Unit History – Washington Artillery Battalion

11 06 2022

Was organized in 1838 and fought in the Mexican War. It then was known as the “Native American” Battery. Reorganized in 1852 as the Washington Artillery, it was mustered into Confederate Service on May 26, 1861 with five companies. The 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Companies fought at First Manassas and in the difficult campaigns of the Army of Northern Virginia from Seven Pines to Gettysburg. They were involved at Drewry’s Bluff and Cold Harbor, then participated in the Petersburg siege south and north of the James River and the Appomattox Campaign. The battalion lost 4 killed and 26 wounded during the Maryland Campaign, had 3 killed and 22 wounded at Fredericksburg, and of the 329 engaged at Gettysburg, eighteen percent were disabled. On April 9, 1865, only 3 officers and 22 men were present. The 5th Company fought at Shiloh, was active in the Kentucky Campaign and the Battle of Murfreesboro, then moved to Mississippi. Later it participated in the campaigns of the Army of Tennessee from Chickamauga to Nashville and in 1865 shared in the defense of Mobile. The company lost 1 killed and 4 wounded at Murfreesboro, had 5 officers and 132 men fit for duty in January, 1863, and reported 10 killed and 20 wounded at Chickamauga. It totalled 118 men in December, 1863, and 116 in April, 1864. Most of the unit was captured when Mobile fell, but a small numbered surrendered at West Point, Georgia, in mid-April, 1865. The field officers were Colonel James B. Walton, Lieutenant Colonels Benjamin J. Eishman and William M. Owen, and Major Merrit B. Miller.

From Joseph H. Crute, Jr., Units of the Confederate States Army, pp. 159-160





Unit History – 1st Virginia Cavalry

11 06 2022

Completed its organization at Winchester, Viriginia, in July, 1861. Unlike most regiments, the 1st contained twelve companies. The men were from the counties of Frederick, Berkeley, Rockbridge, Clarke, Washington, Augusta, Jefferson, Amelia, Loudoun, Rockingham, and Gloucester. After taking part in the Battle of First Manassas, the unit was brigaded under Generals J. E. B. Stuart, F. Lee, Wickham, and Munford. It participated in more than 200 engagements of various types including the Seven Days’ Battles and Stuart’s ride around McClellan. The regiment was active in the conflicts at Gainesville, Second Manassas, Sharpsburg, Fredericksburg, Kelly’s Ford, Chancellorsville, Brandy Station, Gettysburg, Bristoe Station, The Wilderness, Todd’s Tavern, Spotsylvania, Bethesda Church, and Cold Harbor. Later it was involved in Early’s operations in the Shenandoah Valley, the defense of Petersburg, and the Appomattox Campaign. In April, 1862, it totalled 437 men, lost eight percent of the 310 engaged at Gettysburg, and had 318 fit for duty in September, 1864. The cavalry cut through the Federal lines at Appomattox and later disbanded. Only 1 man from this unit was present at the surrender. The field officers were Colonels R. Welby Carter, James H. Drake, William E. Jones, Fitzhugh Lee, William A. Morgan, and James E. B. Stuart; Lieutenant Colonels L. Tiernan Brien and Charles R. Irving; and Major Robert Swan.

From Joseph H. Crute, Jr., Units of the Confederate States Army, pp. 348-349