#64 – Gen. G. T. Beauregard

22 02 2009

Reports of General G. T. Beauregard, Commanding Confederate Army of the Potomac, of Operations from July 17 to 20

O.R.– SERIES I–VOLUME 2 [S# 2] — CHAPTER IX, pp. 439-448

MANASSAS, July 17, 1861

JEFFERSON DAVIS,

President of the Confederate States:

The enemy has assailed my outposts in heavy force. I have fallen back on the line of Bull Run, and will make a stand at Mitchell’s Ford.If his force is overwhelming I shall retire to the Rappahannock Railroad Bridge, saving my command for defense there and future operations. Please inform Johnston of this, via Staunton, and also Holmes. Send forward any re-enforcements at the earliest possible instant and by every possible means.

G. T. BEAUREGARD

—–

HDQRS. FIRST CORPS, ARMY OF THE POTOMAC,

Manassas, August –, 1861

GENERAL: With the general results of the engagement between several brigades of my command and a considerable force of the enemy in the vicinity of Mitchell’s and Blackburn’s Fords, at Bull Run, on the 18th ultimo, you were made duly acquainted at the time by telegraph, but it is my place now to submit in detail the operations of that day.

Opportunely informed of the determination of the enemy to advance on Manassas, my advanced brigades, on the night of the 16th of July, were made aware from these headquarters of the impending movement, and in exact accordance with my instructions (a copy of which is appended, marked A), their withdrawal within the lines of Bull Run was effected with complete success during the day and night of the 17th ultimo, in face of and in immediate proximity to a largely superior force, despite a well-planned, well-executed effort to cut off the retreat of Bonham’s brigade first at Germantown and subsequently at Centreville, whence he withdrew by my direction after midnight without collision, although enveloped on three sides by their lines. This movement had the intended effect of deceiving the enemy as to my ulterior purposes, and led him to anticipate an unresisted passage of Bull Run.

As prescribed in the first and second sections of the paper herewith, marked A, on the morning of the 18th of July, my troops, resting on Bull Run from Union Mills Ford to the stone bridge, a distance of about eight miles, were posted as follows:

Ewell’s brigade occupied a position in vicinity of the Union Mills Ford. It consisted of Rodes’ Fifth and Seibels’ Sixth Regiments of Alabama, and Seymour’s Sixth Regiment Louisiana Volunteers, with four 12-pounder howitzers of Walton’s battery, and Harrison’s, Green’s, and Cabell’s companies of Virginia Cavalry.

D. R. Jones’ brigade was in position in rear of McLean’s Ford, and consisted of Jenkins’ Fifth South Carolina and Burt’s Eighteenth and Featherston’s Seventeenth Regiments of Mississippi Volunteers, with two brass 6-pounder guns of Walton’s battery, and one company of cavalry.

Longstreet’s brigade covered Blackburn’s Ford, and consisted of Moore’s First, Garland’s Eleventh, and Corse’s Seventeenth Regiments Virginia Volunteers, with two 6-pounder brass guns of Walton’s battery.

Bonham’s brigade held the approaches to Mitchell’s Ford. It was composed of Kershaw’s Second, Williams’ Third, Bacon’s Seventh, and Cash’s Eighth Regiments South Carolina Volunteers; of Shields’ and Del. Kemper’s batteries, and of Flood’s, Radford’s, Payne’s, Ball’s, Wickham’s, and Powell’s companies of Virginia Cavalry, under Colonel Radford.

Cooke’s brigade held the fords below and in the vicinity of the stone bridge, and consisted of Withers’ Eighteenth, Lieutenant-Colonel Strange’s Nineteenth, and R. T. Preston’s Twenty-eighth Regiments, with Latham’s battery, and one company of cavalry, Virginia Volunteers.

Evans held my left flank, and protected the stone bridge crossing, with Sloan’s Fourth Regiment South Carolina Volunteers, Wheat’s special battalion Louisiana Volunteers, four 6-pounder guns, and two companies of Virginia Cavalry.

Early’s brigade, consisting of Kemper’s Seventh and Early’s Twenty-fourth Regiments Virginia Volunteers; Hays’ Seventh Regiment Louisiana Volunteers, and three rifled pieces of Walton’s battery–Lieutenant Squires–at first were held in position in the rear of and as a support to Ewell’s brigade, until after the development of the enemy in heavy offensive force in front of Mitchell’s and Blackburn’s Fords, when it was placed in rear of and nearly equidistant between McLean’s, Blackburn’s, and Mitchell’s Fords.

Pending the development of the enemy’s purpose, about 10 o’clock a.m. I established my headquarters at a central point (McLean’s farmhouse), near to McLean’s and Blackburn’s Fords, where two 6-pounders of Walton’s battery were in reserve, but subsequently during the engagement I took post to the left of my reserve.

Of the topographical features of the country thus occupied it must suffice to say that Bull Run is a small stream, running in this locality nearly from west to east to its confluence with the Occoquan River, about twelve miles from the Potomac, and draining a considerable scope of country from its source in Bull Run Mountain to a short distance of the Potomac at Occoquan. At this season habitually low and sluggish, it is, however, rapidly and frequently swollen by the summer rains until unfordable. The banks for the most part are rocky and steep, but abound in long-used fords. The country on either side, much broken and thickly wooded, becomes gently rolling and open as it recedes from the stream. On the northern side the ground is much the highest, and commands the other bank completely. Roads traverse and intersect the surrounding country in almost every direction. Finally, at Mitchell’s Ford the stream is about equidistant between Centreville and Manassas, some six miles apart.

On the morning of the 18th, finding that the enemy was assuming a threatening attitude, in addition to the regiments whose positions have been already stated, I ordered up from Camp Pickens as a reserve, in rear of Bonham’s brigade, the effective men of six companies of Kelly’s Eighth Regiment Louisiana Volunteers and Kirkland’s Eleventh Regiment North Carolina Volunteers, which, having arrived the night before en route for Winchester, I had halted in view of the existing necessities of the service. Subsequently the latter was placed in position to the left of Bonham’s brigade.

Appearing in heavy force in front of Bonham’s position, the enemy, about meridian, opened fire with several 20-pounder rifled guns from a hill over one and a half miles from Bull Run. At the same time Kemper, supported by two companies of light infantry, occupied a ridge on the left of the Centreville road, about six hundred yards in advance of the ford, with two 6-pounder (smooth) guns. At first the firing of the enemy was at random, but by 12.30 p.m. he had obtained the range of our position, and poured into the brigade a shower of shot, but without injury to us in men, horses, or guns. From the distance, however, our guns could not reply with effect, and we did not attempt it, patiently awaiting a more opportune moment.

Meanwhile a light battery was pushed forward by the enemy, whereupon Kemper threw only six solid shot, with the effect of driving back both the battery and its supporting force. This is understood to have been Ayres’ battery, and the damage must have been considerable to have obliged such a retrograde movement on the part of that officer. The purposes of Kemper’s position having now been fully served, his pieces and support were withdrawn across Mitchell’s Ford to a point previously designated, and which commanded the direct approaches to the ford.

About 11.30 o’clock a.m. the enemy was also discovered by the pickets of Longstreet’s brigade advancing in strong columns of infantry with artillery and cavalry on Blackburn’s Ford. At meridian the pickets fell back silently before the advancing foe across the ford, which, as well as the entire southern bank of the stream for the whole front of Longstreet’s brigade, was covered at the water’s edge by an extended line of skirmishers, while two 6-pounders of Walton’s battery, under Lieutenant Garnett, were advantageously placed to command the direct approach to the ford, but with orders to retire to the rear as soon as commanded by the enemy.

The northern bank of the stream in front of Longstreet’s position rises with a steep slope at least fifty feet above the level of the water, leaving a narrow berme in front of the ford of some twenty yards. This ridge formed for them an admirable natural parapet, behind which they could and did approach under shelter in heavy force within less than one hundred yards of our skirmishers. The southern shore was almost a plain, raised but a few feet above the water for several hundred yards; then rising with a very gradual, gentle slope and undulations back to Manassas. On the immediate bank there was a fringe of trees, but with little if any undergrowth or shelter, while on the other shore there were timber and much thick brush and covering. The ground in rear of our skirmishers and occupied by our artillery was an old field, extending along the stream about one mile, and immediately back for about half a mile to a border or skirting of dense second-growth pines. The whole of this ground was commanded at all points by the ridge occupied by the enemy’s musketry, as was also the country to the rear for a distance much beyond the range of 20-pounder rifled guns by the range of hills on which their batteries were planted, and which it may be further noted commanded also all our approaches from this direction to the three threatened fords.

Before advancing his infantry the enemy maintained a fire of rifled artillery from the batteries just mentioned for half an hour; then he pushed forward a column of over three thousand infantry to the assault, with such a weight of numbers as to be repelled with difficulty by the comparatively small force of not more than twelve hundred bayonets with which Brigadier-General Longstreet met him with characteristic vigor and intrepidity. Our troops engaged at this time were the First and Seventeenth and four companies of the Eleventh Regiments Virginia Volunteers. Their resistance was resolute, and maintained with a steadiness worthy of all praise. It was successful, and the enemy was repulsed. In a short time, however, he returned to the contest with increased force and determination, but was again foiled and driven back by our skirmishers and Longstreet’s reserve companies, which were brought up and employed at the most vigorously-assailed points at the critical moment.

It was now that Brigadier-General Longstreet sent for re-enforcements from Early’s brigade, which I had anticipated by directing the advance of General Early with two regiments of infantry and two pieces of artillery. As these came upon the field the enemy had advanced a third time with heavy numbers to force Longstreet’s position. Hays’ regiment, Seventh Louisiana Volunteers, which was in advance, was placed on the bank of the stream under some cover to the immediate right and left of the ford, relieving Corse’s regiment (Seventeenth Virginia Volunteers). This was done under a heavy fire of musketry with promising steadiness. The Seventh Virginia, under Lieutenant-Colonel Williams, was then formed to the right, also under heavy fire, and pushed forward to the stream, relieving the First Regiment Virginia Volunteers. At the same time two rifled guns brought up with Early’s brigade were moved down in the field to the right of the road, so as to be concealed from the enemy’s artillery by the girth of timber on the immediate bank of the stream, and there opened fire, directed only by the sound of the enemy’s musketry.

Unable to effect a passage, the enemy kept up a scattering fire for some time. Some of our troops had pushed across the stream, and several small parties of Corse’s regiment, under command of Captain Marye, met and drove the enemy with the bayonet; but as the roadway from the ford was too narrow for a combined movement in force, General Longstreet recalled them to the south bank. Meanwhile the remainder of Early’s infantry and artillery had been called up; that is, six companies of the Twenty-fourth Regiment Virginia Volunteers, under Lieutenant-Colonel Hairston, and five pieces of artillery, one rifled gun, and four 6-pounder brass guns, including two 6-pounder guns under Lieutenant Garnett, which had been previously sent to the rear by General Longstreet. This infantry was at once placed in position to the left of the ford, in a space unoccupied by Hays, and the artillery was unlimbered in battery to the right of the road, in a line with the two guns already in action. A scattering fire of musketry was still kept up by the enemy for a short time, but that was soon silenced.

It was at this stage of the affair that a remarkable artillery duel was commenced and maintained on our side with a long-trained professional opponent, superior in the character as well as in the number of his weapons, provided with improved munitions and every artillery appliance, and at the same time occupying the commanding position. The results were marvelous, and fitting precursors to the artillery achievements of the 21st of July. In the outset our fire was directed against the enemy’s infantry, whose bayonets, gleaming above the tree-tops, alone indicated their presence and force. This drew the attention of a battery placed on a high, commanding ridge, and the duel began in earnest. For a time the aim of the adversary was inaccurate, but this was quickly corrected, and shot fell and shells burst thick and fast in the very midst of our battery, wounding in the course of the combat Captain Eshleman, five privates, and the horse of Lieutenant Richardson. From the position of our pieces and the nature of the ground their aim could only be directed at the smoke of the enemy’s artillery. How skillfully and with what execution this was done can only be realized by an eye-witness. For a few moments their guns were silenced, but were soon reopened. By direction of General Longstreet, his battery was then advanced by hand out of the range now ascertained by the enemy, and a shower of spherical case, shell, and round shot flew over the heads of our gunners. But one of our pieces had become hors de combat from an enlarged vent.

From the new position our guns fired as before, with no other aim than the smoke and flash of their adversaries’ pieces, renewed and urged the conflict with such signal vigor and effect, that gradually the fire of the enemy slackened, the intervals between their discharges grew longer and longer, finally to cease, and we fired a last gun at a baffled, flying foe, whose heavy masses in the distance were plainly seen to break and scatter in wild confusion and utter rout, strewing the ground with castaway guns, hats, blankets, and knapsacks as our parting shell were thrown among them. In their retreat one of their pieces was abandoned, but from the nature of the ground it was not sent for that night, and under cover of darkness the enemy recovered it.

The guns engaged in this singular conflict on our side were three 6-pounder rifled pieces and four ordinary 6-pounders, all of Walton’s battery, Washington Artillery, of New Orleans. The officers immediately attached were Captain Eshleman, Lieuts. C. W. Squires, Richardson, Garnett, and Whittington. At the same time our infantry held the bank of the stream in advance of our guns, and the missiles of the combatants flew to and fro above them, as cool and veteran-like for more than an hour they steadily awaited the moment and signal for the advance.

While the conflict was at its height before Blackburn’s Ford, about l o’clock p.m., the enemy again displayed himself in force before Bonham’s position. At this time Colonel Kershaw, with four companies of his regiment (Second South Carolina) and one piece of Kemper’s battery, were thrown across Mitchell’s Ford to the ridge which Kemper had occupied that morning. Two solid shot and three spherical case thrown among them with a precision inaugurated by that artillerist at Vienna effected their discomfiture and disappearance, and our troops in that quarter were again withdrawn within our lines, having discharged the duty assigned.

At the close of the engagement before Blackburn’s Ford I directed General Longstreet to withdraw the First and Seventeenth Regiments, which had borne the brunt of the action, to a position in reserve, leaving Colonel Early to occupy the field with his brigade and Garland’s regiment.

As a part of the history of this engagement I desire to place on record that on the 18th of July not one yard of intrenchments nor one rifle pit sheltered the men at Blackburn’s Ford, who, officers and men, with rare exceptions, were on that day for the first time under fire, and who, taking and maintaining every position ordered, cannot be too much commended for their soldierly behavior.

Our artillery was manned and officered by those who but yesterday were called from the civil avocations of a busy city. They were matched with the picked light artillery of the Federal Regular Army–Company E, Third Artillery, under Captain Ayres, with an armament, as their own chief of artillery admits, of two 10-pounder Parrott rifled guns, two 12-pounder howitzers, and two 6-pounder pieces, aided by two 20-pounder Parrott rifled guns of Company G, Fifth Artillery, under Lieutenant Benjamin. Thus matched, they drove their veteran adversaries from the field, giving confidence in and promise of the coming efficiency of that brilliant arm of our service.

Having thus related the main or general results and events of the action of Bull Run, in conclusion it is proper to signalize some of those who contributed most to the satisfactory results of that day. Thanks are due to Brigadier-Generals Bonham and Ewell and to Colonel Cocke and the officers under them for the ability shown in conducting and executing the retrograde movements on Bull Run directed in my orders of the 8th of July–movements on which hung the fortunes of this Army.

Brigadier-General Longstreet, who commanded immediately the troops engaged at Blackburn’s Ford on the 18th, equaled my confident expectations, and I may fitly say that by his presence at the right place at the right moment among his men, by the exhibition of characteristic coolness, and by his words of encouragement to the men of his command, he infused a confidence and spirit that contributed largely to the success of our arms on that day.

Colonel Early brought his brigade into position and subsequently into action with judgment, and at the proper moment; he displayed capacity for command and personal gallantry.

Colonel Moore, commanding the First Virginia Volunteers, was severely wounded at the head of his regiment, the command of which subsequently devolved upon Major Skinner, Lieutenant-Colonel Fry having been obliged to leave the field in consequence of a sun-stroke.

An accomplished, promising officer, Maj. Carter H. Harrison, Eleventh Regiment Virginia Volunteers, was lost to the service while leading two companies of his regiment against the enemy. He fell, twice shot, mortally wounded.

Brigadier-General Longstreet, while finding on all sides alacrity, ardor, and intelligence, mentions his special obligations to Colonels Moore, Garland, and Corse, commanding severally regiments of his brigade, and to their field officers, Lieutenant-Colonels Fry, Funsten, Munford, and Majors Brent and Skinner, of whom he says, “They displayed more coolness and energy than is usual among veterans of the old service.” General Longstreet also mentions the conduct of Captain Marye, of the Seventeenth Virginia Volunteers, as especially gallant on one occasion, in advance of the ford.

The regiments of Early’s brigade were commanded by Colonel Harry Hays and Lieutenant-Colonels Williams and Hairston, who handled their commands in action with satisfactory coolness and skill, supported by their field officers, Lieutenant-Colonel De Choiseul and Major Penn, of the Seventh Louisiana, and Major Patton, of the Seventh Virginia Volunteers.

The skill, the conduct, and the soldierly qualities of the Washington Artillery engaged were all that could be desired. The officers and men attached to the seven pieces already specified won for their battalion a distinction which I feel assured will never be tarnished, and which will ever serve to urge them and their corps to high endeavor. Lieutenant Squires worthily commanded the pieces in action. The commander of the battalion was necessarily absent from the immediate field, under orders in the sphere of his duties, but the fruits of his discipline, zeal, instruction, and capacity as an artillery commander were present, and must redound to his reputation.

On the left, at Mitchell’s Ford, while no serious engagement occurred, the conduct of all was eminently satisfactory to the general officers in command.

It is due, however, to Col. J. L. Kemper, Virginia forces, to express my sense of the value of his services in the preparation for and execution of the retreat from Fairfax Court-House on Bull Run. Called from the head of his regiment, by what appeared to me an imperative need of the service, to take charge of the superior duties of the quartermaster’s department with the advance at that critical juncture, he accepted the responsibilities involved, and was eminently efficient.

For further information touching officers and individuals of the First Brigade, and the details of the retrograde movement, I have to refer particularly to the report of Brigadier-General Bonham, herewith No. 66.

It is proper here to state that while from the outset it had been determined on the approach of the enemy in force to fall back and fight him on the line of Bull Run, yet the position occupied by General Ewell’s brigade, if necessary, could have been maintained against largely superior force. This was especially the case with the position of the Fifth Alabama Volunteers, Colonel Rodes, which that excellent officer had made capable of a resolute protracted defense against heavy odds. Accordingly, on the morning of the 17th ultimo, when the enemy appeared before that position, they were checked and held at bay with some confessed loss in a skirmish in advance of the works, in which Major Morgan and Captain Shelley, Fifth Regiment Alabama Volunteers, acted with intelligent gallantry, and the post was only abandoned under general, but specific, imperative orders, in conformity with a long-conceived established plan of action and battle.

Capt. E. P. Alexander, Confederate States Engineers, fortunately joined my headquarters in time to introduce the system of new field signals, which under his skillful management rendered me the most important service preceding and during the engagement.

The medical officers serving with the regiments engaged were at their proper posts and discharged their duties with satisfactory skill and zeal, and on one occasion at least, under an annoying fire, when Surgeon Cullen, First Regiment Virginia Volunteers, was obliged to remove our wounded from the hospital, which had become the special target of the enemy’s rifled guns, notwithstanding it was surmounted by the usual yellow hospital flag, but which, however, I hope for the sake of past associations was ignorantly mistaken for a Confederate flag. The name of each individual medical officer I cannot mention.

On the day of the engagement I was attended by my personal staff, Lieut. S. W. Ferguson, aide-de-camp and my volunteer aides-de-camp, Colonels Preston, Manning, Chesnut, Miles, Chisolm, and Hayward, of South Carolina, to all of whom I am greatly indebted for manifold essential services in the transmission of orders on the field and in the preliminary arrangements for the occupation and maintenance of the line of Bull Run.

Col. Thomas Jordan, assistant adjutant-general; Capt. C. H. Smith, assistant adjutant-general; Col. S. Jones, chief of artillery and ordnance;  Major Cabell, chief quartermaster; Capt. W. H. Fowle, chief of subsistence department; Surg. Thomas H. Williams, medical director, and Assistant Surgeon Brodie, medical purveyor, of the general staff, attached to the Army of the Potomac, were necessarily engaged severally with their responsible duties at my headquarters at Camp Pickens, which they discharged with an energy and intelligence for which I have to tender my sincere thanks.

Messrs. McLean, Wilcoxen, Kinchelo, and Brawner, citizens of this immediate vicinity, it is their due to say, have placed me and the country under great obligations for the information relative to this region, which has enabled me to avail myself of its defensive features and resources. They were found ever ready to give me their time without stint or reward.

Our casualties, in all sixty-eight killed and wounded, were fifteen (including two reported missing) killed, and fifty-three wounded, several of whom have since died. The loss of the enemy can only be conjectured. It was unquestionably heavy. In the cursory examination, which was made by details from Longstreet’s and Early’s brigades, on the 18th of July, of that part of the field immediately contested and near Blackburn’s Ford, some sixty-four corpses were found and buried. Some few wounded and at least twenty prisoners were also picked up, besides one hundred and seventy-five stand of arms, a large quantity of accouterments and blankets, and quite one hundred and fifty hats.

The effect of this day’s conflict was to satisfy the enemy he could not force a passage across Bull Run in the face of our troops, and led him into the flank movement of the 21st of July and the battle of Manassas, the details of which will be related in another paper.

Herewith I have the honor to transmit the reports of the several brigade commanders engaged and of the artillery; also a map of the field of battle.(*)

The rendition of this report, it is proper to say in conclusion, has been unavoidably delayed by the constantly engrossing administrative duties of the commander of an army corps composed wholly of volunteers, duties vitally essential to its well being and future efficiency, and which I could not set aside or postpone on any account.

I have the honor to be, general, your obedient servant,

G. T. BEAUREGARD,

General, Commanding

General S. COOPER,

Adjutant and Inspector General, C. S. Army

[Inclosure A.]

Special ORDERS, No. 100

HDQRS. ARMY OF THE POTOMAC,

Manassas Junction, July 8, 1861

Paragraph IV, of Special Orders, No. 51, from these headquarters, dated June 20, 1861, is revoked, and if attacked by a superior force of the enemy, the three brigades of the Army of the Potomac, serving in Fairfax County, will retire in the following manner and order:

I. The First Brigade on Mitchell’s Ford, of Bull Run, by way of Centreville.

II. The whole of the Fifth Brigade on Bull Run stone bridge, and adjacent fords, making a stand, if practicable, at the suspension bridge across Cub Run.

III. The Second Brigade, except Colonel Rodes’ regiment, will fall back via the railway and adjacent roads on Union Mills Ford and the railroad bridge across Bull Run, burning the bridges on their way.

The Fifth Regiment Alabama Volunteers, Colonel Rodes, will retire by way of Braddock’s old road and the nearest side roads to McLean’s Ford, on Bull Run, or Union Mills Ford, as most practicable. These brigades, thus in position, will make a desperate stand at the several points hereinbefore designated on the line of Bull Run, and will be supported as follows:

I. The Third Brigade will move forward to McLean’s Ford.

II. The Fourth Brigade will repair to Blackburn’s Ford.

III. The Sixth Brigade will be advanced to Union Mills Ford.

IV. Major Walton’s battery will repair to McLean’s farm-house by the shortest practicable route, with which he shall at once make himself and his officers thoroughly acquainted. At said farm-house he will await further orders.

Should the enemy march to the attack of Mitchell’s Ford via Centreville the following movements will be made with celerity:

I. The Fourth Brigade will march from Blackburn’s Ford to attack him on the flank and center.

II. The Third Brigade will be thrown to the attack of his center and rear towards Centreville.

III. The Second and Sixth Brigades united will also push forward and attack him in the rear by way of Centreville, protecting their own right flanks and rear from the direction of Fairfax Station and Court-House.

IV. In the event of the defeat of the enemy, the troops at Mitchell’s Ford and stone bridge, especially the cavalry and artillery, will join in the pursuit, which will be conducted with vigor but unceasing prudence, and continued until he shall have been driven beyond the Potomac.

V. The garrison of Camp Pickens and all existing guards and pickets inside of the lines of Bull Run and the Occoquan River will remain in position until otherwise ordered.

VI. The chiefs of the several staff corps attached to these headquarters will take all necessary measures to secure an efficient service of their respective departments in the exigency.

By order of Brigadier General Beauregard:

THOMAS JORDAN,

Acting Assistant Adjutant General

[Indorsement]

The plan of attack prescribed within would have been executed with modifications affecting First and Fifth Brigades to meet the attack upon Blackburn’s Ford but for the expected coming of General Johnston’s command, which was known to be en route to join me on the 18th of July.

G. T. BEAUREGARD,

General, Commanding

(*) Map not found.





#95 – Brig. Gen. Richard S. Ewell

13 03 2008

 

Report of Brig. Gen. Richard S. Ewell, Commanding Second Brigade, First Corps

O.R.– SERIES I–VOLUME 2 [S# 2] — CHAPTER IX, pp 536-537

HEADQUARTERS SECOND BRIGADE,

Union Mills, July 24, 1861

SIR: In conformity with Special Orders, No. 145, headquarters Army of the Potomac, I have the honor to report that upon the morning of July 21, 1861, I first received orders to hold myself in readiness to advance at a moment’s notice. I next received a copy of an order sent to General Jones and furnished me by him, in which it was stated I had been ordered at once to proceed to his support.

I immediately commenced crossing my brigade over Bull Run, but whilst so doing received an order to fall back to my former position, which I did, and a short time afterwards received another order, brought by Colonel Terry, aide-de-camp, to cross again, proceed up the run, and attack a battery of the enemy upon its flank and rear, regulating my movements upon the brigades of Generals Jones and Longstreet. I again crossed the stream, and had proceeded about a mile and a half in execution of the order when I was stopped by an order to march at once to stone bridge, following General Holmes’ brigade, which had already been ordered to proceed to that point.

I deem it proper to state that the courier said he had been accompanied by an aide-de-camp whose horse had given out before reaching me. I countermarched and marched at once to headquarters in the field, remained in reserve at that point until ordered back to Union Mills, which I reached after a long and fatiguing march the same night.

My brigade consisted of Rodes’ Fifth Alabama, Seibels’ Sixth Alabama, Seymour’s Sixth Louisiana, a battery under Captain Rosser, the Washington Artillery, and four companies of cavalry, under Lieutenant-Colonel Jenifer. The infantry would hardly have got back that night, but for the excitement of hearing that the enemy were in possession of the ford. As connected with this, I send a report of a skirmish on the 17th, of Colonel Rodes’ regiment becoming engaged and checking the enemy, owing to the non-reception of the order to fall back on their appearance.(*)

Very respectfully,

R. S. EWELL,

Brigadier-General

Col.. THOMAS JORDAN,

Assistant Adjutant-General

*No. 74, p. 459.





Official Reports – CSA

13 09 2007

 

#64 – General P. G. T. Beauregard

#65 – Colonel Thomas Jordan

#66 – Brigadier General M. L. Bonham

#67 – Colonel J. B. Kershaw

#68 – Colonel J. H. Williams

#69 – Colonel T. G. Bacon

#70 – Lieutenant Colonel J. W. Henagan

#71 – Colonel E. B. C. Cash

#72 – Colonel R. C. W. Radford

#73 – Captain Del. Kemper

#74 – Colonel R. E. Rodes

#75 – Brigadier General David R. Jones

#76 – Brigadier General James Longstreet

#76a – Colonel Montgomery D. Corse

#77 – Colonel Jubal A. Early

#78 – Major John B. Walton

#79 – Lieutenant C. W. Squires

#81 – General Joseph E. Johnston

#81a – Colonel William N. Pendleton

#82 – Brigadier General Thomas J. Jackson 

#82a – Colonel James W. Allen

#82b – Captain James H. Waters

#82c – Major William H. C. Whiting

#82d – Brigadier General S. R. Gist, Major R. A. Howard, Captain A. Vander Horst

#82e – Captain Thomas J. Goldsby

#82f – Captain John D. Imboden

#82g – Colonel Arnold Elzey

#83 – Colonel J. E. B. Stuart

#84, Pt. 1 – General P. G. T. Beauregard

#84, Pt. 2 – General P. G. T. Beauregard

#85 – Major J. B. Walton

#86 – Brigadier General Milledge L. Bonham

#87 – Colonel William W. Kirkland

#88 – Colonel J. B. Kershaw

#89 – Colonel J. H. Williams

#90 – Colonel Thomas G. Bacon

#91 – Colonel E. B. C. Cash

#92 – Colonel R. C. W. Radford

#93 – Lt. Colonel T. T. Munford

#94 – Captain Del. Kemper

#95 – Brigadier General Richard S. Ewell

#96 – Brigadier General David R. Jones

#97 – Colonel W. S. Featherston

#98 – Colonel E. R. Burt

#99 – Colonel M. Jenkins

#100 – Brigadier General James Longstreet

#100a – Lieutenant Colonel Joseph P. Jones

#101 – Colonel M. D. Corse

#101a – Colonel Philip St. George Cocke

#102 – Colonel Eppa Hunton

#103 – Colonel R. E. Withers 

#104 – Colonel Robert T. Preston

#105 – Colonel William Smith 

#106 – Captain John S. Langhorne 

#107 – Captain H. Grey Latham 

#108 – Captain Arthur L. Rogers 

#109 – Colonel Jubal A. Early

#110 – Colonel Nathan G. Evans 

#110a – Major Chatham R. Wheat

#111 – Colonel J. B. E. Sloan

#112 – Captain W. R. Terry 

#113 – Lieutenant George S. Davidson 

#114 – Captain John D. Alexander 

#115 – Brigadier General Theophilus H. Holmes 

#116 – Colonel Wade Hampton 

#117 – Troop Strengths, Beauregard’s Army, July 21, 1861

#118 – Troops Engaged, Beauregard’s Army, July 21, 1861

#119 – Major Thomas G. Rhett 

#120 – Strength of the Union Army, July 21, 1861, as reported by Confederate authority

#121 – Confederate Casualties, July 21, 1861

#122 – Captain E. P. Alexander

#123 – Captain John F. Lay

#124 – Captain Edgar Whitehead

#125 – Generals J. E. Johnston & G. T. Beauregard





Order of Battle – CSA

8 02 2007

FIRST BULL RUN CAMPAIGN

ORDER OF BATTLE

Confederate

B = Biographical Sketch D = Diaries M = Memoirs N = Newspaper Accounts OC = Official Correspondence OR = Official Report PC = Private Correspondence

Army of the Potomac

Brig. Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard (M, OC1OR1, OR2 Pt 1OR2 Pt 2, OR3,)

Acting Assistant Adjutant General (AAAG)

  • Col. T. Jordan (OR)
  • Capt. C. H. Smith

Acting Assistant Quartermaster (AAQ)

  • Maj. Cabell

Commissary

  • Col. R. B. Lee

Signal Officer

Engineer

  • Col. Williamson

Medical

  • Chief Surg R. L. Brodie

Artillery

  • Col. S. Jones

Aides-de-camp (ADC)

  • Col. Chesnut
  • Col. Chisolm
  • Col. Hayward
  • Col. Manning 
  • Col. Miles
  • Col. Preston
  • Col. Rice
  • Capt. D. B. Harris
  • Capt. W. H. Stevens
  • Lt. W. Ferguson
  • Lt. H. E. Peyton

Headquarters Escort

  • Capt. John F. Lay, Powhatan Troop (OR)
    • Capt. K. E. Utterback, Little Fork Rangers

First Brigade

Brig. Gen. Milledge L. Bonham (OR1, OR2)

  • Col. Lay, AAG
  • Col. Kemper, AAQ
  • Lt. Washington, AAQ
  • Maj. Kennedy, Chief Commissary
  • Maj. Walton, Military Secretary
  • Gen. Hagood, ADC
  • Gen. McGowan, ADC
  • Col. Aldrich, ADC
  • Col. Lipscomb, ADC
  • Col. Simpson, ADC
  • Maj. Butler, ADC
  • Maj. Davies, ADC
  • Maj. M. B. Lipsocmb, ADC
  • Maj. Tompkins, ADC
  • Capt. A. Moss, ADC
  • Capt. Nyles, ADC
  • Capt. Stevens, ADC
  • Capt. Venable, ADC

11th NCV (later 21st NCI)

2nd SC

  • Col J. B. Kershaw (OR1, OR2)
  • Unknown (1) (PC)
  • Unknown (2) (PC)
    • Co. I
      • Unknown (1) (PC)
      • Unknown (2) (PC)

3rd SC

  • Col. J. H. Williams (OR1, OR2)
    • Co. A
      • Cpl. Taliaferro N. Simpson (PC)
      • Pvt. Richard W. Simpson (PC1, PC2)

7th SC

  • Col. T. G. Bacon (OR1, OR2)
    • Co. F – Calloway K. Henderson (M)

8th SC

  • Col. E. B. C. Cash (OR1, OR2)
    • Lt. Col. J. W. Henagan (OR)

8th LA (N)

  • Col. H. B. Kelly (Not in Johnston’s OOB)
    • Co. B – Capt. A. Larose (N)

30th VA Cav

  • Col. R. C. W. Radford (OR1, OR2)
    • Lt. Col. T. T.Munford (OR) (M)

Alexandria Light Artillery (4 Guns)

1st Company Richmond Howitzers (4 Guns)

  • Capt. J. C. Shields

Second Brigade

Brig. Gen. Richard S. Ewell (OR, PC1, PC2)

  • Lt. Col. Charles Humphrey Tyler, AAAG
  • Capt. Fitzhugh Lee, AAAG
  • Capt. Charles H. Rhodes, AQM
  • Lt. George Campbell Brown, ADC (M)
  • Cadet John Taliaferro, ADC
  • Robert F. Mason, ADC
  • Edgar A. Hudnut, Clerk

5th AL (D)

6th AL

  • Col. J. J. Seibels
    • BHB (PC)

6th LA

  • Col. J. G. Seymour
    • Co. E – 1st Sgt. John Tobin (PC)

Cavalry Battalion

  • Col. J. G. Jenifer

Washington Artillery (4 Guns)

  • T. L. Rosser

Third Brigade

Brig. Gen. David R. Jones (OR1, OR2)

  • Lt. Latham, AAAG
  • Capt. Coward, AAQ
  • Capt. Curfell, AAQ
  • Capt. Ford, AAQ
  • Capt. Taylor, AAQ
  • Lt. McLemore, AAQ

17th MS

  • Col. W. S. Featherstone (OR)

18th MS

  • Col. E. R. Burt (OR)

5th SC

  • Col. Micah Jenkins (OR)

Flood’s Company, 30th VA Cav

  • Capt. J. W. Flood

Washington Artillery (2 Guns)

  • Capt. M. B. Miller

Fourth Brigade

Brig. Gen. James Longstreet (OR1, OR2)

5th NCI

  • Col. McRae
  • Lt. Col. Joseph P. Jones (OR)

1st VA

  • Col. Moore
  • Maj. F. G. Skinner

11th VA

  • Col. S. Garland

17th VA

24th VA

  • Col. P. Hairston

Company E, 30th VA Cav

  • Capt. E. Whitehead (OR)

Washington Artillery (2 Guns) (N)

  • Capt. Garnett

5th Brigade

Col. Philip St. George Cocke (OR)

  • Capt. Harris, Chief Engineer

8th VA

  • Col. E. Hunton (M, OR)

18th VA

  • Col. R. E. Withers (OR)

19th VA

  • Col. P. St. George Cocke
  • Lt. Co. J. B. Strange

28th VA

  • Col. R. T. Preston (OR)
    • Co. H – Pvt. William C. Kean (PC1, PC2, PC3)

49th VA (Battalion)

  • Col. W. Smith (M, OR)

Schaeffer’s Independent Battalion (N1, N2)

  • Cpt. F. B. Schaeffer (N1, N2)
    • Beauregard Rifles (N)
    • Crescent Blues (N1, N2, N3)
    • New Market Volunteers (N)

Loudon Artillery (4 Guns)

  • Capt. Arthur L. Rogers (OR)
    • Lieut. Henry Heaton

Lynchburg Artillery (4 Guns)

  • Capt. H. Grey Latham (OR)

Wise Troop (Cavalry Company)

  • Capt. John S. Langhorne (OR)
    • Lt. Charles Minor Blackford (PC, M)

6th Brigade

Col. Jubal A. Early (OR1, OR2)

  • Capt. Gardner, AAAG
  • Lt. Willis, ADC

7th LA

  • Col. H. T. Hays
    • Co. B – L. D. (PC)
    • Co. H. – Pvt. John Stacker Brooks (N)

13th MS

  • Col. W. Barksdale

7th VA

  • Col. J. L. Kemper

Washington Artillery (5 Guns) (N)

  • Lt. C. W. Squires (OR)
  • Lt. J. B. Richardson
  • Lt. J. B. Whittington

7th Brigade

Col. Nathan G. Evans (B, OR)

  • Capt. A. L. Evans, AAAG
  • Capt. McCausland, ADC
  • Capt. Rogers, ADC

1st Special LA Battalion (N1, N2, N3)

4th SC

  • Col. J. B. E. Sloan (OR)

Alexander’s Troop, 30th VA Cav

  • Capt. J. D. Alexander (OR)

Terry’s Troop, 30th VA Cav

  • Capt. W. R. Terry (OR)

1 Section Lathams Artillery (2 Guns)

  • Lt. George S. Davidson (OR)
  • Lt. Clark Leftwich (PC)

Reserve Brigade

Brig. Gen. Theophilus H. Holmes (OR)

  • Lt. Walker, AAAG

1st AR

  • Col. J. F. Fagan

2nd TN

  • Col. W. Bate

Purcell Artillery (6 Guns)

  • Capt. L. Walker

Albemarle Light Horse

  • Capt. Eugene Davis
  • Major John Scott

Hampton’s SC Legion (6 Companies)

Col. Wade Hampton (W) (OR); Capt. J. Conner (PC1, PC2)

  • Unknown 1 (PC)
  • Unknown 2 (PC)
  • Unknown 3 (PC)
    • Co. A
      • Chaplain W[ashington]. L[ight]. I[nfantry]. (PC)
      • William C. Heriot (PC)
      • Charles W. Hutson (PC)
      • John E. Poyas (PC1, PC2)
      • Unknown 1 (PC)
      • Unknown 2 (PC)
      • Unknown 3 (PC)

Harrison’s Battalion of Cavalry (4 Companies)

  • Maj. Julian Harrison

Camp Pickens Battery

  • Capt. I. S. Sterrett
    • Capt. William King (PC1, PC2)

Army of the Shenandoah

Gen. Joseph E. Johnston (M, OR1, OR2)

Acting Adjutant General (AAG)

Acting Assistant Adjutant General (AAAG)

  • Capt. Thomas L. Preston

Acting Assistant Quartermaster (AAQ)

  • Maj. McLean

Commissary

  • Maj. Kearsley

Engineer

  • Maj. William Henry Chase Whiting

Artillery

  • Col. W. N. Pendleton (OR)

Ordnance

  • Col. Thomas

Aides-de-camp (ADC)

  • Col. Cole
  • Col. Duncan
  • Maj. Dees
  • Capt. Fauntleroy
  • Capt. Mason
  • Lt. James B. Washington

1st Brigade

Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson (OR, PC)

  • Col. F. B. Jones, AAAG
  • Lt. A. S. Pendleton, Ordnance
  • Capt. Marshall, ADC
  • Lt. T. G. Lee, ADC
  • Cadet N. W. Lee, ADC
  • Cadet Thompson, ADC

2nd VA (M)

  • Col. J. W. Allen (OR)

4th VA (M)

  • Col. J. F. Preston
    • Co. I – Pvt. John H. B. Jones (M)

5th VA

  • Col. K. Harper
    • Co. L – Capt. J. H. Waters (OR)

27th VA

  • Lt. Col. J. Echols

33rd VA (8 Companies) (M)

  • Col. A. C. Cummings (M1, M2, PC1, PC2)
    • L. Jacquelin Smith, AAG
    • Sgt. Major Randolph Barton (M, PC)
      • Co. A – Pvt. John O. Casler (MPC)
      • Co. H
        • 4th Sgt Harrison B. Jones (D)
        • Pvt. Martin Van Buren Kite (PC)

Rockbridge VA Artillery (4 Guns)

  • Col.W. N. Pendleton (OR)
    • Capt. J. B. Brockenborough
      • Artilleryman Clement Fishburne (PC)

2nd Brigade

Col. Francis Bartow (K)

  • Brig. Gen. S. R. Gist, ADC
  • Col. Shingler, ADC
  • Maj. Stevens, ADC

7th GA

  • Lt. Col. L. J. Gartell
    • Co. D
      • Pvt. Robert R. Murray (M)
      • Unknown (M)
    • Co. K – Capt. Charles K. Maddox (PC)

8th GA

  • Lt. Col. W. M. Gardner
    • Co. A – Virgil Stewart (M)
    • Co. B – P. W. A. (PC)

Wise Artillery (Alburtis’ Battery) (4 Guns)

  • Capt. E. G. Alburtis
    • Lt. John Pelham (PC)

3rd Brigade

Brig. Gen. Barnard E. Bee (K)

Maj. William H. C. Whiting placed in command after the battle (OR)

  • Capt. T. L. Preston, AAAG
    • Brig. Gen. S. R. Gist
    • Maj. R. A. Howard
    • Capt. A. Vander Horst (Gist, Howard, & Vander Horst filed this OR for Bee’s Brigade, but are not listed on any OOB as part of Bee’s staff)

4th AL (M)

  • Col. Egbert J. Jones (MW)
  • Lt. Col. Evander M. Law (W)
  • Maj. Charles L.Scott (W)
  • Capt. Thomas J. Goldsby (OR)
  • Unknown (PC)

2nd MS

  • Col. W. C. Falkner

11th MS (Companies A & F)

  • Lt. Col. P. F. Liddell

6th NC (Not Brigaded) (N)

Staunton Artillery (4 Guns)

  • Capt. J. Imboden (M, OR)

4th Brigade

Brig. Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith (W); Col. Arnold Elzey (OR)

  • Lt. Chentney, AAAG
  • Lt. McDonald, AAQ
  • Col. Buist, ADC
  • Capt. Cunningham, ADC
  • Capt. Hill, ADC
  • Capt. Tupper, ADC
  • Lt. Contee, ADC

1st MD Battalion (M)

  • Lt. Col. G. H. Steuart
  • Unknown Officer (PC)

3rd TN

  • Col. J. C. Vaughn

10th VA

  • Col. S. B. Gibbons
    • Co. H – M. V. B. Kite (PC)
    • Co. K (M)

13th VA (Left at Manassas)

  • Col. A. P. Hill

Newtown Artillery (4 Guns)

  • Capt. George. A. Groves
    • Lt. R. F. Beckham

Not Brigaded

1st VA Cav

  • Col. J.E.B. Stuart (OR)
    • Co. C – Pvt. William Z. Mead (PC)

Thomas Artillery (Stanard’s Battery) (4 Guns)

  • Capt. P.B. Stanard




A 100 Pound Quarterback?

30 01 2007

peytonmanning.jpg 

This coming Sunday’s Super Bowl match up features teams representing two states that were loyal to the Union in the late unpleasantness.  However, one team’s offense is led by prolific passer and son of the south Peyton Manning.  I for one am glad to see the Colts in the championship.  I’m a lifelong Steelers fan (Colts head coach Tony Dungy once caught and threw an interception in the same game when he played for Pittsburgh, and he got his coaching start here as well), and will be rooting for the AFC come game day.  And you have to love Peyton’s commercials: “They’re not saying ‘Boo'; they’re saying ‘Moooovers'” and my favorite “De-Caf (thump thump), De-Caf (thump thump)”.

Now, there are a lot of similarities between studying history and watching football.  Perhaps one of the most irritating similarities is that (relatively) high paid analysts in both fields have a penchant for judging decisions by their results.  Throwing into double coverage is a bonehead move if it results in an interception, but is brilliant if the ball goes through the DB’s hands and results in a touchdown.  Don’t laugh – the number of Civil War studies that rely on similar methodology is legion.

This particular game offers a chance to discuss something that has bugged me for some time: why in God’s name did Peyton’s dad Archie decide to name his child Peyton?  I suppose it might be reasonable to guess that he may have been thinking “Anything but Archibald”.  But then, why not Quimby?  Or Larry?

Some students of the American Civil War are aware that both the Peyton and Manning names were “big” in the Confederacy.  At various times, Mannings commanded four infantry regiments in the Army of Northern Virginia, the 49th & 50th Georgia, the 3rd Arkansas, and the 6th Louisiana.  Peytons commanded the 5th and 19th Virginia.  Out west, Peytons headed the 3rd Mississippi Infantry, Major Peyton’s Cavalry Battalion, and the 3rd Missouri Cavalry.

Mannings and Peytons served in staff positions in the Army of Northern Virginia as well.  Virginian Jacob Hite Manning was signal officer to James Longstreet and, presumably, to R. H. Anderson.  One time governor of South Carolina John Laurence Manning served as a volunteer ADC to Brig. Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard at First Bull Run and later in December 1862.  Henry E. Peyton of Missouri was an ADC to Beaurgeard at First Bull Run, and would later serve on the staff of Robert E. Lee.  Virginia brothers Moses G. and Thomas G. Peyton did time as staff officers as well, Moses as volunteer ADC to Robert Rodes and as AAG to Rodes, Stephen D. Ramseur and Bryan Grimes, and Thomas  as AAAG to Richard Ewell.  Another Virginian, Thomas Jefferson Peyton, served as Acting Assistant Inspector General for G. W. Smith and as AAIG and Ordnance Officer for John C. Pemberton.  And someone named William H. Peyton served in the capacity of AQM in Staunton, VA in 1861.

Four other Mannings were in other rebel armies, assisting generals Cantey, J. E. Johnston, S. D. Lee, Twiggs, and Wheeler.  Three more Peytons also worked for J. P. Anderson, Hood, H. B. Lyon, and J. S. Williams.

Now, that’s a whole lot of Peytons and a whole lot of Mannings.  Archie Manning, the most famous of all (‘Ole Miss) Rebel quarterbacks, was born in Drew, Mississippi.  It seems likely that Archie is the result of some long ago (or not so long ago) conjoining of a Manning and a Peyton.  Possible evidence of this theory may be found 160 miles from Drew in the town of Aberdeen, MS.  That’s the birthplace of the man listed on the Confederate order of battle for First Bull Run as James Longstreet’s acting assistant quartermaster, Lt. Peyton Thompson Manning.

Described in the memoir of John C. Haskell as “a little man, weighing not over 100 pounds” and a fine horseman, “Manny” (as T. J. Goree referred to him) was born in 1838 and attended the Georgia Military Institute.  “Befo de woah” he was a railroad engineer.  He signed on as a sergeant in Co. I of the 11th MS Infantry in February, 1861, and was later commissioned a lieutenant in the regiment and a major in the Provisional Army of the Confederate States (PACS).  I’m guessing he went east with the 11th MS to muster into Confederate service at Lynchburg, VA; two companies of the 11th would be with Barnard Bee during First Bull Run.  Manning was assigned to Longstreet’s staff and, except for a brief stint on the staff of J. E. Johnston, would serve on it for the remainder of the war, primarily as Ordnance Officer.  He is famous in Confederate literature for a mis-adventurous sleigh ride with fellow Longstreet staffer G. Moxley Sorrel during the winter of 1861-62, and for nearly choking on a sweet potato when slightly wounded at Chickamauga.  He also served as a cannoneer at Antietam in “Battery Longstreet”, thrown together by the General when the crew of a battalion of the Washington Artillery were shot down.  Francis W. Dawson recalled that Manning was “exceedingly kind and considerate”, easy to work with, gentlemanly and “brave as a lion.”  But “he knew very little of his work as an ordnance officer, and was unable to write an ordinary letter correctly.”

At war’s end, Manning returned to his wife Julia Watson in Aberdeen, and died there on February 3, 1868 at the age of 30 or 31.  He is buried in Odd Fellows’ Rest Cemetery in Aberdeen.

I haven’t been able to track down any images of Peyton Manning the staff officer.  If any reader (Archie?) has an image or other information on him, please let me know via the comments section of this site.  I’ll update here with any new information I receive.

eli.jpg

By the way, that was Elijah Peyton who was Lt. Col. of the 3rd Mississippi Infantry.  But that’s another story for another Super Bowl – maybe.

  

Sources:

Crute, J., Units of the Confederate States Army

Krick, R. E. L., Staff Officers in Gray

Krick, R. K., Lee’s Colonels

Goree, T. J., Longstreet’s Aide: The Civil War Letters of Major Thomas J. Goree

Govan & Livengood, ed., The Haskell Memoirs

Longstreet, J., From Manassas to Appomattox

Sorrel, G. M., Recollections of a Confederate Staff Officer

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