Maj. Gen. Robert E. Lee to Col. Thomas J. Jackson Directing Him to Not Move Into Maryland, and on Aid to Harper’s Ferry

25 11 2020

CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN MARYLAND, PENNSYLVANIA, VIRGINIA, AND WEST VIRGINIA FROM APRIL 16 TO JULY 31, 1861

CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. – CONFEDERATE

O. R. – Series I – VOLUME 2 [S #2] CHAPTER IX, p. 822

Headquarters Virginia Forces,
Richmond, Va., May 9, 1861.

Col. T. J. Jackson, Commanding, &c., Harper’s Ferry, Va.;

Colonel: I have received your letter of the 6th instant, and am gratified at the progress you have made in the organization of your command. I hope some of the field officers directed to report to you will have arrived and entered on their duties. In your preparation for the defense of your position it is considered advisable not to intrude upon the soil of Maryland, unless compelled by the necessities of war. The aid of its citizens might be obtained in that quarter. I regret I have no engineer of experience to send you. You will have to rely upon your judgment and the aid of the oflicers with you. I have directed that four 6-pounder guns be forwarded to you as soon as possible, and two 12-pounder howitzers, with a supply of ammunition and equipment for firing, will be sent to you at once. There are no caissons. Horses, wagons, and harness will be procured near you by an agent of the quartermaster’s department, sent for the purpose.

Captain Pendleton’s company of artillery from Lexington will join you as soon as possible, with such field pieces as it has. Flour and provisions for use of the troops must be secured. In other respects it is not designed to embarrass the legitimate commerce of our citizens.

I have directed that one thousand muskets, obtained from North Carolina, be sent to you, to aid in arming your command and to respond to requisitions that may be made upon you by Colonel Porterfield. Your requisitions upon the staff department at headquarters, as far as possible, will be filled.

Respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE,
Major- General, Commanding.





Brig. Gen. Philip St. George Cocke to Col. Robert S. Garnett, on Troop Strength

25 11 2020

CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN MARYLAND, PENNSYLVANIA, VIRGINIA, AND WEST VIRGINIA FROM APRIL 16 TO JULY 31, 1861

CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. – CONFEDERATE

O. R. – Series I – VOLUME 2 [S #2] CHAPTER IX, pp. 818-819

Headquarters Potomac Department,
Culpeper Court-House, Va., May 8, 1861.

Col. R. S. Garnett:

Your order of May 7, this moment received, stating that “The general in command is in want of information from you as to the strength and organization of your command, and begs that you will supply him with it at the earliest possible moment. The return due on the 1st instant by General Orders, No. 4, has not been received. The general desires particularly to know with what force you can take the field, provided any movement is made against you from Washington; how it would be composed, officered, and what service could be counted on from it.” I have to say in reply that, coming to this command with “naked hands” and in my plantation dress, arriving in Alexandria on the morning of the 22d of April, I have had everything to do towards organization, with extremely limited means of accomplishing anything. It has been entirely impracticable, in consequence of the want of my proper staff, until very recently, to initiate the means of obtaining the regular, formal, and full company returns and other returns which would show the strength and organization of the weak, unorganized, and widely-scattered force under my command.

The assistant adjutant-general, since his appointment and entrance upon duty, has taken the most active steps to accomplish the objects desired by the commanding general. Those steps will be persevered in. Such partial returns as I have been able to obtain from time to time from captains, both in regard to number of men, arms, and ammunition, and general equipment, have been forwarded to the headquarters at Richmond, and will be found on file there.

The assistant adjutant-general, Jones, has this morning left me, by my order, under the pressing emergency of sending the only experienced officer of the army at my command to march with the Powhatan troop this moment en route for Manassas Junction, to assist in collecting, establishing, and organizing at that point the force that I may be able to command, to carry into effect the order of the general-in-chief, received yesterday, to occupy and hold that point against any probable attack of the enemy. I propose to follow myself to-morrow with such other forces as I can gather, going “by rail” to the same point, and thus to effect a contemporaneous arrival at Manassas Junction. This necessary absence of the assistant adjutant-general from these headquarters, together with the yet unorganized state of the general staff and the inexperience of many of the captains of many of the companies, will yet cause some delay in making regular army returns.

I beg, however, that the general-in-chief will have collated from my dispatches and reports from the beginning the information therein imparted in this connection, and which may thus furnish him with an approximate estimate and exhibit at least of the available forces heretofore and now at my command.

In order to facilitate the accomplishment of this object, I will here briefly indicate from the best sources I possess the present character and disposition of what available force I have. (See statement inclosed.)

Very respectfully,

PHILIP ST. GEO. COCKE,
Brigadier-General, Commanding Potomac Department.

[Inclosure.]

Headquarters Potomac Department,
Culpeper Court-House, May 8,1861.

Company E, Sixth Battalion, Capt. S. H. Devaughn, 100 men in all, 50 muskets, .58 caliber; no ammunition.

Company H, Sixth Battalion, Capt. M. Marye, 69 men in all, 50 muskets, .58 caliber; no ammunition; in Alexandria now.

Company G, Sixth Battalion, Lieut. A. Herbert, 88 men in all, 51 muskets, .69 caliber; no ammunition; in Alexandria now.

Company, Fairfax Rifles, W. H. Dulany, captain, 51 men armed, and have 940 cartridges; Fairfax Station.

Company, Washington Volunteers, Captain Sherman, 113 men, unarmed and ununiformed; no ammunition; here.

Company, Richardson Guards, Capt. J. Welsh, 80 men, 1,000 caps and cartridges and equipments; Madison Court-House.

Company, Home Guards, J. Latouche, 100 men, flint-lock muskets, caliber .69; in Alexandria; no equipments or ammunition.

Two companies, Irish, now at Manassas Junction, with altered muskets; no equipments or ammunition.

Company, Captain Porter, now here, 71 men, unarmed and unequipped; no ammunition.

Company, artillery, Capt. Del. Kemper, 86 men, 4 brass 6-pounders, 35 sabers, 67 rounds fixed ammunition, and 25 loose ball; now here; part leave to-morrow for Manassas.

Company, Powell’s troop of cavalry, in Alexandria, 53 men.

Company, J. Shac Green, troop of cavalry, in Amissville, 61 men; will be at Manassas to-morrow.

Company, M. Dulany Ball, troop of cavalry, equipped; now in Alexandria.

Company, W. H. Payne, troop of cavalry; now in Warrenton, holding public property.

Company, John F. Lay, troop of cavalry; left for Manassas Junction to-day; well equipped with ammunition; several have no uniform or pistols.

Two companies in Charlottesville not yet reported.

PHILIP ST. GEO. COCKE,
Brigadier- General, Commanding.

—————

Assistant Adjutant General David R. Jones

S. H. Devaughan – Co. E, 17th VA Infantry

Morton Marye – Co. A, 17th VA Infantry

A. Herbert – Co. H, 17th VA Infantry

W. H. Dulany – Co. D, 17th VA Infantry

Charles K. Sherman – Co. E, 1st VA Infantry (thanks J. Soffe)

J. Welsh – Co. A, 7th VA Infantry (thanks J. Soffe)

J. Latouche – Alexandria Home Guards (thanks J. Soffe)

J. C. Porter – Co. C, 7th VA Infantry (thanks J. Soffe)

Deleware Kemper – Alexandria Light Artillery

E. B. Powell – Fairfax Cavalry, Radford’s Troop, 30th VA Cavalry

John Shackleford Green – Co. B, 6th VA Cavalry

Mottram Dulany Ball – Border Guards/Fairfax Cavalry. Captured 5/24/61 at Alexandria. Paroled and served as scout for G. T. Beauregard prior to exchange. Exchanged 9/21/1862. Later Lt. Col. of 11th VA Cavalry Reported as captured at Alexandria with his troop on May 28, 1861. (thanks J. Soffe)

William H. Payne – Black Horse Troop, Munford’s Battalion, 30th VA Cavalry

John F. Lay – Powhatan Troop, G. T. Beauregard’s Escort





Brig. Gen. Philip St. George Cocke to Col. Robert S. Garnett, on the Move to Manassas

24 11 2020

CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN MARYLAND, PENNSYLVANIA, VIRGINIA, AND WEST VIRGINIA FROM APRIL 16 TO JULY 31, 1861

CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. – CONFEDERATE

O. R. – Series I – VOLUME 2 [S #2] CHAPTER IX, pp. 817-818

Headquarters Potomac Department,
Culpeper Court-House, Va., May 8,1861.

Col. R. S. Garnett:

Sir: In accordance with orders received from the general-in-chief, to post at Manassas Junction sufficient force to defend that point against any attack likely to be made against it by troops from Washington, I immediately ordered the Powhatan troop of cavalry to march from this place this morning, to join Capt. J. S. Green’s company, now at Amissville, Rappahannock County, and to proceed together to Manassas Junction, where there are two (raw, undrilled, ununiformed, and armed with the altered musket) Irish companies, lately sent out from Alexandria, and which I had ordered to be held and drilled at Manassas Junction. We will endeavor to use these companies. I have also ordered one section (two pieces) of Captain Kemper’s artillery, (the only part of his battery at all available as foot artillery, and that rendered available by doubling upon the two pieces the horses and ammunition he had for the four pieces), which I shall also take along to the same point. The Powhatan troop of cavalry and the section of artillery are absolutely all of the force at all available at this time at this place. I have telegraphed back to Charlottesville for two companies of riflemen to be dispatched to this point, and learn from Lieutenant-Colonel Fry that I will get but one, and that not until this evening.

Looking to Lynchburg, I learn that the armed companies of that place are now in Richmond, under Colonel Garland. If so, I trust, sir, they will be immediately dispatched to the command at Manassas.

We have no ammunition of any kind, except the limited supply sent forward to Alexandria. I shall gather in as fast as possible the armed companies that have not been mustered into the service throughout my department (if any there be besides those referred to), and concentrate them here at Manassas and Alexandria, as occasion may require.

From three to five thousand muskets or rifles should be immediately forwarded to this point for the use of this command; thence to be drawn for arming companies, as mustered into service. Some place will be provided as a magazine at this point. The powder, balls, munitions, equipments, and all ammunition whatsoever required for at least five thousand men, should be immediately prepared and forwarded to this place.

The city of Alexandria, situated, as it is, in the re-entering curve of the river opposite to Washington, on the convex side of that curve, is a point difficult to hold, in case the enemy shall have any designs upon it in the present weak condition of our forces. The enemy, by proceeding below, to Fort Washington or Mount Vernon, may turn the position, take it in the rear, and cut off its communication, and so by advancing over the bridges from above the enemy may, by short lines, turn and get in the rear of that place. In order to prevent such a disaster there should be, obviously, outside of and behind Alexandria, a force sufficient to throw out outpost guards, radiating upon the possible lines of advance of the enemy, to protect that place in the rear, and thus to support and cover the little force now held in Alexandria, and prevent its capture or annihilation. With such an arrangement the force in Alexandria could return, without danger of being surprised, and find support in falling back upon the force in its rear. But I have absolutely nothing at present out of which to constitute such a supporting force in rear of Alexandria. As soon as I can collect the means, or you shall send them to me, I shall endeavor to make the best use of them to this end.

Very respectfully, your obedient,

PHILIP ST. GEO. COCKE,
Brigadier-General, Commanding Potomac Department.

John Shackleford Green became captain of Co. B, 6th Virginia Cavalry.

William H. Fry became Lt. Col. of the 1st Va. Infantry.

Samuel Garland, Jr., became Col. of the 11th Va. Infantry





Col. Thomas J. Jackson to Maj. Gen. Robert E. Lee on Strength and Deficiencies at Harper’s Ferry

24 11 2020

CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN MARYLAND, PENNSYLVANIA, VIRGINIA, AND WEST VIRGINIA FROM APRIL 16 TO JULY 31, 1861

CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. – CONFEDERATE

O. R. – Series I – VOLUME 2 [S #2] CHAPTER IX, pp. 814-815

Division Headquarters,
Harper’s Ferry, Va. May 7,1861.

Major-General Lee, Commanding Virginia Forces:

General: I forward herewith a statement of the strength of my command at this post, of the deficiency of arms, ammunition, and accouterments.*

The deficiencies I respectfully request may be supplied at the earliest practicable period, as I wish to put the post in as defensible a condition as possible. I have finished reconnoitering the Maryland Heights, and have determined to fortify them at once, and hold them, as well as the Virginia Heights and the town, be the cost what it may. For this purpose I would urge the necessity of giving me an ample supply of good arms, and such disciplined troops as you can spare (though it should swell the number here to nine thousand five hundred or ten thousand men). Two pieces of field artillery (12-pounders) should be placed on the Virginia Heights, and a larger number of 6-pounders on the Maryland Heights. Heavier ordnance, in addition to the field pieces referred to in yesterday’s letter, could be advantageously employed in defending the town. The heights west of Bolivar must be strengthened. I would be more than gratified could you spare the time for a short visit here, to give me the benefit of your wisdom and experience in laying out the different works, especially those on the heights. I am of the opinion that this place should be defended with the spirit which actuated the defenders of Thermopylae, and, if left to myself, such is my determination. The fall of this place would, I fear, result in the loss of the northwestern part of the State, and who can estimate the moral power thus gained to the enemy and lost to ourselves ? The commissary department here is in a suffering condition, and will continue so, unless the estimates are complied with. All the cadets you can spare from Richmond are needed here.

The enemy are in possession of the Relay House, and permit no freight cars to come west. Personal baggage is searched. At Grafton the cars have been broken open by the Republicans, upon the suspicion that they contained arms. I dispatched a special messenger this evening to Baltimore, for the purpose of having the arms which Virginia furnished Maryland returned to us, and I trust that the scheme will be so carried out as to elude the vigilance of the enemy.

The pressure of office business here is so great as to induce me to retain Maj. T. L. Preston, of the Virginia Military Institute.

Mr. Burkhart, who is in charge of the rifle-factory, reports that he can finish fifteen hundred rifle-muskets in thirty days. I have, in obedience to the orders of Governor Letcher, directed the rifle-factory machinery to be removed immediately after that of the musket factory. My object is to keep the former factory working as long as practicable without interfering with its rapid removal.

An unarmed company, in Harrison County, has offered its services, and I design arming it at Grafton. With prudent management I hope to assemble a number of companies at that post from the northwest, and for this purpose I have been corresponding with reliable gentlemen in various parts of that section of the State. Major Boykin was here yesterday on his way to Grafton, where I hope he will not long remain without a command.

I would respectfully recommend that the money for which estimates have been made by the quartermaster and commissary be turned over to them at once, and, if practicable, that it be deposited in a Winchester or Charlestown bank. They have been forced to use their private credit, that of the State being insufficient.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

T. J. JACKSON,
Colonel, Virginia Volunteers, Commanding.

*Not found.

John Thomas Lewis Preston was a founder of the Virginia Military Institute.

Philip Burkart was master armorer at the Harper’s Ferry rifle factory.

Francis Marshall Boykin was a member of VMI class of 1856, and served as Lt. Col. of the 31st Va. Infantry





Col. Robert S. Garnett to Col. Philip St. George Cocke Requesting Report of Troop Strength

23 11 2020

CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN MARYLAND, PENNSYLVANIA, VIRGINIA, AND WEST VIRGINIA FROM APRIL 16 TO JULY 31, 1861

CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. – CONFEDERATE

O. R. – Series I – VOLUME 2 [S #2] CHAPTER IX, p. 813

Headquarters Virginia Forces,
Richmond, Va., May 7,1861.

Col. P. St. George Cocke, Culpeper Court-House, Va.:

Colonel: The general commanding is in want of information from you as to the strength and organization of your command, and begs that you will supply him with it at the earliest moment. The return due on the 1st instant, by General Orders, No. 4, has not been received. The general desires particularly to know with what force you can take the field, provided any movement is made against you from Washington 5 how it would be composed, officered, and what service could be counted on from it.

Very respectfully, &c.,

R. S. GARNETT,
Adjutant- General.





Gov. John Letcher to Maj. Gen. Robert E. Lee on Taking Command of All Forces from Other States in Virginia

23 11 2020

CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN MARYLAND, PENNSYLVANIA, VIRGINIA, AND WEST VIRGINIA FROM APRIL 16 TO JULY 31, 1861

CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. – CONFEDERATE

O. R. – Series I – VOLUME 2 [S #2] CHAPTER IX, p. 813

Executive Department,
Richmond, Va., May 7,1861.

Maj. Gen. Robert E. Lee, Commanding, &c.:

Sir: You will assume the command of all the volunteers, or other forces from other States, who have or may hereafter report for duty or tender their services to the State of Virginia, until orders are received from the President of the Confederate States in reference to the same.

JOHN LETCHER.





Col. Thomas J. Jackson to Maj. Gen. Robert E. Lee on Actions Since Taking Command at Harper’s Ferry

23 11 2020

CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN MARYLAND, PENNSYLVANIA, VIRGINIA, AND WEST VIRGINIA FROM APRIL 16 TO JULY 31, 1861

CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. – CONFEDERATE

O. R. – Series I – VOLUME 2 [S #2] CHAPTER IX, pp. 809-810

Division Headquarters,
Harper’s Ferry, Va., May 6, 1861.

General Lee, Commander-in-Chief:

General: I assumed command of this post on Monday last, soon after my arrival here. Since that time I have been busily occupied organizing the command and mustering the troops into service. I send herewith a report of the strength for May 4.* To-morrow I will give you a more detailed account of the forces, equipments, &c. All the troops have been mustered into service, except some companies on detached service. I have occupied the Virginia and Maryland Heights, and I am about fortifying the former with block-houses of sufficient strength to resist an attempt to carry them by storm. Whenever the emergency calls lor it, I shall construct similar works on the Maryland Heights. Thus far I have been deterred from doing so by a desire to avoid giving offense to the latter State. If you have an experienced engineer officer, I hope that you will order him here, if you have no duty for him elsewhere. There are four 6-pounder guns here without caissons. I respectfully request that you will send the caissons, and also two 6-pounder batteries and two extra 12-pounder howitzers, all fully supplied with ammunition, horses, equipments, and everything necessary for being turned over to companies now waiting for them. Reliable information has been received that the Federal troops are at the Relay House. As four thousand flints have been found here, I have taken the responsibility of ordering the one thousand flint-lock rifles from the Lexington Arsenal, and also ten barrels of musket and ten barrels of rifle powder, as in my opinion the emergency justified the order. Should the Federal troops advance in this direction, I shall no longer stand on ceremony. In addition to the cavalry stationed at Point of Rocks, I this morning ordered two 6-pounders to the same position. The enemy, from good authority, are about four thousand strong in the neighborhood of Chambersburg. About two-thirds of the machinery from the musket factory has been removed from here. This morning Mr. John Ambler, the quartermaster in Winchester, informed me that the merchants were paying double freights, and were thus securing all the transportation. To prevent the consequent delay of the machinery, I directed him to impress the wagons. He also notified me that the baggage cars from Strasburg were employed in carrying flour from the valley to New York, and that every barrel would be required for our use. To remedy this evil, until the subject could be referred to you, and also to secure the transportation for the machinery, I directed him to impress the cars. About four hundred and eighty Kentucky volunteers are here without arms, and stand greatly in need of them. I directed some old arms to be issued to them, but they refused to receive them. I refer the subject to you, with the hope that something may be done towards arming them. The material is good. My object is to put Harper’s Ferry in the most defensible state possible, and hence feel it my duty to give the best arms to the Virginia troops, as the others may at any time be ordered off. The news from the northwest shows great disaffection, especially in Ohio County.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

T. J. JACKSON,
Virginia Volunteers, Commanding.

*Not found.





Maj. Gen. Robert E. Lee to Col. Thomas J. Jackson to Prepare for Federal Assault on Harper’s Ferry

23 11 2020

CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN MARYLAND, PENNSYLVANIA, VIRGINIA, AND WEST VIRGINIA FROM APRIL 16 TO JULY 31, 1861

CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. – CONFEDERATE

O. R. – Series I – VOLUME 2 [S #2] CHAPTER IX, pp. 806-807

Headquarters Virginia Forces, Richmond, Va., May 6,1861.

Col. T. J. Jackson,
Commanding Volunteers, Harper’s Ferry, Va.:

Colonel: I consider it probable that the Government at Washington will make a movement against Harper’s Ferry, and occupy the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad with that view, or use the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal for the transportation of troops. You are desired to watch these avenues of approach, and endeavor to frustrate their designs. On receiving certain intelligence of the approach of troops it will become necessary to destroy the bridge at Harper’s Ferry and obstruct their passage by the canal as much as possible. You might make some confidential arrangements with persons in Maryland to destroy the Monocacy railroad bridge and draw the water out of the canal, should there be assurances of the enemy’s attempt to make use of either.

You are authorized to offer the payment of $5 for each musket that may be returned of those taken possession of by the people in and about Harper’s Ferry.

It is advisable that you establish some troops at Martinsburg, or other more advantageous point, if your force will permit. I desire that you will report the amount of your present force and the number of volunteers that will probably respond to the call of the governor from the counties indicated in his proclamation.

Respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE,
Major- General, Commanding.





Maj. Gen. Robert E. Lee to Col. Philp St. George Cocke on Posting a Force at Manassas Junction

22 11 2020

CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN MARYLAND, PENNSYLVANIA, VIRGINIA, AND WEST VIRGINIA FROM APRIL 16 TO JULY 31, 1861

CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. – CONFEDERATE

O. R. – Series I – VOLUME 2 [S #2] CHAPTER IX, p. 806

Headquarters Virginia Forces,
Richmond, Va., May 6, 1861.

Col. P. St. Georoe Cocke,
Commanding Virginia Forces, Culpeper Court-House, Va.:

Colonel: You are desired to post at Manassas Gap Junction a force sufficient to defend that point against an attack likely to be made against it by troops from Washington. It will be necessary to give this point your personal attention.

Respectfully, &c.,

R. E. LEE,
Major- General, Commanding.





CSA Secretary of War LeRoy Pope Walker to Va. Gov. John Letcher on Control of Military Operations in the State

22 11 2020

CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN MARYLAND, PENNSYLVANIA, VIRGINIA, AND WEST VIRGINIA FROM APRIL 16 TO JULY 31, 1861

CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. – CONFEDERATE

O. R. – Series I – VOLUME 2 [S #2] CHAPTER IX, p. 805

Montgomery, May 6,1861.

Governor John Letcher, Richmond:

Do you desire this Government to assume any control over military operations in Virginia? If so, to what extent?*

L. P. WALKER.

*Answer not found.