come out to see the sights, a Mr [Ely], a Representative in Congress from [New York], was captured and held in [duress?] vile as a hostage to force the liberation of certain Confederates then held by the United States governmt.

Among the notables who passed through my battery was W. H. Russell, L.L.D. the war correspondent of the London Times. He was considered an expert on war matters through his reports to the Times during the Crimean war and subsequently from India during the Sepoy mutiny. Of average stature he was in build the exact image of the caricatures which we see of John Bull – short of legs and stout of body, with a round chubby face flanked on either side with the muttin chop whiskers. His, like all others, was dusty and sweaty but, notwithstanding, was making good time, yet no so fast that his quick eye failed to note my battery, which he described in his report as looking cool and unexcited. He bounded on like a young steer – as John Bull he was, but while clambering over an old worm fence in his path the top rail broke, pitching him among the brambles and bushes on the farther side. His report of the battle was graphic and full, but so uncomplimentary to the volunteers that they dubbed him Bull Run Russell.

Each of the picknickers as they got back to where the carriages had been left took the first one at hand, or the last if he had his wits about him enough to make a choice. This jumping into the carriages, off they drove so fast as lash and oaths could make their horses go. Carriages collided tearing away wheels or stuck fast upon saplings by the road-side. Then the horses were cut loose and used for saddle purposes, but without the saddles. A rumor was rife that the enemy had a body of savage horsemen, known as the Black Horse Cavalry, which every man now thought was at their heels; and with this terrible vision before them of these men in buckram behind them they made the best possible speed to put the broad Potomac between themselves and their supposed pursuers.

Learning that McDowell had arrived from the field and was endeavoring to form a line of troops left at Centreville (and which were in good condition) upon which the disorganized troops could be rallied, I moved my battery over to the left where I found Richardson had formed his brigade into a large hollow square. A few months later on I don’t think he would have done so silly a thing. McDowell was present and so was Miles, who was giving some orders to Richardson. For some reason these orders were displeasing to Richardson, and hot words ensued between him and Miles, ending, finally, in Richardson saying “I will not obey your orders sir. You are drunk sir.” The scene, to say the least of it, was an unpleasant one, occurring as it when we expected to be attacked at any moment by the exultant enemy. Miles turned pitifully to McDowell as though he expected him to rebuke Richardson, but as McDOwell said nothing he rode away crestfallen and silent.

Miles did look a little curious and probably did have a we dropie in the eye, but his chief queerness arose from the fact that he wore two hats – straw hats, on over the other. This custom, not an uncommon one in very hot climates he had probably acquired when serving in Arizona, and certainly the weather of this campaign was hot enough to justify the adoption of any custom. The moral of all this is that people going to the war should not indulge in the luxury of two hats.

What Richardson expected to accomplish with his hollow square was beyond my military knowledge. He affected to be something of a tactician and this was probably only and effervescence of this affectation. Looking alternately at the hollow square and the two hats it would have been difficult for any unprejudiced person to decide which was the strongest evidence of tipsiness. A court of inquiry subsequently held upon the matter was unable to decide the question.

Richardson, formerly an officer of the 3d. infantry of the “Old” army, was a gallant fighter. He was mortally wounded at Antietam. Miles was killed at Harper’s Ferry the day before Antietam, and his name had gone into history loaded with opprobrium because of few minutes before his death he caused the white flag of surrender to be hung out. He was neither a coward nor a traitor, but too strict a constructionist of one of General Halleck’s silly orders.

Miles’s division together with Richardson’s brigade, and Sykes battalion of regulars, and four regular batteries and sever fragments of batteries made a strong nucleus for a new line on the heights of Centreville, but the demoralized troops drifted by as though they had no more interest in the campaign. And as there were again no rations it became necessary for even the troops not yet demoralized to withdraw.

A rear guard was formed of Richardson’s and Blenker’s brigade with Hunt’s and my batteries, which, after seeing the field clear of stragglers, took up the line of march at about two o’clock of the morning of July 22d, (1861) The march back was without incident so far as being pursued was concerned. For some distance the road was blocked with wrecked carriages, and wagons from which the horses had been taken. These obstructions had to be cleared away, and it was not until sometime after daylight that we reached Fairfax Court House. This village the hungry soldiers had ransacked for provisions, and as we came up some cavalrymen were making merry over the contents of a store. Seizing the loose end of a bolt of calico or other stuff they rode off at full speed allowing it to unroll and flow behind as a long stream.

The Fire Zouaves were into all the deviltry going on; they had been educated to it in New York. The showiness of their uniforms made them conspicuous as they swarmed over the county, and although less than a thousand strong they seemed three times that number, so ubiquitous were they. Although they had not been very terrifying to the enemy on the battlefield they proved themselves a terror to th citizens of Washington when they arrived there.

The first of the fugitives reached Long Bridge about daybreak on the 22d. Including the turning march around by Sudley Spring and back again this made a march of 45 miles in 36 hours, besides heavy fighting from about 10 A.M. until 4 P.M. on that hot July day – certainly a very good showing for unseasoned men, proving that they had endurance and only lacked the magic of discipline to make of them excellent soldiers. Many of them upon starting out on the campaign had left their camps standing, and thither they repaired as to a temporary home where they could refresh themselves with rations, rest and a change of clothing. This was a temptation that even more seasoned soldiers could scarcely have withstood. It was a misfortune that the battle had to take place so near Washington. More than anything else this was the reason why the demoralized troops could not be rallied at Centreville.

John C. Tidball Papers, U. S. Military Academy

Memoir images

Contributed by John J. Hennessy

John C. Tidball at Wikipedia

John C. Tidball at Fold3

John C. Tidball at FindAGrave

Bull Runnings at West Point

6 11 2017

On Friday, October 20, my family toured the grounds of the United States Military Academy at West Point, NY. Thanks to our mutual friend Dr. Carol Reardon, we were given a guided tour of the post cemetery by military history instructor Lt. Col. David Siry (Dave’s efforts bring us the wonderful West Point Center for Oral History features, which you can also follow on its Facebook page). It was all a little overwhelming – in such a small plot of land, you’re pretty much tripping over U. S. Army history with every step. Cemeteries have the most significant emotional impact of any historic sites for me – not only are they the resting places of the mortal remains of the people I’ve read so much about, but the gravesites were often the last place where loved ones gathered with them, where they were remembered and “sent off” to, well, wherever we think they go. I could have spent a week in the West Point Cemetery. But, of course, I couldn’t. Now, we only had the one day, and it was a football weekend (Army beat Temple on a pass play the next day…A COMPLETED PASS!!!), so before you say “Oh, you should have seen X, Y, or Z” we saw as much as we could see in the time we had. Below, I’ll recap the day via photos of First Bull Run related items. (I took about 275 photos, and they’re not all BR1 related, but this is a First Bull Run site. I’ll post other Civil War related shots on the Bull Runnings Facebook page if you’re interested.)

First thing, if you want to visit the Academy, you’ll need to get clearance and an ID at the off post visitor’s center, where the museum is (we didn’t get back there until after 4:00, when the museum closed.) It’s not too bad – you need your driver’s license and your social security number. Our process took a little longer because it was a football weekend, and alumni and cadet parents get preference. The photo ID is good for up to a year, and it makes a cool souvenir too. Just be patient and don’t try to make too much small talk with the processors.

We picked up Dave near his office in Thayer Hall, and it was off to the cemetery, with our guide describing points of interest along the way. One thing’s for sure: the Academy is very, very gray. Gray, stone, imposing buildings predominate. This stood out in stark contrast to the amazing Fall colors of the Hudson Valley. And we had a beautiful, clear day. (Click on any image for a great-big-giant one.)


Gray – I think that is Thayer Hall to the right.


Not gray – The Hudson Valley from Trophy Point

Here are the Fist Bull Runners as we came across them in the cemetery:


Alonzo Cushing, who was with Co. G, 2nd U. S. Artillery. He was awarded the Medal of Honor in June, 2014



Erasmus Keyes, Brigade Commander, Tyler’s Division


Keyes rear


George Sykes, commanded the U. S. Regular Battalion



General-in-Chief Winfield Scott



Mrs. Scott


Sylvanus Thayer – 5th Superintendent and “Father” of the U. S. Military Academy


Joseph Audenried – ADC to Brig. Gen. Daniel Tyler



George Armstrong Custer – 2nd U. S. Cavalry


George Armstrong Custer – 2nd U. S. Cavalry




George Armstrong Custer – 2nd U. S. Cavalry


George Armstrong Custer – 2nd U. S. Cavalry


Elizabeth Bacon Custer


Lt. Col. Siry and I discuss the history of the Custer memorial as my son listens in

Dennis Hart Mahan and his ideas on engineering and military theory had perhaps the greatest influence on the cadets at West Point. In 1871, after the Board of Visitors recommended he retire, he leapt into the paddlewheel of a Hudson River steamboat.


The Old Cadet Chapel served as the Academy’s place of worship from 1836 until it was replaced by the current Cadet Chapel and moved to the cemetery from its original location, brick by brick through the efforts of alumni, in 1910. It was in this building that cadets gathered in 1861, in the wake of resignations of cadets from southern states, to take a new Oath of Allegiance to the United States and its constitution. Mounted on the walls inside are war trophies and plaques to various individuals, including past superintendents, the first graduating class (2 cadets), and one plaque that lists no name, in non-recognition of former post commander Major General Benedict Arnold (the day before, in Tarrytown, NY, I visited a couple of sites pertaining to the capture of the treacherous Arnold’s British contact, Major John Andre).






Winfield Scott’s pew used in his retirement. He sat next to a column at the far end, which obscured his often dozing form from the view of the officiant.

The new (107-year-old) Cadet Chapel is adorned with representative flags of various Civil War regular units, some of which were present at First Bull Run. It’s also home to the world’s largest chapel pipe organ, with 23,511 pipes. Despite having played – in church, no less – as a youth, I was not going to embarrass myself…






This pew is not used, and the candle remains lit in remembrance of those cadets who did not return home (per an overheard tour guide)

Trophy Point overlooks the Hudson Valley and offers one of the most scenic views in the nation. For many years it was the site of graduation ceremonies, and now is home to a large artillery display (many prizes of war, hence “Trophy Point”) and one of the tallest polished granite columns (46 feet tall, 5 feet in diameter) in the world, the Battle Monument. Designed by architect Stanford White, the Battle Monument displays the names of regular army officers and men who perished in the Civil War. The column is topped by the figure of “Fame.” The names of fallen Regular officers encircle the column, first those on staff, then those in the regular regiments and batteries. Enlisted men’s names are inscribed around eight globes placed around the column.  There are over 2,200 names in all. Each of the eight globes is adorned with two cannons, each muzzle inscribed with the name of a Civil War battle. Here are a few shots of the monument, with particular attention to First Bull Run related items.









Capt. Otis H. Tillinghast, Acting Assistant Quartermaster, McDowell’s Staff, mortally wounded at First Bull Run


Lt. Patrick H. O’Rorke, ADC to B. G. Daniel Tyler; Cadet John R. Meigs, attached to staff of Maj. Henry Hunt, 2nd U. S. Artillery

I’m sure there are names I missed, but again, this was on the fly. Maybe next time.

All-in-all, a great trip. We saw a great deal in addition to what I included above, yet I can’t imagine leaving this place, particularly on such a beautiful fall day, without wishing I had more time. Thanks so much to Lt. Col. David Siry for his fine tour of the cemetery. If you get the chance to visit the U. S. Military Academy at West Point, definitely do it. And give it as much time as possible. It’s an informative and even moving experience.


Lt. Col. David Siry at the grave of Capt. Ronald Zinn, Class of 1962, whose unusual gait led him to race walking and the 1960 & 1964 U. S. Olympic teams


Daniel Tyler

30 07 2009

Brian Downey made this recent post on Lt. Joseph Audenried, who served as an aide to Daniel Tyler at Bull Run.  Be sure to read it – I’ll be incorporating some of it into my own sketch of Audenried.  Good stuff, even a sex scandal.  Hmmm…I wonder if typing those two words will generate more hits for this blog?

Tyler is something of an enigma.  He was McDowell’s most senior division commander, despite having been retired from the army for 27 years.  During the 15 years he spent in the uniform of the United States, he managed to rise to the rank of 1st Lieutenant, and he did not feel compelled to reenter the service for the war with Mexico.  His actions on July 18th at Blackburn’s Ford (at the time referred to as The Battle of Bull Run) had a profound impact on the campaign, as did his decisions on the 21st.  I’ll have plenty to say about Tyler later.  Note that at the time of the battle he was a Brig. Gen. of Connecticut militia.

This article was originally posted on 4/12/2007, as part of the Daniel Tyler biographical sketch.

William T. Sherman

28 07 2009

Colonel William. T. Sherman (while his commission as BGUSV was dated 5/17/61, he was not nominated until 8/2/61 and was confirmed three days later) commanded a brigade in Daniel Tyler’s division of McDowell’s army during the First Bull Run campaign.  He’s been in the news lately thanks to a couple of programs on The History Channel (see here and here).  The battle marked an inauspicious beginning to his storied Civil War career, and he would end up as the commanding general of the U. S. Army after his friend U. S. Grant became president.  But at Bull Run, Sherman committed his brigade in the same piecemeal fashion favored by his fellow commanders on both sides.  I’m not too hard on those fellows, because McDowell’s army of about 35,000 was the largest ever assembled on the North American continent up to that point, and the only man in the country experienced in commanding a force of even 40% its size was Winfield Scott.

As with all Union generals from Ohio, I’m finding the interrelationships surrounding Sherman and shaping his rise to brigade command somewhat labyrinthine.  Sherman briefly partnered in a law firm with members of the Ohio McCooks and his influential in-laws the Ewings.  And the colonel of the 1st OHVI in Schenck’s brigade of Tyler’s Division, Alexander McCook?  His middle name was McDowell.  Powerful Treasury Secretary Salmon Chase, during this time sometimes referred to as General Chase, was from Ohio, and Sherman’s brother Thomas was elected to fill Chase’s vacated senate seat when the latter was appointed to Lincoln’s cabinet.  It doesn’t take long to realize that a non-political general was a rare bird indeed.

Brian Downey recently wrote of a post-war scandal involving Sherman and the widow of Joseph Audenried, who as a young Lt. served on the staff of Sherman’s direct superior Tyler during the campaign.  John Tidball, who was also with McDowell’s army in the summer of ‘61, would wind up on Sherman’s staff years later, when “Uncle Billy” held the highest military office in the land.  Tidball’s biography (discussed here) includes his sketch of his boss at that time which touches on Sherman’s affection for the ladies (page 415):

He was exceedingly fond of the society of ladies, and took as much delight in dancing and such pleasures as a youth just entering manhood, and with them he was as much of a lion as he was a hero with his old soldiers.

With those of the romantic age he was often sprightly upon their all absorbing topic of love and matrimony, a condition of mind that he regarded as a mere working out of the inflexible laws of nature; but while regarding it in this light he did not condemn or ridicule the romantic side of it as mere nonsensical sentimentality.  From young ladies with whom he was intimately acquainted he was fond of extracting the kiss conceded by his age and position, and which they were not loath to grant, nor upon which neither parents or beaux were disposed to frown.  By the envious it was said that in these osculatory performances he sometimes held in so long that he was compelled to breathe through his ears.

Cump, you dog!

This article was originally posted on 5/26/2007, as part of the William T. Sherman biographical sketch.

Lieut. Patrick O’Rorke’s Account of the Campaign

11 05 2008

Private Correspondence – Lieut. P. H. O’Rorke (ADC to Brig. Gen. Daniel Tyler) to his Brother, Thomas*

//Page 1//

Washington City, July 28th, 1861

Dear Brother

I saw P. J. Dowling and Mr. Buckley this morning over at fort Corcoran, and my heart was gladdened by the sight of some letters from home.  These are the first letters from my own family that I have received since I left West Point, a month ago.  I have been changing about from one place to another so much that my letters get lost in following me.  For instance I was told by one of Gen. McDowell’s Staff that there was a letter for me at their HeadQrs. on the other side of the river.  I went over there the next day and found that some of my friends had sent it to Alexandria thinking that I was there.  It will probably reach me in the course of a month.  You ask me for details of the Battle of last Sunday.  To give you a general plan of the Battle and its progress throughout the day would take more time than I have to spare, as I am now busily engaged in assisting Gen. Tyler to collect the reports of the several commanders in his Division, and engrossing them in one.  I shall limit myself to an account of my own experience since I left the Point.  On arriving in this city from the Academy, as you already know I was set to drilling a Reg’t of volunteers from N. Hampshire.  This continued about a week when I was ordered to //VERSO// report in person to Gen. McDowell at his Hd.Qrs. at Arlington.  He immediately sent me to Gen. Tyler at Falls Church a few miles this side of Fairfax to be one of his Aids.  Here we staid until the 16th, being all this time busily engaged in perfecting the organization of the different Brigades composing his division, inspecting Regiments etc.  The day after my arrival at Falls Church I went out with another member of my class Mr. Audenried on a scouting party towards Fairfax then strongly held by the enemy.  We approached to within two miles and a half of Fairfax when we came upon the pickets of the enemy and captured two of them.  I mention this to show that myself and Mr. Audenried were the first of our class within the enemy’s line of pickets, and that we had the first sight of the enemy.  On the 16th the forward movement of the army commenced.  Our Division moved on Vienna.  When we arrived there we found no enemy.  The next day, learning that the enemy had evacuated Fairfax we moved through Germantown and encamped beyond, towards Centreville.  Here we found a camp of the enemy which had just been deserted by them, and in which their fires were yet burning.  Our men picked up here quite a number of carbines and other arms left behind by the rebels in their haste to get out of our way.  The next morning at daylight we were again on the road on the track of the flying enemy, and on arriving at Centreville found that they were yet before us, having abandoned at this point a strongly entrenched position which fully commanded the road by which our Division //Page 2// arrived.  From this point roads diverged in various directions.  We learned here that the enemy had divided his forces, part of them taking a road which led to Blackburn’s Ford over Bull Run, in the direction of Manassas.  Now as we were approaching the strong position of the enemy, it was necessary to move with great caution.  Gen. Tyler now took a squadron of Cavalry and two companies of Infantry to make an armed reconnoisance in the direction of Blackburn’s Ford.

If you will take a good map of that vicinity you will easily follow me.  Well we proceeded without seeing anything of the enemy until we arrived on the crest of a hill overlooking the Ford and about half a mile from it.  From this point we could see the enemy pickets in the valley before us, and bodies of his troops on the high ground on the opposite side, but not in very large numbers.  Our object being to discover if possible something of the enemy’s numbers and the position of the Batteries we knew he had here, the General sent back one of his Aids to order up a couple of 20 pdr. rifled guns, and Richardson’s Brigade to support them.  These were soon on the ground and then we thought we would try to draw their fire, and thus make them discover to us their position.  A large body of Cavalry was standing in an open field about two miles and a half from us, who evidently thought they were beyond our range, from the confidence with which they showed themselves.  We aimed one of our 20 pdrs. carefully, and sent a shell whizzing towards them. //VERSO// In about ten seconds the shell fell and burst among them, and it certainly was amusing to see them scamper.  They got themselves out of sight in double quick time I can assure you.  We then aimed and fired at several prominent points, where the enemy could be seen, but for several minutes they maintained an obstinate silence.  At last when we had about concluded that they were determined not to show themselves, a battery of two pieces opened very unexpectedly, almost at the foot of the hill on the crest of which we were standing, sending their balls right amongst us as we were standing grouped around our pieces.  We immediately turned our pieces on this Battery whose position we could not see, but which we could determine approximately from the smoke rising through the trees.  In about four minutes they ceased firing and we heard nothing more from that point.

Our object being so far but very partially attained, Col. Richardson was directed to throw forward skirmishers into a small wood, between us and Bull Run, who were directed to feel their way cautiously forward, and see what they could discover, a couple of Regiments being marched forward and placed under cover in a ravine, within supporting distance.  In the meantime I had been sent back to Centreville to bring up Ayres’ Battery and Sherman’s Brigade so as to be prepared for any emergency, and I arrived on the ground with the Battery just as our skirmishers //Page 3// were entering the wood.  In a few moments we heard a scattered firing commence in this wood, as our skirmishers met those of the enemy.  The affair now began to get interesting.  Now men were thrown forward to  support our skirmishers, and as the General had discovered an opening in the wood in which  a couple of pieces of Art’y could be unlimbered, he now sent Capt. Ayres with two Howitzers to that point to open a fire upon the enemy within a short range.  Ayres took his pieces to the indicated point and sent a couple of charges of Canister among the enemy who appeard to be in great numbers a short distance in his front.  This was more than human nature could stand quietly, and the enemy answered by a thundering volley of musketry and artillery, thus showing us that they were in very great force, and also the positions of their Batteries.  This was all we wanted to know and the affair would have ended there, but before the General could interfere Col Richardson sent the 12th N. Y. Reg’t in line into the wood to clear it.  They went forward in excellent order, until they reached the edge of a ravine, in the bottom, and on the opposite side of which the enemy were posted.  Here they were exposed to the combined fire of three or four thousand troops, and two Batteries.  They returned the fire warmly for a few minutes, but the odds were too great, and they finally broke, and retreated in confusion.

Lt. Upton and myself had just ridden down into the woods to see how it felt to be under such a fire //VERSO// and we arrived behind our lines just before they broke and ran.  We rode about among the men and used every exertion to rally them and lead them again against the enemy.  We appealed to their pride and to their manhood.  We begged them for the honor of our state and of our flag to reform, and make another stand – but without effect.  Their officers I must say were worse than the men, and set them and example of tall running.  Only two companies stood their ground and were withdrawn in good order.  The object of our reconnoisance having now been attained the men were withdrawn to a safe position, while our two Batteries were directed upon the enemy whose position we now knew, and with terrible effect as we have since learned.  The enemy acknowledge a loss of 150 killed and more than twice that number wounded, at the same time claiming to have killed 1500 of our men.  The truth is we had but 19 killed and 38 wounded.  Col. Richardson remained in possession of the ground we occupied in the beginning of the engagement until the Battle on Sunday last.

I was now satisfied.  I had been under fire, and a pretty warm one too, and had felt no inclination to run.  The general and his staff returned to Centreville and I lay down that night and slept contented.  The next two days we lay encamped at that place.  On the night succeeding our action at Blackburn’s ford //Page 4// cars were heard constantly arriving at and departing from Manassas during the whole night.  Most of us felt confident that Johnston had effected a junction with Beauregard, and that we should have to fight their combined armies.  On Sunday morning we were ordered to march at half past two in the morning in the direction of Gainsville and take up a position just this side of Bull Run.  Hunter’s and Heintzelman’s columns took a road which crossed Bull Run about a mile and a half to our right, while Richardson’s Brigade remained to watch Blackburn’s Ford and prevent the enemy from flanking us.  Col. Miles was posted with the reserve at Centreville.  We arrived at the position assigned us about half past five – when I say “us”, I mean Tyler’s Division, about 12,000 men less Richardson’s Brigade – and fired the gun agreed upon to let the other column’s know that we were in position, and ready to sustain them.  In front of the centre of the line which we formed here was a Stone Bridge, obstructed by Abbattis and supposed to be mined, though it was not.  To the right and left were fords at short distances above and below the Bridge.  All these crossings were defended by Batteries placed so as to sweep them, and all the approaches to them, these Batteries being supported by large bodies of Infantry.  Our Division was composed of Sherman’s Brigade – in which were the 13th our Rochester Reg’t, the 69th, the 79th, and a Wisconsin Reg’t //VERSO// Gen. Schenck’s Brigade, and Col. Keyes’ Brigade.  We remained in position at this point until nearly 11 o’clock, amusing ourselves in the meantime by firing upon bodies of the enemy which we could see passing down the other side of the Run in the direction of Hunter’s column, of whose movement they seemed to be apprised.

The General sent me up into a large tree with a glass to see and report what was going on in that direction.  Using this tree as an observatory, I had a fine view of the beginning of the Battle and its continuance for half an hour before being engaged in it myself.  I saw Hunter’s column after it had crossed the Run, coming up towards us, or rather towards the enemy in our front.  The latter were at the same time moving large bodies of troops to meet him.

Finally they stopped in a open field, through which the road by which Hunter was advancing ran, and prepared to dispute his passage.  Here they placed a Battery to enfilade this road at the point at which it emerged from a wood, and posted their man in line of Battle on either side of their Battery, at the same time throwing out skirmishers into this wood to annoy him as he advanced.  Hunter advanced steadily driving the enemy’s skirmishers before him and deployed a portion of his column in the edge of a wood.  He then threw a section of one of his light Batteries up along this road into the open space in front, this Section being all this time under heavy fire from the enemy’s Battery.  As soon as it came out into the open space in front of the wood it unlimbered and opened its fire, the other sections coming up successively and opening as soo as they were in position.  At the //Page 5// same time Hunter opened a heavy musketry fire from the whole edge of the wood which he had occupied, and the engagement became general throughout the whole line.  The enemy stood it only for a few minutes when they broke and ran in the greatest confusion.  Hunter followed up his success and drove the enemy from one position to another, the enemy contesting every foot of the ground, until he arrived nearly opposite our position, when his column seemed to be arrested and I saw the enemy bringing down heavy reinforcements from the direction of Manassas.  I immediately reported these facts to Gen. Tyler when he at once ordered Sherman’s Brigade to cross the Run and support Hunter.  I then got down from my perch and joined the General.  In climbing the tree my cap had got knocked off, and when I came down I found some one had walked off with it.  I looked round and finally picked up an old straw hat, which some poor fellow had probably been killed in, as the inside and under side of the leaf was covered with blood & I wore that all day.  Pleasant, wasn’t it, wearing a dead man’s hat and expecting to follow suit every moment.  Sherman’s Brigade now crossed the run and on reaching the crest of the hill on the opposite side they encountered a portion of the enemy and routed them.  Here the Lt. Col. Of the 69th was killed.  This Brigade now joined Hunter’s column //VERSO// and I saw no more of them until the Retreat.  Consequently I can say nothing from personal observation as to the conduct of our Rochester Regiment in the action, though from all I can learn they behaved very handsomely.

Gen. Tyler, and of course myself, now crossed the Run under a heavy artillery fire at the head of Keyes’ Brigade.  We arrived on the high ground on the opposite side in good order and became immediately involved in the action.  We drove the enemy from point to point, until we finally arrived in front of a large house and its enclosure which the enemy had occupied with a large force and prepared for defence.  This position Keyes’ Brigade was ordered to carry, and in this operation Gen. Tyler and his staff assisted in person.  The Brigade was advanced in line, or rather in two lines nearly at right angles to each other against two sides of the position under a galling fire of musketry until within a short distance, when we opened a hot and continued fire upon the enemy.  Our men stood to their work bravely being entirely exposed while the enemy were sheltered.  Only once did they show any disposition to retire, and they were easily rallied.  We now made them lie down and continue their fire, which they did with a will for about five minutes.  During this time Lt. Abbott, Lt. Upton, and myself were the only mounted officers exposed to this fire and as we were necessarily very prominent, and only about fifty yards from the //Page 6// enemy were excellent marks for their riflemen.  Judging by the bullets which whistled by my ears, they must have taken particular care to fire at us, though we all escaped safely at that time.  I have got a hole in the skirt of my coat which I suppose was mae by one of their balls at this time.  The fire of the enemy now appearing to slacken a little, the order was given to charge with the bayonet which was done in splendid style, clearing the enclosure of the enemy and getting possession of the house in which we found a few of them, who could not get out in time and who were taken prisoners.  As soon as we found ourselves in possession of the house, a Battery which we had not seen before as it had been silent & was concealed, opened upon us and tore the old house all to pieces.  We found the place too hot to hold and retired into the road running in front of the house which happened to be cut down at this point thus giving us a shelter.  From this position we made a flank movement to turn this Battery intending to charge and take it if possible.  This movement was made under cover of a hill on which this Battery was placed.  We had just completed the movement and were about to charge up the hill on the Battery when we discovered that the other columns were retreating and a half mile distant, so that unless we took the back track instanter there was every probability of our being cut off.  The Retreat was consequently ordered //VERSO// and our Brigade joined the retreating column in good order.  I could scarcely believe the evidence of my senses when I saw that our army was retreating.  That portion of it with which I had been had been uniformely successful through the day, and I thought we were winning a glorious victory.  I was highly elated with success, and you can judge of the reversion of feeling which took place when I found we were retiring.

The Retreat was well enough and if it had been conducted with order there would be nothing to be ashamed of, for the number of fresh troops that the enemy had bought up to oppose us was overpowering, but after a short time when their cavalry charged upon our flank the Retreat degenerated into a rout.  It was at this time that my horse was killed under me.  We saw their cavalry coming down on us and tried to form enough men to repel the charge.  IN this, with considerably (sic) difficulty we were successful.  Some of the Ohio troops and Ayres’ Battery gave them a volley as they came down on us which emptied a good many of their saddles and sent them back again.  But they gave us one volley from their rifled carbines, one of the balls taking effect on my horse and killing him instantly.  He staggered forward a few steps and fell, throwing me on a pile of stones and bruising my right arm.  I got a Secession horse from a man in Ayres’ Battery, which he had just caught, and rode him to Centreville.  Of the Retreat from this point I do not care to speak.

I arrived a Falls Church at 5 o’clock the next morning having been in the saddle for twenty seven hours without anything to eat in the meantime, and without having eaten anything before going out, as I was sicj when we started.  I can assure you I //Page 7// was pretty well worn out.  After sleeping about three hours and getting a little breakfast I mounted my horse again and was out almost all day, in the midst of a heavy storm of rain bringing things down to Fort Corcoran and finally arrived here in Washington about 9 o’clock at night, having been thoroughly soaked to the skin for several hours.  I never slept so much in one night in my life as I did that night.  Since then I have been here in the City most of the time.  For the last two days I have been assisting Gen. Tyler to make out his official report.  He has been kind enough to mention me very honorably in it.  You will probably see it published in the N. Y. paper in a day or two.

Now, my dear Brother I have written here until I am tired and if you have read thus far I am sure you are too.  But I thought an account of the Battle by an eye-witness and an actor, would perhaps be more interesting to you than the newspaper accounts, particularly when the writer was your Brother.

I cannot find time to write any extended account of the Battle to all my friends, so if any of them want to know my experiences, you may show them this.  I saw Tom Bishop to-day he is all right.  I have not been able to see Charley Buckley but I hear that he is getting along very well.  Give my love to Mary, also to Mother and all our family.

Your affectionate

Brother Patrick

*For reference and citational info, see here

#16 – Brig. Gen. Daniel Tyler

3 10 2007


Reports of Brig. Gen. Daniel Tyler, Connecticut Militia, Commanding First Division

O.R.– SERIES I–VOLUME 2 [S# 2] — CHAPTER IX, pp 348 – 352


Washington City, July 27, 1861

GENERAL: In obedience to Orders, No. 22, dated Centreville, July 20, Sherman’s, Schenck’s, and Keyes’ brigades of this division–Richardson’s brigade having been left in front of Blackburn’s Ford–moved at 2.30 a.m. on the 21st instant to threaten the passage of the Warrenton turnpike bridge on Bull Run. I arrived in front of the bridge with Schenck’s and Sherman’s brigades and Ayres’ and Carlisle’s batteries about 6 a.m., Keyes’ brigade having been halted by your order to watch the road coming up from Manassas, and about two miles from the run. After examining the position, and posting Sherman’s and Schenck’s brigades and the artillery, I fired the first gun at 6.30 a.m., as agreed upon, to show that we were in position.

As my orders were to threaten the passage of the bridge, I caused Schenck’s brigade to be formed into line, its left resting in the direction of the bridge and the battery which the enemy had established to sweep the bridge and its approach, so as to threaten both. Sherman’s brigade was posted to the right of the Warrenton turnpike, so as to be in position to sustain Schenck or to move across Bull Run in the direction of Hunter’s column. The 30-pounder gun attached to Carlisle’s battery was posted on the Warrenton turnpike: with Ayres’ battery considerably in its rear. Carlisle’s battery was posted on the left of Sherman’s brigade. In this position we awaited the appearance of Hunter’s and Heintzelman’s columns, as ordered, until such time as the approach to the bridge should be carried: and the bridge rebuilt by Captain Alexander, of the Engineers, who had on the spot the necessary structure for that purpose.

Soon after getting into position we discovered that the enemy had a heavy battery, with infantry in support, commanding both the road and bridge approaches, on which both Ayres and Carlisle at different times tried the effect of their guns without success, and a careful examination of the banks of Bull Run satisfying me that they were impracticable for the purpose of artillery, these batteries had to remain comparatively useless until such time as Hunter’s column might clear the approach by a movement on the opposite bank. During this period of waiting the 30-pounder was occasionally used with considerable effect against bodies of infantry and cavalry, which could be seen from time to time moving in the direction of Hunter’s column and out of the range of ordinary guns. Using a high tree as an observatory, we could constantly see the operations of Hunter’s and Heintzelman’s column from the time they crossed Bull Run, and through one of my staff, Lieutenant O’Rorke, of the Engineers, I was promptly notified as to any change in the progress of their columns up to the time when it appeared that the heads of both were arrested, and the enemy seemed to be moving heavy re-enforcements to support their troops.

At this time I ordered Colonel Sherman, with his brigade, to cross Bull Run and to support the two columns already in action. Colonel Sherman, as appears by his report, crossed the run without opposition, and after encountering a party of the enemy flying before Hunter’s forces, found General McDowell, and received his orders to join in the pursuit. The subsequent operations of this brigade and its able commander having been under your own eye and direction, I shall not follow its movements any further, but refer you to Colonel Sherman’s report, which you will find herewith.

So soon as it was discovered that Hunter’s division had been arrested, I ordered up Keyes’ brigade, which arrived just as the left of Sherman’s was crossing the run, and having satisfied myself that the enemy had not the force nor the purpose to cross Bull Run, I ordered Keyes’ brigade to follow Sherman, accompanying the movement in person, as I saw it must necessarily place me on the left of our line and in the best possible position, when we should have driven the enemy off, to join Schenck’s brigade and the two batteries left on the opposite side.

I ordered Colonel Keyes to incline the head of his column a little to the right of the line of march taken by Sherman’s brigade, to avoid the fire of a battery which the enemy had opened. This movement sheltered the men to a considerable degree, and resulted in closing on the rear of Sherman’s brigade, and on reaching the high ground I ordered Colonel Keyes to form into line on the left of Sherman’s brigade, which was done with great steadiness and regularity. After waiting a few moments the line was ordered to advance, and came into conflict on its right with the enemy’s cavalry and infantry, which, after some severe struggles, it drove back until the further march of the brigade was arrested by a severe fire of artillery and infantry, sheltered by some buildings standing on the heights above the road leading to Bull Run. The charge was here ordered, and the Second Maine and Third Connecticut Regiments, which were opposed to this part of the enemy’s line, pressed forward to the top of the hill until they reached the buildings which were held by the enemy, drove them out, and for a moment had them in possession. At this point, finding the brigade under the fire of a strong force behind breastworks, the order was given to march by the left flank across an open field until the whole line was sheltered by the right bank of Bull Run, along which the march was conducted, with a view to turn the battery which the enemy had placed on the hill below the point at which the Warrenton turnpike crosses Bull Run. The march was conducted for a considerable distance below the stone bridge, causing the enemy to retire, and gave Captain Alexander an opportunity to pass the bridge, cut out the abatis which had been placed there, and prepared the way for Schenck’s brigade and the two batteries of artillery to pass over.

Before the contemplated movement could be made on the enemy’s battery it was removed, and placed in a position to threaten our line; but before the correct range could be obtained, Colonel Keyes carried his brigade by a flank movement around the base of the hill, and was on the point of ascending it in line to get at the battery, when I discovered that our troops were on the retreat, and that unless a rapid movement to the rear was made we should be cut off, and through my aide, Lieutenant Upton, Colonel Keyes was ordered to file to the right, and join the retreating column. The order was executed without the least confusion, and the brigade joined the retreating column in good order. When this junction was made I left Keyes’ brigade, and rode forward to ascertain the condition of Schenck’s brigade and the artillery left this side of Bull Run, and, on arriving there, found Ayres’ battery and Lieutenant Hains’ 30-pounder waiting orders. I immediately ordered Lieutenant Hains to limber up and move forward as soon as possible. This was promptly done, and the piece moved on towards Centreville. I then went into the wood where the ammunition wagon of this piece had been placed, out of reach of fire, and found that the driver had deserted and taken away part of the horses, which made it impossible to move it. I then returned to Ayres’ battery, which I found limbered up, and ordered it to move forward and cover the retreat, which was promptly done by its gallant officers, and when the cavalry charge was made, shortly afterward, they repulsed it promptly and effectively. I then collected a guard, mainly from the Second Maine Regiment, and put it under the command of Colonel Jameson, with orders to sustain Captain Ayres during the retreat, which was done gallantly and successfully until the battery reached Centreville.

Before ordering Colonel Jameson to cover Ayres’ battery, I passed to the rear to find General Schenck’s brigade, intending, as it was fresh, to have it cover the retreat. I did not find it in the position in which I had left it, and supposed it had moved forward and joined the retreating column. I did not see General Schenck again until near Cub Run, where he appeared active in rallying his own or some other regiments. General Schenck reports that the two Ohio regiments left Bull Run after the cavalry charge, and arrived at Centreville in good order.

In closing this report, it gives me great pleasure to express my admiration of the manner in which Colonel Keyes handled his brigade, completely covering it by every possible accident of the ground while changing his positions, and leading it bravely and skillfully to the attack at the right moment; to which the brigade responded in every instance in a manner highly creditable to itself and satisfactory to its commanding officers. At no time during the conflict was this brigade disorganized, and it was the last off the field, and in good order.

Colonel Keyes says: “The gallantry with which the Second Maine and Third Connecticut Regiments charged up the hill upon the enemy’s artillery and infantry was never, in my opinion, surpassed, and the conduct of Colonels Jameson and Chatfield, in this instance and throughout the day, merits the highest commendation. Colonel Terry rendered great assistance by his gallantry and excellent conduct. Lieutenant Hascall, acting assistant adjutant-general, Lieutenants Walter and Ely, rendered gallant and effective assistance.” It gives me pleasure to be able to confirm the above from personal observation, and to express my personal satisfaction with the conduct of this brigade. For further particulars as to gallant conduct of individuals, I beg leave to refer you to the reports of commanders of brigades, hereunto attached. Colonel Sherman speaks highly of Colonel Coon, of Wisconsin, and Lieutenants Piper and McQuesten, all on his personal staff.

From my own personal staff I received in every instance prompt and gallant assistance, and my thanks are due to Captains Baird and Merrill, Lieutenants Houston, Abbot, Upton, O’Rorke, and Audenried for gallant conduct and the prompt and valuable assistance they rendered me. Lieutenants Abbot and Upton were both wounded and each had a horse killed under him, as also had Lieutenant O’Rorke.

I inclose herewith a table of casualties, showing our losses at Bull Run.

I have the honor to be, with great respect, your most obedient servant,


Brigadier-General, Commanding Division

Brigadier-General McDOWELL,

Commanding Department of Northeastern Virginia



Washington City, July 27, 1861

GENERAL: I closed my division report of the battle at Bull Run at the time we left for Centreville. It is due to me and to my division that its subsequent movements be noticed up to the time the different brigades reached a stopping place. On reaching Centreville, we found Richardson’s brigade in line, ready to support us or cover the retreat. This brigade returned in good order to Arlington. After the order was given to retreat, and each brigade was ordered “to proceed to the position from which it started and by the route by which it arrived,” I communicated this order to the commander of each brigade, and with Keyes’ brigade proceeded at once to Falls Church, intending to secure the camp equipage of the four regiments left standing there, which I knew, if we fell back on the fortifications in front of Washington, the enemy would at once seize.

Colonel Keyes, with the three Connecticut regiments, arrived at Falls Church about 5 a.m. on the 22d instant, and proceeded at once to strike their tents and those of the Maine regiment, and sent them to Fort Corcoran. This work, without rations, was continued throughout the entire day, the men being exposed to a severe storm of rain. By night the entire camp equipage was safely removed. Colonel Keyes then fell back to the camp of Schenck’s brigade, which had been entirely deserted, and after using those tents for the night struck them the next morning, and sent the entire Government property to Fort Corcoran and Alexandria, and at 7 p.m. on Tuesday I saw the three Connecticut regiments, with 2,000 bayonets, march under the guns of Fort Corcoran in good order, after having saved us not only a large amount of public property, but the mortification of having our standing camps fall into the hands of the enemy. I know, general, that you will appreciate this service on the part of a portion of my division and give credit to whom credit is due. All the brigades, except Schenck’s, obeyed the order to retire to their original positions. By some misunderstanding, which has not been satisfactorily explained, this brigade proceeded directly to Washington, one regiment, as I understand, passing through the camp they left on the 16th instant.

With very great respect, your very obedient servant,


Brigadier-General, Commanding Division

Brigadier-General McDOWELL,

Commanding Department of Northeastern Virginia



Washington, August 3, 1861

GENERAL: I inclose herewith the originals of Carlisle’s and Ayres’ reports of the operations of their respective batteries on the 21st instant [Nos. 20 and 27]. As these reports are full, you will see whether they do not require more consideration than they have received in my report. All the officers attached to these batteries, so far as their conduct fell under my personal observation until 12 o’clock, behaved like gallant gentlemen, and it was, in my opinion, the effect of their fire that held the enemy in front of the bridge in check and interfered seriously with the movements of his column in the direction of Colonel Hunter’s attack. The loss of Captain Carlisle’s battery is to be attributed to the want of that infantry support which he had a right to expect, or to his halting too long before he moved forward towards Centreville.

With great respect, your obedient servant,



Brigadier-General McDOWELL,

Commanding Department Northeastern Virginia

Table – Return of casualties in the First Division (Union) of Northeastern Virginia, at the Battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861

Order of Battle – USA

5 01 2007




B = Biographical Sketch, D = Diary, I = Image, M = Memoir, MH = Medical History, MOH = Medal of Honor, News = Newspaper Account, OC = Official Correspondence, OR = Official Report, PC = Private Correspondence, T = JCCW Testimony

Bvt. Lt. Gen. Winfield Scott, General-in-Chief (News, T, OC)

McDowell’s Army

(Sometimes now called Army of Northeastern Virginia)

Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell (B, OC, OR1, OR2, OR3, T1, T2)

Acting Assistant Adjutant General (AAAG)

  • Capt. James B. Fry (M,OC)

Acting Assistant Quartermaster (AAQ)

  • Capt. O. H. Tillinghast (MW)


  • Capt. H. F. Clarke, Chief of Subsistence Department (OR)
  • Lieut. George Bell, Acting Commissary Subsistence (OR)
  • Lieut. James Curtis(s), Acting Commissary Subsistence (OR)
  • Lieut. John P. Hawkins, Acting Commissary of Subsistence (OR)

Signal Officers

  • Maj. Albert Myer
  • Maj. Malcolm McDowell (Ass’t)


  • Maj. J. G. Barnard, Chief (B, OR, T)
  • Capt. A. W. Whipple, Topographical Engineer
  • 2nd Lt. H. S. Putnam, Topographical Engineer


  • Surgeon W. S. King (OR)
  • Assist Surgeon Magruder


  • Maj. W. F. Barry, 5th Artillery (OR, T)


  • Lt. Geo. C. Strong

Acting Inspector General (AIG)

  • Maj. W. H. Wood, (17th US Inf)

Aides-de-camp (ADC)

  • 1st Lt. H. W. Kingsbury, Fifth Artillery (B)
  • 2nd Lt. Guy V. Henry (I)
  • Maj. Clarence S. Brown, New York Militia
  • Maj. James S. Wadsworth, New York Militia (T)

First Division

Brig. Gen. Daniel Tyler (B, OR1, OR2, T1, T2, OC)

  • Capt. A. Baird, AAAG
  • Capt. Merrill, AAQ
  • Capt. B. S. Alexander, Chief Engineer (OC, I)
  • 1st Lt. H. L. Abbot, Topographical Engineer/ADC
  • Lt. J. C. Audenried, ADC
  • Lt. D. C. Houston, ADC
  • Lt. P. H. O’Rorke, ADC (PC1, PC2)
  • Lt. E. Upton, ADC

First Brigade

Col. Erasmus D. Keyes (OR, T)

  • Lt. H. A. Hascall, AAAG
  • Lt. (H. C.?) Hodge(s?), AAQ
  • Lt. Ely, Commissary
  • Lt. Gordon, ADC
  • Lt. Walter, ADC
  • Dr. P. W. Ellsworth, Surgeon of CT Brigade (PC)

2nd MEVI

  • Col. Charles D. Jameson (OR)
    • Lt. Col. C. W. Roberts
    • Maj. G. Varney
      • “Stephen” (PC)
        • Co. A – Capt. H. Bartlett
          • Lt. Rinaldo B. Wiggin (PC)
        • Co. B – Capt. C. W. Tilden
        • Co. C – Capt. N. E. Jones
        • Co. D – Capt. J. S. Sampson
          • Cpl. Benjamin F. Smart (PC, I)
        • Co. E – Capt. L. Emerson
        • Co. F – Capt. D. Chaplin
        • Co. G – D. F. Sargent
          • Pvt. James Kelley (PC)
        • Co. H – Capt. F. Meinecke
          • Sgt. William P. Holden (PC)
            • Pvt. George Field (PC)
        • Co. I – Capt. J. Carroll
        • Co K – Capt. F. C. Foss

1st CTVI

  • Col. G. S. Burnham (OR)
    • Lt. Col. Speidel
    • Maj. T. Byxbee
      • Co. A. – Capt. J. S. Comstock
        • Pvt. Charles H. Hayes (I)
      • Co. B – Capt. J. H. Chapman
      • Co. C – Capt. L. N. Hillman
      • Co. D – Capt. M. Coon
      • Co. E – Capt. E. E. Wildman
        • Pvt. David Sloane (PC)
      • Co. F – Capt. G. W. Wilson
      • Co. G – Capt. F. W. Hart
      • Co. H – Capt. Richard Fitzgibbon (PC)
      • Rifle Co. A – Capt. J. R. Hawley
      • Rifle Co. B – Capt. J. Holzer

2nd CTVI

  • Col. A. H. Terry
    • Lt. Col. D. Young
    • Maj. L. Colburn
      • “G.” (PC)
      • Rifle Co. A – Capt. F. S. Chester
        • Pvt. John T. Phillips. (PC1PC2)
        • Pvt. James F. Wilkinson
      • Rifle Co. B – Capt. H. Peale
      • Rifle Co. C – Capt. E. C. Chapman
      • Rifle Co. D – Capt. J. W. Gore
      • Rifle Co. E – Capt. S. T. Cooke
      • Rifle Co. F – Capt. J. E. Durivage
        • 2nd Lt. Charles E. Palmer (PC1, PC2)
      • Infantry Co. A – Capt. D. Dickinson
      • Infantry Co. B – Capt. A. G. Kellogg
      • Infantry Co. C – Capt. E. W. Osborn
      • Infantry Co. D – Capt. G. D. Russell

3rd CTVI

  • Col. J. L. Chatfield (B, OR)
    • Lt. Col. A. G. Brady
    • Major Alexander Warner  (PC)
      • Surgeon John McGregor (I)
      • Chaplain Junius M. Willey (PC)
          • Unknown Pvt. (PC)
        • Infantry Co. A – Capt. D. Fowler
          • Lt. Lucius L. Bolles (PC)
            • Pvt. George Coles Brown (PC)
        • Infantry Co. B – Capt. D. Klein
        • Infantry Co. C – Capt. J. E. Moore
          • G. W. B. (PC)
        • Infantry Co. D – Capt. Frederick Frye (PC)
        • Rifle Co. A – Capt. G. N. Lewis
        • Rifle Co. B – Capt. J. R. Cook
        • Rifle Co. C – Capt. S. J. Root
        • Rifle Co. D – Capt. E. Harland
        • Rife Co. E (Co. I) – Capt. J. A. Nelson
          • Pvt. Augusts E. Bronson (C) (PC, I)
        • Rifle Co. F – Capt. C. A. Stevens

Second Brigade

Brig. Gen. Robert C. Schenck (OR1, OR2)

2nd NYSM (Later 82nd NYVI)

  • Col. G. W. B. Tompkins
    • Lt. Col. J. H. Wilcox
    • Maj. J. J. Dimock
      • Unknown Captain (PC)
        • Pequot (PC)
        • Unknown (PC)
      • Co. A – Capt. C. Graham
      • Co. B – Capt. T. M. Reid
      • Co. C – Capt. E. B. Stead
      • Co. D 1st -Capt. J. Kennedy
      • Co. E – Capt. J. Huston
      • Co. F – Capt. J. Brady
      • Co. G 1st – Capt. L. Jaehrling
      • Co. G 2nd – Capt. R. Barry
      • Co. H – Capt. D. De Courcey
      • Co. I – Capt. J. J. Delaney
      • Co. K – Capt. J. Darrow
      • Howitzer Corps – Capt. Thaddeus Phelps Motts
      • Engineer Corps – Capt. E. H. Sage

1st OHVI (3 Month)

  • Col. Alexander McD. McCook
    • Lt. Col. E. A. Parrott
    • Maj. J. G. Hughes
      • Co. A – Capt. J. A. Stafford
        • Pvt. Henry Harrison Comer (PC)
      • Co. B – Capt. P. Dister
      • Co. C – Capt. G. D. McKinney
      • Co. D – Capt. J. Crowe
      • Co. E – Capt. J. Ensworth
      • Co. F – Capt. J. Kell
      • Co. G – Capt. G. B. Bailey
      • Co. H – Capt. J. C. Hazlett
      • Co. I – Capt. W. McGlaughlin
      • Co. K – Capt. J Bruck

2nd OHVI (3 Month) – Lt. Col. R. Mason (Col. Lewis Wilson)

  • Col. Lewis Wilson
    • Lt. Col. R. Mason
    • Maj.  A. C. Perry
      • Co. A – Capt. G. M. Finch
        • Pvt. Oliver S. Glenn (PC)
      • Co. B – Capt. H. Thrall
      • Co. C – Capt. A. O. Mitchell
      • Co. D – Capt. J. G. Baldwin
      • Co. E – Capt. C. Haltenhof
      • Co. F – Capt. D. King
      • Co. G – Capt. J. Q. Black
        • Corp. William Pittenger (PC, I)
      • Co. H – Capt. A. G. McCook
      • Co. I – Capt. L. A. Harris
      • Co. K – Capt. W. Baldwin

Battery E, 2nd US Artillery (6 Guns)

  • Capt. J. H. Carlisle (OR)
    • Lt. John M. Wilson (OR)
    • Lt. Stephen C. Lyford (OR)
    • Lt. Edward B. Hill (OR)
    • Lt. William B. D. Fuller (OR)

Battery G, 1st US Artillery (1 Gun)

  • Lt. Peter C. Hains

Third Brigade

Col. W. T. Sherman (B, News, OR, OC, PC1, PC2PC3, PC4PC5, PC6)

  • Lt. A. Piper, AAAG
  • Lt. J. F. McQuesten, AAQ
  • Col. Coon, (WI), ADC
  • Lt. Bagley, ADC

13th NYVI (N)

  • Col. Isaac F. Quinby
    • Lt. Col. C. Stephan
    • Maj. O. L. Terry
      • Byron (PC)
      • Co. A – Capt. C. G. Putnam
        • A. [?.] C., (PC)
        • Pvt. Daniel A. Sharpe (PC)
        • Fifer Sherman Greig (PC)
      • Co. B – Capt. G. Hyland, Jr.
        • Sgt. Mark J. Bunnell (PC1, PC2)
        • Corp. George M. Morris (PC)
        • Pvt. Clarence D. Hess (Band) (PC)
        • Pvt Miles O. Wright (PC)
      • Co. C – Capt. Adolph Nolte (PC1, PC2)
      • Co. D – Capt. L. Brown
        • Lt. Edwin S. Gilbert (PC, I)
      • Co. E – Capt. F. A. Schoeffel
        • Unknown (PC)
        • W (PC)
          • Pvt. Wilbur D. Cook (PC)
      • Co. F – Capt. H. Smith
        • Pvt. George Trimble (PC)
        • Pvt. Thomas Westcott (PC)
      • Co. G (1st) – Capt. G. W. Lewis
        • Lt. Israel H. Putnam (PC)
        • Lt. Walter M. Fleming (PC1, I)
          • Sgt. William L. Fleming (PC)
          • W (PC)
          • Pvt. Anson Hobart (PC)
          • Pvt. Robert S. Parker (PC)
      • Co. H (1st) – Capt. Henry B. Williams (PC)
      • Co. I  (1st) – Capt. W. F. Tully
      • Co. K (1st) – Capt. H. J. Thomas
        • Lt. Eugene P. Fuller (PC)

69th NYSM

  • Col. Michael Corcoran (W&C) (PC1, PC2, I)
    • Lt. Col. – Capt. J. Haggerty, Acting (K) (Lt. Col R. Nugent Injured)
    • Maj. – Capt. Francis T. Meagher, Acting (Maj. A. J. Bagley in New York)
      • J. F. F (PC)
      • Co. A – Capt. – Lt. T. Kelly, Acting (Capt. J. Haggerty acting Lt. Col.)
        • Pvt. Alexander Carolin (PC)
        • Thomas D. Norris (PC)
      • Co. B – Capt. T. Lynch
      • Co. C –  Capt. J. C(K)avanagh
      • Co. D – Capt. T. Clarke
        • P. J. R. (PC)
      • Co. E – Capt. P. Kelly
        • M. Crosbie (PC)
        • John Stacom (PC)
      • Co. F – Capt. J. Breslin
        • Pvt. Thomas McQuade (PC)
      • Co. G – Capt. F. Duffy
        • Pvt. James Rorty (PC, I)
      • Co. H – Capt. J. Kelly (OR)
      • Co. I – Capt. J. P. McIvor (C)
        • Pvt. Peter Kelly (I)
      • Co. K – Capt. – Lt. E. K. Butler (C), Acting (Capt. T. F. Meagher acting Maj.)
        • Sgt. William O’Donohue (I)
        • “R” (PC)
      • Engineer Corps. – Capt. J. Quinlan or Capt. J. B. Kirker
79th NYVI
  • Col. J. Cameron (K)
    • Lt. Col.  S. Mck. Elliot
    • Maj. D. McClellan
      • Unknown (PC)
      • Co. A – Capt. W. Manson
      • Co. B – Capt. J. A. Farrish
      • Co. C – Capt. T. Barclay
      • Co. D – Capt. D. Brown
      • Co. E – Capt. D. Morrison
      • Co. F – Capt. J. Christie
        • Pvt. Alexander Campbell (PC)
      • Co. G – Capt. J. Laing
      • Co. H – Capt. J. E. Coulter
      • Co. I – Capt. R. T. Shillinglaw
        • Pvt. John Glennon (Glennan) (PC)
      • Co. K – Capt. H. A. Ellis
        • Sgt. John Kane (T)
        • Sgt. Charles McFadden (PC)

2nd WIVI

  • Col. Park S. Coon
    • Lt. Col. H. W.Peck
    • Maj. D. McDonald
      • “C.” (PC)
      • Co. A – Capt. G. H. Stevens
      • Co. B – Capt. W. Colwell
        • Pvt John E. Donovan (PC, MH)
      • Co. C – Capt. D. McKee
      • Co. D – Capt. G. B. Ely
        • W. H. Foote (PC)
        • Sgt. George F. Saunders (PC)
          • Pvt. Leonard Powell (PC)
      • Co. E – Capt. G. Bouck
        • Lt. Herman B. Jackson (M)
          • Sgt. Lyman H. Smith (PC)
      • Co. F – Capt. W. E. Strong
      • Co. G – Capt. J. Mansfield
      • Co. H – Capt. J. F. Mansfield
      • Co. I – Capt. Thomas S. Allen (M)
        • “A” (PC)
      • Co. K – Capt. J. Stahel

Battery E, 3rd US Artillery (Sherman’s Battery) (6 Guns) (News)

  • Capt. R. B. Ayres (B, OR)
    • Lt. R. D. Ransom
    • Lt. G. W. Dresser
    • Lt. H. E. Noyes

Fourth Brigade

Col. Israel B. Richardson (OR1, OR2, T)

  • Lt. R. L. Eastman, AAAG
  • Lt. C. H. Brightly, AAQ
  • 1st Lt. Frederick E. Prime, Engineer
  • Cadet J. T. Meigs, ADC

1st MAVI

  • Col. R. Cowdin
    • Lt. Col. G. D. Wells
    • Maj. C. P. Chandler
      • Co. A – Capt. E. A. Wild(e)
      • Co. B – Capt. E. Pearl
      • Co. C (1st) – Capt. J. H. Barnes
      • Co. C (2nd) – Capt. G. Walker
      • Co. D – Capt. E. W. Stone, Jr.
      • Co. E – Capt. C. B. Baldwin
      • Co. F – Capt. A. W. Adams
      • Co. G – Capt. H. A. Snow
      • Co. H – Capt. S. Carruth
        • Pvt. J. W. Day (PC)
      • Co. I – Capt. C. E. Rand
      • Co. K – Capt. A. G. Chamberlain

12th NYVI

  • Col. Ezra L. Walrath (PC1, PC2)
    • Lt. Col. R. M. Richardson
    • Maj. J. Louis
      • Ed – (PC)
      • Co. A – Capt. M. H. Church
        • W. B. C (PC)
      • Co. B – Capt. J. Brand
      • Co. C – Capt. D. Driscoll, Jr.
      • Co. D – Capt. G. W. Stone
        • Pvt. Robert Porter Bush (PC, I)
      • Co. E – Capt. J. M. Brower
        • Sgt. Robert E. Ellerbeck (PC)
      • Co. F – Capt. Milo W. Locke (PC)
      • Co. G – Capt. J. C. Irish
        • Pvt. Franklin E. Gates (PC)
      • Co. H – Capt.G. W. Cole
      • Co. I – Capt. Henry A. Barnum (PC1, PC2, PC3, I)
        • Pvt. William Ray Wells (PC1, PC2)
      • Co. K – Capt. A. J. Root

2nd MIVI

  • Col I. B. Richardson
    • Col. S. Larned
    • Maj. Adolphus W. Williams
    • Ass’t. Surgeon Henry F. Lyster (M)
    • Laundress/Nurse Jane Hinsdale (N)
      • Co. A – Capt. L. Dillman
        • 1st Lt. John Valentine Ruehle (PC)
        • 2nd Lt. Gustav Kast (PC)
      • Co. B – Capt. R. A. Beach
      • Co. C – Capt. C. Byington
      • Co. D – Capt. W. Humphrey
      • Co. E – Capt. R. M. Brethschneider (in command of battalion of light infantry composed of detached companies from regiments of the brigade)
        • Lt. B. Bromnell
      • Co. F – Capt. W. R. Morse
      • Co. G – Capt. J. A. Lawson
      • Co. H – Capt. W. L. Whipple
      • Co. I – Capt. D. May
      • Co. K – Capt. C. S. May

3rd MIVI

  • Col. D. McConnell (I)
    • Lt. Col. Stevens
    • Maj. Stephen G. Champlin (T)
      • Co. A – Capt. S. A. Judd
      • Co. B – Capt. B. Borden
      • Co. C – Capt. A. E. Birkenstock
      • Co. D – Capt. M. B. Houghton
      • Co. E – Capt. E. S. Pierce
        • Pvt. Michael P. Long (PC)
      • Co. F – Capt. J. J. Dennis
      • Co. G – Capt. J. R. Price
      • Co. H – Capt. E. D. Bryant
      • Co. I – Capt. G. Weatherwax
      • Co. K – Capt. B. R. Pierce

Battery M, 2nd US Artillery (4 Guns)

  • Capt. H. J. Hunt (OR)
    • Lt. E. R. Platt
    • Lt. J. Thompson

Battery G., 1st US Artillery (2 Guns)

  • Lt. J. Edwards (OR)
    • Lt. S. N. Benjamin

Second Division

Col. David Hunter (W) (OR); Col. Andrew Porter (OR)

  • Lt. S. W. Stockton, ADC
  • Capt. W.D. Whipple, AAAG
  • Capt. D. P. Woodbury, Engineer
  • Hon. J. W. Arnold, ADC
  • Lt. Cross, ADC
  • Lt. D. W. Flagler, ADC

First Brigade

Col. Andrew Porter (OR, T)

  • Lt. W. W. Averell, AAAG (T)
  • Lt. J. B. Howard, AAQ
  • Lt. Bache, ADC
  • Lt. Trowbridge, ADC

8th NYSM

  • Col. G. Lyons (OR)
    • Lt. Col. C. G. Waterbury
    • Maj. O. F. Wentworth
    • Richard (PC)
      • Co. A – Capt. J. O. Johnston
      • Co. B – Capt. T. Swan(e)y
      • Co. C – Capt. E. Burger
      • Co. D – Capt. E. D. Lawrence
      • Co. E – Capt. M. Griffin
      • Co. F – Capt. L. Buck
      • Co. G – Capt. W. S. Carr
      • Co. H – Capt. S. N. Gregory
      • Co. I – Capt. W. M. Walton

14th NYSM (News)

  • Col. Alfred M. Wood (W)
    • Lt. Col. Edward B. Fowler (OR)
    • Surgeon J. M. Homiston (T)
    • Maj. J. Jourdan
    • Asst. Surgeon William F. Swalm (T)
    • E. T. W. (PC)
    • G. H. Price (PC)
      • Co. A – Capt. Robert B. Jordan (PC, I)
        • Lieut. John H. Styles (PC)
          • Pvt. Joseph Sands (PC)
      • Co. B – Capt. G. Mallory
      • Co. C – Capt. D. Myers
        • Lieut. William H. Burnett (PC)
      • Co. D – Capt. C. F. Baldwin
        • Sgt. John Vliet (PC)
        • Pvt. John C. Brown (B, PC)
      • Co. E – Capt. William L. B. Stears (PC)
        • Pvt. Louis L. Hingle (PC)
        • Pvt. Joseph Marfing (POW) (Parole)
        • Pvt. George Plaskett (PC)
      • Co. F – Capt. A. G. A. Harneckel
      • Co. G – Capt. G. Plass
      • Co. H – Capt. W. H. DeBeovise
        • Pvt Caleb H. Beal (PC)
        • Pvt. Richard F. Cole (PC)
        • Pvt. J. S. (PC)
      • Co. I – Capt. A. W. H. Gill
        • Pvt. Lewis Francis (MH, T)
      • Co. K – Capt. C. H. Morris
      • Co. L (Engineers) – Cpl. John Fulton (PC)
        • Pvt. Peter W. Ostrander (PC)

27th NYVI

  • Col. H. W. Slocum (W) (T)
    • Lt. Col. J. J. Chambers (Absent)
    • Maj. J. J. Bartlett (OR)
      • Surgeon Norman S. Barnes (PC)
        • Co. A – Capt. W. M. Bleakely
        • Co. B – Capt. A. D. Adams
        • Co. C – Capt. E. L. Lewis
          • Pvt. Worcester Burrows (PC)
        • Co. D – Capt. H. C. Ro(d)gers
          • Sgt Albert G. Northrup (PC)
          • Pvt. Albert Armstrong (I)
          • Pvt. John W. Burrows (PC)
          • Pvt. Charles N. Elliott (PC)
          • Pvt. Frederick Fowler (PC)
          • Pvt. Delos Payne (PC)
          • Pvt. Benjamin Franklin Spencer (PC)
          • Pvt. Charles Winters (PC)
        • Co. E – Capt. G. G. Wanzer
          • Corp. William Howard Merrell (M)
            • Hospital Steward Daniel W. Bosley (PC)
            • Pvt. Duncan L. Brown (PC)
            • Pvt. John B. Edson (PC)
        • Co. F – Capt. P. Jay
        • Co. G – Capt. J. Perkins
          • Lt. Horatio Seymour Hall (M)
          • Cpl. Guilford Wiley Wells (PC, I)
          • Pvt. John Alden Copeland (PC)
          • Pvt. William H. McMahon (PC)
        • Co. H – Capt. C. E. Martin
        • Co. I – Capt. C. C. Gardner
          • Lt. Samuel M. Harmon (IPC)
        • Co. K – Capt. H. L. Achilles, Jr.
          • “C” (PC)

US Infantry Battalion (8 Cos: C, G, 2nd US; B, D, G, H, K, 3rd US; G, 8th US)

  • Maj. G. Sykes (14th U. S. Infantry) (OR)
      • Aide-de-Camp – Lt. James P. Drouillard (PC, I)
    • Acting Maj. Capt. N. H. Davis (2nd U. S. Infantry)
      • 2nd U. S. Inf. Co. C – Lt. A. E. Latimer
      • 2nd U. S. Inf. Co. K – Capt. A. Beal
      • 3rd U. S. Infantry Co. B – Lt. J. F. Kent
      • 3rd U. S. Infantry Co. D, Lt W. H. Bell
      • 3rd U. S. Infantry Co. G – Lt. J. B. Williams
      • 3rd U. S. Infantry Co. H – Lt. Dangerfield Parker (M)
      • 3rd U. S. Infantry Co. K – Lt. W. H. Penrose
      • 8th U. S. Infantry Co. H – Cpt. R. I. Dodge

US Marine Corps Battalion

  • Maj. J. G. Reynolds (OR)
    • William Barrett (PC)
    • Observer (PC)
    • Co. A – Capt. J. Zeilen
    • Co. B – Capt. J. H. Jones
    • Co. C – Lt. A. Ramsey
      • 2nd Lt. Robert Hitchcock (B, PC)
    • Co. D – Lt. W. H. Carter
      • Charles H. Pierce (PC)

US Cavalry Battalion (7 Cos: A, E, 1st US; B, E, G, I, 2nd US; K, 2nd US Dragoons)

  • Maj. I. N. Palmer (OR)
    • Surgeon Charles Carroll Gray (D)
    • Co. A, 1st U. S. Cav. – Lt. T. H. McCormick
    • Co. E, 1st U. S. Cav. – Lt. T. L’Hommedieu
    • Co. B, 2nd U. S. Cav. – Capt. J. E. Harrison
    • Co. E, 2nd U. S. Cav – Capt. W. W. Lowe
    • Co. G, 2nd U. S. Cav. – Lt. T. Drummond
      • 2nd Lt. George A. Custer (M1, M2, M3, I)
    • Co. I, 2nd U. S. Cav. – Capt. A. G. Brackett
    • Co. K, 2nd U. S. Dragoons – Capt. F. C. Armstrong

Company D, 5th US Artillery (6 Guns)

  • Capt. C. Griffin (OR, T)
    • Lt. Adelbert Ames (2nd U. S. Art.) (MOH)
    • Lt. Charles E. Hazlett (2nd U. S. Cav.) (T)
    • Lt. H. C. Hasbrouck (4th U. S. Art.)
    • Lt. Horatio B. Reed (T)

Second Brigade

Col. Ambrose E. Burnside (OR, OC)

  • Lt. Merriman, AAAG
  • Capt. Anson, AAQ
  • Capt. Goohue, Commissary
  • Lt. Beaumont, ADC
  • Capt. Woodbury, ADC
  • Gov. Sprague, ADC

2nd NHVI

  • Col. Gilman Marston (W, I)
    • Lt. Col. Francis S. Fiske (OR, I)
    • Maj. Josiah Stevens, Jr (PC, I)
    • Surgeon George H. Hubbard (PC, I)
    • Chaplain Henry E. Parker
    •  “Corporal Trim” (PC)
      • Co. A – Capt. T. A. Barker
        • Pvt. Mattison C. Sanborn (PC)
      • Co. B – Capt. Simon Goodell Griffin (M, PC, I)
        • Pvt. John W. Odlin (PC)
        • C. A. M. (PC)
      • Co. C – Capt. J. W. Carr
        • Corp. Alfred W. Burnham (PC)
      • Co. D – Capt.
        • Lt. Warren H. Parmenter (PC)
        • Pvt. Ezra C. Goodwin (PC, I)
      • Co. E – Capt. H. Rollins
        • Cpl. Joseph S. Sweatt (PC1, PC2, I)
      • Co. F – Capt. Thomas Snow (PC, I)
        • 2nd Lt. Harrison D. F. Young (PC, I)
        • Unknown Officer (PC)
          • Sgt. Hugh R. Richardson (PC, I)
          • Sgt. Charles W. Fletcher (PC)
      • Co. G – Capt. Ephraim Weston (I)
      • Co. H – Capt. I. Pearl
        • Lt. Joab N. Patterson (PC, I)
          • Pvt. Frank M. Boutelle (PC)
      • Co. I – Capt. E. L. Bailey
      • Co. K – Capt. W. O. Sides

1st RIVI

  • Maj. J. P. Balch (OR)
    • “DeW” (PC1, PC2, PC3)
    • Unknown (PC)
      • Co. A
        • Pvt. Amos Bowen (I)
      • Co. C
        • Lt. Luther C. Warner (PC)
        • Unknown Officer (PC1, PC2)
        • “H” (PC)
        • Unknown (PC1)
        • Pvt. Moses Brown Jenkins (I)
      • Co. D – Pvt Albert Penno (PC)
      • Co. F – Pvt. Theodore W. King (PC)

2nd RIVI

  • Col. John S. Slocum (K)
    • Lt. Col. F. Wheaton (OR)
      • Maj. Sullivan Ballou (K) (PC)
      • Unknown Officer (PC)
      • “Canonicus” (PC1)
      • “Tockwotton” (PC1, PC2, PC3, PC4, PC5)
      • Co. C – Pvt. William J. Crossley (D)
      • Co. D – Capt. William H. P. Steere (I)
        • Corp. Samuel J. English (PC, I)
      • Co. E – Capt. Isaac Peace Rodman
        • Sgt. James A. Ward (PC)
        • Corp. Patrick Lyons (D)
        • Corp. William E. Smith (PC)
        • Pvt. Jeremiah Rathbun (PC)
      • Co. F – Capt. Levi Tower (K) (I)
        • Lt. John P. Shaw (PC)
          • Sgt. George Kidder (I)
            • Corp. David Douglass (I)
            • Corp. Theodore Jenks (I)
            • Corp. George Wood (I)
            • Corp. Francis Ronien (I)
              • Pvt. (Joseph or Lewis) Barnes (I)
              • Pvt. Jonathan Davidson (I)
              • Pvt. William Frazier (I)
              • Pvt. Charles Godfrey (I)
              • Pvt. Benjamin Hughes (I)
              • Pvt, Robert Johnstone (I)
              • Pvt. John Manning (I)
              • Pvt. James Newell (I)
              • Pvt. John Newell (I)
              • Pvt. Samuel Newman (I)
              • Pvt. Francis Osgood (I)
              • Pvt. Thomas Potter (I)
              • Pvt. Robert Robertson (I)
              • Pvt. Smith Salisbury (I)
              • Pvt. Albert L. Smith (I)
              • Pvt. Peter Taylor (I)
              • Pvt. William Worger (I)
      • Co. H – Pvt. Ezra Greene (PC)
      • Co. K – Leonard Belding (PC)
      • Battery A, 1st Rhode Island Light Artillery (Reynolds’ Battery) of 6 13 lb. James Rifles
        • “Juvenis” (PC)
          • Pvt. Theodore Reichardt (D)
          • “Sergeant” (PC)
          • Unknown (1) (PC)

71st NYSM (D, PC, N)

  • Col. H. P. Martin (OR)
    • John Ellis (PC)
    • Unknown (PC)
    • Pvt. Josiah Favill (D)
    • Co. A – Pvt. Edward P. Doherty (PC, I)
    • Co. H – J. H. G. (PC1, PC2)
    • Co. I – Capt. Augustus van Horne Ellis (2 Boat Howitzers)
      • Sgt. William H. Garrison (PC)
      • Pvt. Samuel Bond (PC)
      • “Georgie” (PC)

Third Division

Col. Samuel P. Heintzelman (W) (OR, T)

  • Capt. Chauncey McKeever, AAAG
  • Capt. Horatio Wright, Chief Engineer
  • Lt. Fairbanks, ADC
  • Lt. F. U. Farquhar, ADC
  • Lt. George W. Snyder, ADC
  • Lt. Sweet, ADC

First Brigade

Col. William B. Franklin (OR, T)

  • Capt. Walworth Jenkins, AAG
  • Lt. Charles H. Gibson, AAG
  • Lt. Baker, ADC
  • Lt. Hartranft, ADC

5th MAVI

  • Col. S. C. Lawrence (W)
    • “R” (PC)
    • Unknown (PC)
    • Co. F – Capt. David Kilburn Wardwell
    • Co. G – Capt. George L. Prescott
      • Pvt. Edward F. Phelps (PC)
    • Co. I
      • Unknown (PC)
      • “W” (PC)

11th MAVI

  • Col. George Clark, Jr.
    • Surgeon Luther V. Bell (PC)
    • Co. B – Pvt. Thomas Green (PC, I, B)

1st MNVI

  • Col. W. A. Gorman (OR)
    • Lieut. Col. Stephen A. Miller (PC, PC2, I)
      • Chaplain Rev. Edward D. Neill (I, PC1, PC2)
      • Asst. Surgeon Charles W. Le Boutillier (PC)
      • Unknown Officer (PC)
        • Co. A – Capt. Alexander Wilkin (PC)
          • Private (PC)
          • Private (2) (PC)
          • Pvt. William Nixon (PC)
        • Co. B – Cpl. Gustaf E. Granstrand (I)
          • Pvt. John E. Goundry (PC)
        • Co. C – Pvt. George L. Smith (PC)
        • Co. F – Cpl. James A. Wright (M1, M2, M3, M4)
        • Co. G
          • Pvt Edward H. Bassett (PC1, PC2)
          • Pvt. Mortimer Stimpson (PC)
4th PAVI
  • Col. John Frederick Hartranft (MOH) (This regiment refused to advance on July 21, claiming its enlistments had expired.  Col. Hartranft joined the brigade staff.)

Company I, 1st US Artillery (6 Guns)

  • Capt. J. B. Ricketts (W&C) (PC, T1, T2)
    • Lieut. Edmund Kirby (OR)

Second Brigade

Col. Orlando B. Willcox (W&C) (OR1, OR2PC); Col. John Henry Hobart Ward (OR)

  • Lt. Woodruff, AAAG
  • Lt. J. R. Edie, ADC
  • Lt. Francis H. Parker, ADC

11th NYVI (Fire Zouaves)

  • Col. Noah Lane Farnham (MW)
    • J. A. S. (PC)
    • Co. A – Lt. Edward Burgin Knox (PC)
    • Co. E
      • Pvt. Henry W. Link (PC)
      • Pvt. Lewis H. Metcalfe (M)
    • Co. G – Pvt. Harry Lazarus (PC)

38th NYVI

  • Col. John Henry Hobart Ward
    • Lt. Col. A. Farnsworth (OR)
    • Asst. Quartermaster/Ensign Jacob Leonard (PC)
    • Officers’ Clerk George L. Russell (PC)
      • Co. A – Pvt. John C. Hallock (PC)
      • Co. F – 2nd Lt. Fred W. Shipman (PC)
      • Co. H – Capt. William H. Baird (PC)
        • Pvt. John H. Morrison (PC)
      • Co. I – Capt. Calvin S. DeWitt (PC)
      • Co. K – Unknown Sgt. (PC)
        • Pvt. James A. Coburn (PC)
        • Unknown (PC)

1st MIVI

  • Maj. Alonzo F. Bidwell (OR)
    • Co. F – Pvt. Charles W. Farrand (PC)

4th MIVI (not engaged – at Fairfax CH)

  • Col. Dwight A. Woodbury (OC, I)

Company D, 2nd US Artillery (4 Guns)

  • Capt. Richard Arnold (OR)
    • Lt. Barriger
    • Lt. Throckmorton

Third Brigade

Col. Oliver O. Howard (OR)

  • Capt. Burt, AAAG
  • Lt. Burt, AAQ
  • Lt. D. H. Buel, ADC
  • Lt. A. Mordecai, Jr., ADC
  • Pvt. Charles H. Howard (IPC)

3rd MEVI

  • Maj. Henry G. Staples (OR)
    • Co. A – Sgt. Lincoln Litchfield (PC)
    • Co. C – G. S. A. (PC)
    • Co. G – Albert (PC)

4th MEVI

  • Col. Hiram G. Berry (OR, PC)
    • “4th” (PC)
      • Co. K – Capt. Silas M. Fuller (PC)
        • Pvt. Samuel S. Hersey, Jr. (PC)

5th MEVI

  • Col. Mark H. Dunnell (OR)
    • H. J. E. (PC)
    • Q (PC)
    • Unknown (1) (PC)
    • Unknown (2) (PC)
      • Co. B
        • Typo (PC)
        • Unknown (PC)
      • Co. D – Unknown (PC)
      • Co. E – Sgt. Frank L. Lemont (PC)
      • Co. G – Pvt. Joseph Leavitt (PC1, PC2)

2nd VTVI

  • Col. Henry Whiting (OR)
    • Lt. Col. George J. Stannard
      • Maj. Charles. H. Joyce (PC)
        •  Unknown Captain (PC)
        • W (PC1, PC2)
          • Co. B – Capt. J. Hope
            • Unknown Irishman (PC)
          • Co. D – Sgt. Eldon A. Tilden (PC)
          • Co. E – Capt. R. Smith
            • Sgt. Harrison Dewey (PC)
          • Co. F
            • Pvt George W. Doty (PC)
            • J. B. L. (PC)
          • Co. H – Sgt. Abraham Ford (PC)
          • Co. K – Unknown (PC)

Fourth Division (Not Engaged)

Brig. Gen. Theodore Runyon (OC)

  • Capt. J. B. Mulligan, ADC (OC)

1st NJSM

  • Col. A. J. Johnson

2nd NJSM

  • Col. H. M. Baker

3rd NJSM

  • Col. W. Napton

4th NJSM

  • Col. M. Miller

1st NJVI

  • Col. W. R. Montgomery (OR)

2nd NJVI

  • Col. G. W. McLean

3rd NJVI

  • Col. G. W. Taylor

41st NYVI

  • Col. L. von Gilsa

Fifth Division

Col. Dixon S. Miles (OR, PC, OC)

  • Capt. T. M. Vincent, AAAG
  • Lt. John P. Hawkins, AAQ
  • 1st Lt. Frederick E. Prime, Engineer
  • Maj. Ritchie, ADC
  • Lt. A. H. Cushing, ADC
  • Lt. George H. Mendell, ADC
  • Lt. McMillan, ADC

First Brigade (Held in reserve at Centreville – covered retreat)

Col. Louis Blenker (OR, T)

8th NYVI

  • Lt. Col. J. Stahel

29th NYVI

  • Col. A. von Steinwehr

39th NYVI

  • Col. F. G. D’Utassy

27th PAVI

  • Col. M. Einstein

Company A, 2nd US Artillery (4 Guns)

  • Capt. J. C. Tidball (M)

Brookwood’s (Varian’s) New York Battery (6 Guns of the 8th NYSM, manned by men from the 8th & 29th NYVI)

  • Capt. C. Brookwood

2nd Brigade

Col. Thomas A. Davies (OR1, OR2, T)

  • Lt. Cowdrey, AAAG
  • Lt. Hopkins, AAQ
  • Lt. Thomas C. Bradford, Commissary
  • Lt. Howland, ADC

16th NYVI

  • Lt. Col. S. Marsh (OR)
  •  Maj. Buel Palmer (PC)
    • J. A. V. (PC)
    • “Soldier” (PC)
    • Co. G – 1st Sgt. John Henry Austin (I)
      • 2nd Sgt. Edwin O. Betts (I)
      • 3rd Sgt. Luther Lee Partridge (I)
      • 4th Sgt. Andrew Christie Bayne (I)

18th NYVI

  • Col. W. A. Jackson
    • Co. D – Sgt. John S. King (PC)

31st NYVI

  • Col. C. E. Pratt (OR)
    • Lt. Col. William H. Browne (PC)
    • Surgeon Frank Hamilton (PC)

32nd NYVI

  • Col. R. Matheson
    • Unknown (PC)
    • Co. A – Capt. Jerome Rowe (PC)
    • Co. I – Lieut. Prentice B. Wager (PC)

Company G., 2nd US Artillery (4 Guns)

  • Lt. O. D. Greene (OR)

THANKS to friend Jonathan Soffe for providing company level information. For even more information on the commands, see his fine website.