Save Historic Antietam Foundation Sponsors Dinner and Tour

5 09 2008

Author and historian Marion V. Armstrong will be the featured speaker and tour leader in a SHAF-sponsored event taking place October 10 & 11, 2008. His new book, Unfurl Those Colors: McClellan, Sumner and the Second Army Corps in the Antietam Campaign, is receiving critical acclaim and will be the featured topic of the event.

On Friday night, October 10, at 6:30 p.m., SHAF will host a dinner at the Old South Mountain Inn, followed by a lecture focusing on the early actions of the campaign. On Saturday morning, October 11, Mr. Armstrong will lead a morning walking tour of the Second Corps’ attack in the West Woods. After a break for lunch (on your own), he will lead a walking tour of the Second Corps attack at the Sunken Road.

This is a special event that is a unique opportunity for personal contact with a nationally-recognized authority on this portion of the battle of Antietam. The cost for the entire program is $50 for SHAF members – the public is also invited to attend for $60. Dinner attendance is limited to 45 due to space limitations. Reservations, details on menu, and start times for the walking tours will be posted later on www.SHAF.org, or call 301-432-2996.  Use the “Contact Us” link on the website to make a reservation and for info on payment procedure.

Mr. Armstrong recently took some time to answer some questions for SHAF.

SHAF: Mr. Armstrong thanks for conducting this tour for SHAF members. Can you start off by telling us a little about your background?

MVA: I’m a native of Maryland, born and raised in Havre deGrace. I graduated from the University of Scranton in 1969, and then served six years on active duty as an infantry officer with tours in Viet Nam and Korea. After that I worked for the Army as a civilian and remained active in the Army Reserve. I have had a life long interest in history, which I indulged with a master’s degree in history from Old Dominion University and a doctoral degree from Middle Tennessee State University. After retiring in 1995, my wife and I moved to Tennessee where I began teaching history as adjunct faculty for various colleges in the Nashville area.

SHAF: What first got you interested in the Battle of Antietam in general and the role of the Second Corps in the campaign in particular?

MVA: I can’t remember a time when I was not interested in the Civil War. I was a teenager during the Civil War centennial and my father brought me to the centennial reenactment of the Battle of Antietam in September 1962. That was my first visit to Antietam National Battlefield. Thereafter Antietam was always my favorite Civil War battle.

As I became more knowledgeable about the battle I also became increasingly uncomfortable with the standard interpretations of the role of General Sumner at Antietam. It always seemed to me that there was more to his story. So after completing my master’s degree in the early 1990s I decided to see if I could discover the details of his actions and orders at Antietam. That led to the publication of Disaster in the West Woods, which is a defense of Sumner as commander of the Second Army Corps at Antietam.

For my doctoral dissertation I wanted to do an operational study that would illustrate how Civil War tactical doctrine—the subject of my master’s thesis—was applied and practiced in the field. Since the army corps was the operational unit of the Civil War army, and since I already had a large amount of research on Sumner and Antietam, the Second Army Corps in the Maryland Campaign was the natural choice. I completed the dissertation in 2004 and it was published earlier this year by the University of Alabama Press as Unfurl Those Colors!

SHAF: Perhaps the most controversial aspect of your book, “Unfurl Those Colors”, is your argument that Sumner ordered French to attack the Sunken Road position, which flies in the face of the conventional interpretation that the separation of the corps was unintentional. In brief, on what do you base your theory?

MVA: First, Sumner’s reconnaissance as he arrived on the battlefield brought him to the high ground in the vicinity of the junction of the Smoketown Road and the Mumma farm lane. This was at the point in time when Rhodes’s and Anderson’s brigades were moving into the Sunken Road, something that was clearly visible from where Sumner was. Sumner had just received instructions from McClellan to continue the attack to the south and west of Sharpsburg, which would necessarily involve seizing the West Woods. He could not accomplish this and leave the Confederate force in the Sunken Road in his rear. His decision was to send Sedgwick’s division to the West Woods and have French’s handle the forces in the Sunken Road.

Second, after Sedgwick seized the West Woods, Sumner was on the Hagerstown Pike in front of the DunkerChurch and sent an order to French to press his attack. The order was carried by Sumner’s son and aide, Captain Sam Sumner. Sam did not ride back to the East Woods to find French, which he would have done if French were lost or late, but rode east past Tompkins’s battery to the vicinity of the Sunken Road because he knew this is where French would be directing the attack on the Sunken Road. Also, it should be noted that the order was to “press the attack,” not “begin the attack,” because the attack on the Sunken Road had been previously ordered.

Third, French in his battle report mentions Sam Sumner delivering the order to press the attack. The point in time when Sam arrived was after French had already committed Weber’s and Morris’s brigades, and based on the order he committed Kimball’s brigade to the attack. Sedgwick’s attack toward the West Woods and French’s attack toward the Sunken Road were simultaneous events that could only have occurred simultaneously if both had been given orders to start at the same time.

SHAF: What do you think of the new trails at the park, specifically the West Woods trail?

MVA: I applaud wholeheartedly the effort to give visitors greater access to the battlefield through the development of interpretive trails. This is especially true of the West Woods trail. Not only does it allow greater access to the limits of Sedgwick’s advance, it also allows access to the ravine in the West Woods which led Barksdale’s brigade to the gap between the 125th Pennsylvania and the 7th Michigan. This is what led to the reverse suffered by Sedgwick’s division. How we interpret the battle is based in large measure on what we can see and know of the field itself. There is much more of the battlefield available today than ever before—thanks in no small measure to the efforts of SHAF—and our understanding of the battle is increased exponentially when we are able to walk it and see it as the participants did.

SHAF: Is there anything in particular that you are looking forward to or wish to accomplish with the upcoming SHAF tour of Second Corps at Antietam?

MVA: Much of my interpretation of the role of McClellan, Sumner, and the Second Corps at Antietam is dependent on being able to see the battlefield as the participants did. The visual prospective is critical to understanding decisions, orders, movements and outcomes during the battle. SHAF and its members have been key to acquiring and restoring the battlefield. This gives historians an invaluable source for interpreting the battle. On the tour I hope to show the SHAF membership how my access to the battlefield influenced my interpretations. I owe a large debt of gratitude to SHAF for making that resource available.





Little Plastic Army Men

30 08 2008

Check out this post at Mannie Gentile’s blog.  Who knew little plastic army men, coupled with judicious sampling of various resources, could be so instructive?  Why can’t I pull off creative, right-brain stuff like Mannie?  I wonder if he’d be willing to attempt Matthews and Henry House Hills?  Damn, that is so freakin’ cool!





Sharpsburg Heritage Days

23 08 2008

I’ll be presenting a version of my Threads program as part of the Save Historic Antietam Foundation (SHAF) Lecture Series at Sharpsburg Heritage Days, September 13 & 14.  I believe I’ll be doing this on the 13th, sometime between 1:00 PM and 4:00 PM at St. Paul’s Episcopal Church in town.  Here’s a schedule of events.  The SHAF lectures are free.

Related events coming up include a crossing of the Potomac the following Saturday, Sept. 20th, in commemoration of the 146th Anniversary of the Battle of Shepherdstown.  The crossing (from the Maryland side to the West Virginia side) will be followed by a tour of the Cement Mill which figured so prominently in the battle, as well as some privately owned battlefield land, with refreshments provided afterwards by the Shepherdstown Battlefield Preservation Association (SBPA). There is a fee for this event.  Here are the details from Tom Clemens.  Leave a comment here if you’re interested in attending, and I’ll put you in touch with him:

We’ll meet at 3:00 Saturday Sept. 20 on the Maryland side of the Potomac at Boteler’s (Packhorse, Shepherdstown) Ford. This may entail some car-pooling from Antietam Visitor’s Center if there are a lot of us. We’ll wade the Potomac at the ford site, and on the other side some folks from Shepherdstown Battlefield Preservation Association (SBPA) will meet us. They will arrange for us to use the actual ford site, which is on private property, and we’ll stop and look at the ruins of the Cement Mill. Then we’ll ascend the bluff roughly along the route of Barnes’ Brigade and go to the place where the 118th PA fought, all of which is also on private property. After viewing the main battle area we’ll walk to the original farmhouse, also privately owned, where the opposing forces first met, and see a shell embedded in the farmhouse wall. From there we’ll go to the Dunleavey’s home, just a short distance away, where they will serve us hamburgers, hot dogs and all the trimmings, as well as adult liquid refreshments that will slake the thirst of all dedicated battlefield trasmpers. When we have had our fill of everything, they will provide drivers to take us back to our vehicles, thus we only have to wade once. All of this wonderful stuff for only a paltry $25 per person donation to SBPA, which is tax-deductible! It doesn’t get any better than this! Tramping a privately-owned battlefield, helping a preservation group, and a good meal!!

On Columbus Day Weekend, October 10-11, SHAF will sponsor a dinner and lecture with Marion V. Armstrong, author of “Unfurl Those Colors”, McClellan, Sumner, and the Second Army Corps in the Antietam Campaign on Friday evening at the South Mountain Inn, followed by a tour of the relevant portions of the field on Saturday.  There will be fees for these events as well.  I recently interviewed Mr. Armstrong for the SHAF newsletter, and that will be put up on the SHAF website along with details of the event once they are ironed out.





Antietam Weather

5 06 2008

 

High winds brought down some trees in the jewel of the NPS, Antietam National Battlefield, and environs.  Check out Mannie’s (and Mannie Part II) and John’s blogs, and the NPS website.  There doesn’t seem to be any monument or gravestone damage, but some buildings were damaged.





General Nagle’s Sword

5 04 2008

 

Friend and Ranger John David Hoptak is moving ahead with his efforts to restore the statue of General James Nagle at Antietam.  He’s been missing his sword for some time.  You can read the story of Nagle here, and get info on how to help John at his blog.





Ezra Carman – The Maryland Campaign of September 1862

29 03 2008

A couple days ago I succumbed and pre-ordered Joseph Pierro’s new edition of Carman’s definitive study of the Maryland Campaign from Amazon.com.  The book retails for a hefty $95, and Amazon.com offers a 20% discount and another 5% off of that for pre-ordering.  So you can imagine my surprise when a package arrived at my door today (March 29th) and upon opening I found it enclosed that same book!  A zero invoice from Taylor & Francis (parent of publisher Routledge) accompanied it, with the notation Compliments of Francesca Filippeli.  I had mentioned to editor Joseph (Jake) Pierro months ago that I would happily post a blurb on the book here, with the admitted hope of receiving a gratis copy.  Today my shameless efforts paid off, and I had time to cancel my order with Amazon.com!  However, I intended to post my reactions to the book regardless of and uninfluenced by the means of its acquisition.  

Think of Ezra Carman as the John Bachelder of Antietam – though Bachelder would be more accurately described as the Carman of Gettysburg.  Carman may even be Bachelder on steroids.  Within a few weeks of the battle at Sharpsburg, Carman began a careful study of the campaign by touring the battlefields and interviewing participants.  In 1866, he was appointed New Jersey’s trustee in the Antietam National Cemetery Association.  In 1894 he was appointed to the board that oversaw the marking of the battle lines at the Antietam National Battlefield (established in 1890) as its historical expert.  From then until 1898 Carman oversaw the development of the text for and positioning of the battlefield markers.  In 1904, the War Department published Carman’s 14 plate Atlas of the Battlefield of Antietam; regimental level maps which editor Pierro notes form the basis of all subsequent understandings of the tactical evolutions of the battle.  The History is the end – but never before published – result of Carman’s massive research conducted over at least 40 years.  The manuscript and papers, spread over the country in various repositories, have been the basis of influential Maryland Campaign studies like Murfin and Harsh.

Physically, it’s an attractive, oversize book with the artwork printed right onto the cover.  It has the size and heft of a middle-school textbook, which isn’t surprising since Routledge is a textbook publisher.

Inside, Pierro provides a biographical sketch of Carman and an Editor’s Note.  The 24 chapters of Carman’s manuscript span Maryland’s role in the Civil War, the Invasion through Shepherdstown, results of the campaign, and an analysis of the Lincoln/McClellan dynamic.  Fifteen appendices complete the 484 pages of pure text.

Praise the Lord, Pierro liberally employs real, live, bottom-of-the-page footnotes.  Not included in the book are maps or illustrations (other than a frontispiece photo).  Hey, I love maps as much as the next guy – maybe more, since my small brain needs them to help me orientate myself- so I exchanged a few lengthy emails with Jake today, and his rationale for this seems reasonable.  Carman’s manuscript did not include maps either, and this work is Carman’s, with Pierro in the role of editor.  While it may be reasonable to conclude that Carman expected his Atlas of the Battlefield of Antietam to serve as the maps for his manuscript, those maps are quite large and are on a regimental level, making them difficult and, perhaps more important considering the already high price of this book, expensive to reproduce.  The typical purchaser is not likely to be a mapless Antietam neophyte, and the Atlas maps – the 1904 version; there was an edited version produced in 1908 – are available for free online from the Library of Congress’ Making of America website (see here).  All things considered, the decision seems prudent.

Needless to say, the publication of the Carman manuscript is a great contribution to the literature of the1862 Maryland Campaign.

Jake Pierro has graciously agreed to a virtual interview with Bull Runnings, and I hope to get that done and put up in the days ahead.





Rafuse: McClellan in the Maryland Campaign

19 09 2007

Just in case you’re wondering, this blog is ostensibly about the campaign and battle of First Bull Run.  I’m sure that may come as a surprise to some of the unusually large number of readers who have visited here over the past few days, what with all this Antietam talk.  But I promised fellow blogger Dmitri that I would post a recap of the talk given by Ethan Rafuse this past Saturday evening (Sept. 15) in the ANB visitor’s center on George McClellan in the Maryland Campaign.  While what follows are Rafuse’s views, I can’t say that they vary greatly from my own on this subject.

Rafuse recapped McClellan’s career up to his critical 35th year and the circumstances surrounding his taking command of the combined forces of the Army of the Potomac, Army of Virginia, and the Kanawah Division on Sept 2, 1862, pointing out that he did not have the support of the War Dept. in his appointment and that half of his new command consisted of soldiers with whom he had no previous experience.  His new army also included dozens of raw, untrained regiments.

McClellan was authorized to take field command of the army on Sept. 5.  He promptly recommended abandoning Harper’s Ferry and releasing the garrison to play a more threatening role as Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia made its way across Maryland.  Not only did Commanding General Henry Halleck deny this request, he admonished McClellan to move more slowly.

Rafuse recounted the movement of the AotP toward Frederick, and the finding of Lee’s Special Orders 191.  He summarized the steps taken by McClellan in the wake of the discovery, arguing that there was little unnecessary delay.  While SO 191 and the situation at Harper’s Ferry indicated that the enemy army was divided, this information needed to be confirmed.  [One of my few complaints with McClellan’s War is that it did not seem to consider recent scholarship that indicates the famous “will send trophies” telegram was not sent by McClellan until midnight on the evening of the 13th as opposed to noon the same day.  I was going to ask Ethan about this later, but decided against it.]  He also alluded to the poor performance of J.E.B. Stuart during the campaign, something I’ve argued elsewhere though I’m surely not the originator of the notion.

After the fighting at the gaps of South Mountain (Rafuse pointed out the great risks involved in negotiating mountain passes), Rafuse faulted Franklin and Burnside for failing to act with celerity on the 15th.  As a result, when Mac arrived at Keedysville on the 15th, he had only 2 divisions with him.  The day and evening of the 15th was spent consolidating his forces.

Fog obscured the battlefield on the Sharpsburg side of the Antietam on the morning of the 16th, therefore a recon could not be performed until later in the day.

Rafuse asserted [rightly, I think] that the best place for McClellan’s HQ given the wide front over which his army was to attack was indeed the Pry House.  He also dispelled the annoyingly persistent idea that McClellan never left his HQ, and described his foray to the East Woods in the afternoon of the 17th.  He argued that, while Mac’s decision not to launch an attack in the center may have been a bad one in retrospect, it was probably a good one based on what was known at the time.  I was glad to hear him say that there was little that happened on the 17th to indicate that Lee’s army was inferior in size and close to being beaten.

Consultation with his generals convinced McClellan not to renew the attack on the 17th.  He fell ill on the 18th, and while he issued orders to renew the conflict on the 19th, Lee’s army had already withdrawn.

In summary, McClellan had taken a beaten, disorganized, and partly inexperienced army, and used it to conduct a campaign that ended the best chance Lee’s veteran, victorious forces had to win a great victory.

Rafuse also pointed out the different circumstances under which the Union and Confederacy operated.  Lee and his army needed to win a victory north of the Potomac – time was the enemy.  Not so for McClellan, except where Lincoln was concerned.  And here was the problem: Mac wanted to ultimately grind the Confederacy down.  After Antietam, he wanted to return to the line of the James, the same line that would be revisited by Grant in 1864 and which would lead to ultimate Union victory.  But the James was the last place Lincoln wanted his army to go.  The James meant a siege, and “sieges were boring”.  After Antietam, either McClellan or Lincoln had to go.  They could not work together, and Lincoln was not going anywhere.

I think I have fairly represented Ethan Rafuse’s presentation here.  Hopefully those in attendance left with some food for thought.





Antietam Weekend Continued

17 09 2007

I don’t want to turn this blog into a travelogue, but my last post seems to have generated a lot of interest if the hits I received today are any indication.  So I’ll finish up the story for you. Once again, click on the thumbnails for a full size image.

OK, where was I?  Oh yeah.  Early Sunday morning, I enjoyed a nice fresh waffle breakfast with Tom, Angela and young Joe Clemens – and Bomber, the famous Clemens battlefield hound.  I can’t thank the Clemens Clan enough for their hospitality.  Finest kind.

pry.jpgI headed out from Keedysville just before 9:00.  I wanted to at least check out the new West Woods trail at the park before starting for home.  But between Keedysville and the park is the Pry Farm, and I remembered that the Medical Museum in the house had a copy of the Personal Memoirs of John Brinton: Civil War Surgeon for sale.  Brinton was a cousin of George Brinton McClellan who served throughout the war.  So I made the right into the farm.  There was a reenactor encampment there, but all but one fellow seemed to have been off elsewhere.  The museum was closed, but I noticed that the barn door was opened, and I had never been in the barn before so I poked my head in.  Inside were three people, and one of them turned out to be George Wunderlich, director of the National Museum of Civil War Medicine.  It turned out he was conducting a seminar on the antebellum banjo, something on which he is an expert.  George took the time to give me a little history lesson and I found the whole business fascinating.  I even got to hold one of the beautiful instruments.  George told me that the museum didn’t open until 10:00 AM, and that the seminar would be kicking back up around then and there would be jam sessions later on, so I decided to head over to the park and stop back at the Pry Farm later. 

I checked the schedule of events for Sunday and found that there was a 10:00 AM Ranger Walk on the 2nd Corps that would include the West Woods trail, so I walked over to the New York monument where Ranger Mike Gamble was mustering the troops.

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 Once again we had a beautiful day.  Look at that sky behind my favorite Antietam monument.   

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Our walk took us to the West Woods, where this ledge demonstrates the sloping terrain west of the Hagerstown Pike that Lee used to his advantage to shuffle troops from point to point unseen by the enemy.

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This small monument is just south of the 15th MA lion on the new Hagerstown Rd.  Ranger John Hoptak, who was assisting Ranger Gamble on this walk, told me that this fellow Stetson is a relative of the originator of the famous hat of the same name.  There’s a thread for you to pull, Brian!  Read John’s account of the weekend here. 

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Leaving the west woods and heading toward the parts of the field traversed by the 2nd Corps divisions of French and Richardson, we visited the Mumma Farm – only the stone spring house dates from the battle.  A descendant of the family works at the park, and I did see him a couple of times over the weekend. 

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Then we passed through the Roulette Farm.

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This is the ancient siding of the Roulette Barn.  Mannie has an uncanny knack of making subjects like this interesting.  I, as you can see, do not. 

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North of the Sunken Road, Ranger Gamble formed the Irish Brigade for the assault.  He wrapped things up in the lane.  A fine ending to a fine walk, which was again 2.5 miles and 2.5 hours. 

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After the walk I went back to the Pry Farm, where I picked up the Brinton book and watched some Signal Corps reenactors at work.  Unfortunately, the musicians had moved along their agenda to discuss next year’s conference, which will apparently take place on Anniversary Weekend again.  I’ll have to try to remember that.





Now I Need a Nap

16 09 2007

 

I’m back from a wonderful but tiring couple of days at the best park in the NPS, Antietam National Battlefield.  Batteries are recharged, but I need a little rest all the same.  In the following, click on the thumbnails for full size images.

I left Pittsburgh at 6:15 Saturday morning and arrived at the visitor’s center around 9:30 to pick up a tour schedule and a long sleeved T-shirt that I found for $10 – I heard on the radio that the temperature wouldn’t go much over 70 degrees.  The parking lots were already filling up, and in fact I saw Superintendent John Howard have to park on the other side of the old Hagerstown Pike.  I spoke quickly with rangers Mannie Gentile and John Hoptak and Virtual Antietam tycoon Steve Recker before leaving for the Sharpsburg Heritage Festival in town.

At the Save Historic Antietam Foundation booth I met up with fellow board members Bill Maharay, Don Macreadie, and Tom Clemens.  In short order we were joined by board members Dana Shoaf, Paula Reed and John Schildt, Tom’s better 89% Angela Clemens, and SHAF web master and fellow blogger Brian Downey.

window.jpgWe hung for awhile at the booth and schmoozed the crowd, then Bill and I walked over to the former German Reformed Church (now the Christ Reformed Church) to see the recently refurbished and rededicated stained glass windows of the 11th and 16th Connecticut regiments, as well as the hopefully soon to be restored Pennsylvania GAR window and the rest of this gem of a building.  The Reverend Delancey Catlett helpfully and patiently answered a myriad of questions – go here to learn more about the church and the windows.  Bill and I walked back to the festival, and I accompanied Brian back down to the church after retrieving my camera.  Here’s a picture of the impressive 16th CT window – my camera doesn’t do it justice.

baracz.jpgAfter watching the battle of the (Rebel and Union) bands and hearing the benediction back at the festival, Brian and I drove up to the VC and spoke briefly with rangers Gentile and Hoptak once more.  I also saw author Mark Snell in the bookstore, but didn’t get a chance to speak with him.  Brian and I had to scoot over to the Burnside’s Bridge parking area for the start of a walk of the 9th Corps assault and final attack, led by Ranger Brian Baracz.

 

bridge.jpgIt was a crystal clear day, a little cool but not so cool that I couldn’t shed my long sleeved shirt.  We walked the new trail east of the bridge, and got to see the long obscured view photographed by Alexander Gardner so famously in 1862 (see here).  Here’s my version:

We crossed back over the creek and hit the final assault trail.  I did some work on the Otto Farm Lane on a SHAF work day in 2005, but had not walked the trail before.  Brian had with him some Antietam on the Web maps of his own creation (based on the Carman maps) which really helped interpret things for us.

brass.jpgAfter 2.5 miles and 2.5 hours on the field, we went back to the VC – specifically the New York monument – for an artillery demonstration, which is always a good time.  Love those polished brass Napoleons.  Also love things that go boom.  And there were two of them!

 

boys.jpgDuring the demo we spoke a bit with Ranger Hoptak and I drafted him to write an article on General Nagle for the SHAF newsletter.  Here are Brian and John relaxing on the steps of the New York monument at the end of what must have been a long day for John.

Brian and I stopped for a bite and drink at Capt. Bender’s Tavern in Sharpsburg and then headed once again to the VC to meet up with Tom and Angela for Ethan Rafuse’s lecture on McClellan at Antietam.  I’ll have details on that tomorrow.  After the talk, we all headed back to Tom’s house in Keedysville, where Ethan joined us after selling and signing about 12,000 copies of McClellan’s War.  We sat outside on the pleasant patio talking Civil War and other things until the chill drove us inside.  Brian headed home and Ethan back to his hotel, but not before he signed my copies of the McClellan book (a favorite of mine) and his First Bull Run study, A Single Grand Victory (another favorite).  I then retired to the really cool guest room/library addition to the Clemens’ 19th century home.

That’s enough for tonight.  I’ll post more tomorrow, but in the meantime you can read more about the weekend at Brian’s and Mannie’s blogs.





145th Anniversary of the Battle of Antietam

13 09 2007

 

 Miller’s Cornfield

 

 

Bright and early (well, probably dark and early) Saturday morning I’ll head down to Sharpsburg for the Heritage Day festivities in town and the anniversary programs at the park.  I’ll spend some time at the Save Historic Antietam Foundation (SHAF) booth at the festival (outside Nutter’s Ice Cream Shop), so stop by and say hello if you get a chance.

I’ll be visiting with friend and SHAF president Tom Clemens, and also expect to see fellow bloggers Brian Downey, Mannie Gentile and John Hoptak this weekend, as well as CWTI’s Dana Shoaf who will speak about the 16th CT as part of the SHAF lecture series.  I think most of this group will probably be in attendance at Ethan Rafuse’s lecture Saturday night.  I also hope to take some of the ranger led tours on Saturday and Sunday before heading back home late Sunday afternoon.

I’ll be the guy in the green Jamestown Jammers ball cap.








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