Lieutenant Rinaldo B. Wiggin, Co. A, 2nd Maine Infantry, On the Battle

13 11 2012

Letter from the Regiment.

The following letter received on Saturday will be found of much interest. The incidents of the charge made by the gallant Second are given in some detail.

Arlington Heights,

Near Fort Corcoran, July 29, 1861

To B. C. Frost and other friends, who generously contributed in making up the box to the B. L. I.’s.*

Comrades – We have received you generous donation, and wish, as far as words are able, to express to you our thanks. We did not, (as was you intention), receive it in season for the 4th of July, but it came to us at a time when of all others we most needed it…it came to us after the battle, when we were “war worn and weary.” It came just as we had returned from burying one of our comrades, (Chamberlain). We had been on our feet for thirty-six hours, had fought a hard battle, and marched in all a distance of sixty miles, soaked with rain, our clothes ragged, and some without shoes. If you could have seen the crowd that gathered around that box as it was opened, and could have heard the fervent “God bless the boys at home!” as the generous presents made their appearance, I know you would have been amply compensated!

I will endeavor to tell you a little of the part we had in the affair, as I have not yet seen in correctly stated in the papers. In most accounts which I have seen the Second Maine is put down as the Second Wisconsin. We were in Col. Keyes’ brigade with the three Connecticut regiments, and in Gen. Tyler’s division. We [?] our camp at 2 o’clock Sunday morning, the 21st, at Centreville, when we were halted while the whole column marched past us, leaving us in the rear as a reserve. About 10 o’clock the order came for us to march to the front, which we did, coming up to the point where Sherman’s battery was engaging one of the rebel batteries. Here we threw off our coats and packs, and marched by the right flank in double quick time through the woods, across fields, over streams and ditches, a distance of over three miles, coming up to the enemy’s battery on the flank, coming on right line we charged the battery up a steep hill. The battery had just been reinforced by the arrival of Gen. Johnston’s fresh troops, and as we charged up the hill, a storm of iron and lead came down upon us, which nothing but the overruling hand of God prevented from sweeping us from the face of the earth.

Twice we charged almost to the muzzles of their cannon, and twice we were driven back, when the order came to retreat. William Deane was among the first who fell, carrying the California flag which had been presented to us the day before. We got him on board an ambulance of the New York 69th, and I suppose he fell into the hands of the enemy. John F. Reed was taken prisoner in the cavalry charge, and Edward R. Chamberlain of Bangor, died of exhaustion, two days after reaching Alexandria. This is the whole loss of the B. L. I.

On the retreat, shot and shell flew thick and fast amongst us, but fortunately none of us were hurt. The enemy’s cavalry made a dashing charge upon our rear, but we formed the best lines we could, and kept them at bay. At Centreville, we dropped on the ground for a few minutes to rest, when the order came to retreat to Fairfax, and once more we took up our weary line of march, retreating a distance of 28 miles, without food or rest, the last three or four hours through a heavy rain, till we reached Alexandria. We stopped two days in Alexandria, and were then ordered to this place.

Poor Chamberlain died the day after we left Alexandria, and it was while Capt. Bartlett was there making arrangements for his funeral, that the long looked for box was found in the Alexandria express office. You can perhaps imagine something of our feelings upon receiving it. All I can say to B. C. Frost, Levi March, John Lowell, C. C. Prescott, H. E. Sellers, H. G. Thaxter, O. R. Patch, and all others who contributed in making “our box”, is, that a soldier’s blessing will follow you.

On my own behalf, and in behalf of the officers and members of the Bangor Light Infantry,

I am, Gentlemen, yours truly,

R. B. Wiggin

*B. L. I. – Bangor Light Infantry, Company A of the 2nd Maine Infantry Regiment.

Bangor Daily Whig and Courier, 8/5/1861

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Rinaldo B. Wiggin on Ancestry.com

Contributed by John Hennessy





“W.”, Co. E, 1st Special Louisiana Battalion, On the Battle

12 11 2012

More on the Manassas Battle.

———-

The following interesting letter from an officer in Major Wheat’s Battalion, addressed to his father, in this city, will be read with interest:

Battle-Field, Near Manassas Junction,

Wheat’s Battalion, July 2[?], 1861.

Dear Father — I received yours of 16th inst. yesterday night. I wrote you about same date from camp “Stuart,” and expect that you are in receipt of it, long ere the date of this.

We have been for the past week or ten days constantly on duty, our position, as the advance portion of the army, necessarily involved incessant and unflinching duties from officers and men. The enemy, previous to the 21st inst., were ubiquitous. The three or four battle previous to that date were well contested, but all resulted in their defeat. The camp equipage, baggage, &c., of our command were sent to the rear on the morning of the date of my last letter, and since then till now your son has been innocent of a change of linen or water to wash himself, except what the Heavens furnished in the shape of rain and dews, and they only contribute to render his dusty habiliments of the hue and character of the soil and road, with variegations of colors fixed and indelible.

Our duties have tried the mettle of our men; without covering, without blankets, half clothed, scarcely half fed, bivouacked where duty demanded our pickets to be placed, our men have stood it all, and bravely. I have seen them night after night lying uncovered in woods and fields, hungry and half-naked, (officers faring the same,) expecting the advance of the enemy every moment, without a murmur. Day after day, exposed to rains and an almost intolerable heat, they unflinchingly performed their duties. After marching and counter-marching, without tents, clothing or anything to render them at all comfortable, they  were led on the glorious morning of Sunday, 21st inst., to beat back Lincoln’s horde of northern barbarians, when for forty-eight hour previously they had not tasted food. Most gloriously did our battalion acquit itself. We have earned an undying fame.

The enemy, variously estimated at from 40,000 to 60,000, made a feint upon our front, which was easily and readily understood. Our battalion being in advance, and holding the post of honor on the left, were ordered to meet them as they endeavored to flank us. Our whole force did not number on the field 1800 men. Marching to take our position, we were fired upon by the South Carolina regiment and one of our company shot down; he fell at my feet. After the fire of the South Carolina regiment upon us from a point blank distance, concealed as they were in the woods, the enemy opened upon us a most terrific storm of shell, canister shot, chain shot, &c., taking position with only our little battalion, about 420 strong, the balance of our force of 1800 being under cover, we charged the enemy at the point of the bayonet and maintained, under the most incessant and murderous fire, for fully one hour, our position; and had our little battalion been supported we could have captured the enemy’s batteries and soon given another turn to events as they transpired.

I am anxious that you should hear from me, and cannot enter into a lengthened detail of the battle of the 21st. I write in a great hurry, but this I can say, that but for our battalion assuming the position it did, crossing a field at the charge, under the fire of eight thousand of the enemy, in position, protected by artillery, armed with the most improved weapons, the field would have been lost. All kinds of praise is accorded us. From Gen. Beauregard to the humblest private it is a source of wonderment how, being volunteers and unaccustomed to battle, we stood the fire we did. i can only say, personally, I endeavored to do my duty. I escaped most miraculously; fully one hundred shots were fired at me in a single instant. I entered into the engagement in my short sleeves, and showing a conspicuous mark, was fired upon from all points; just at the moment, at a deliberate aim, with my little carbine, I killed and officer or a man in front of their standard. The order to us being to fall back, as I retreated, being all alone, openly exposed, my white shirt a mark, I thought the eight thousand men opposed to our little battalion had opened upon me. Such an avalanche of shot, shell, &c., I do not care very soon to experience or risk the hazard of facing.

Our battalion was terribly cut up, seven commissioned officers of the eighteen who engaged in the battle being wounded. Our company lost half of its numbers in wounded. The flag we bore – ours being the centre flag company – evidences the fire we stood, there being no less than fifteen to eighteen perforations from the enemy’s bullets. I have not time to enumerate the wounded and killed, except of our company, and even this I may err in recapitulating, as returns are not complete:  Capt. Miller, small bone of leg broken; Lieutenant Dickinson, acting adjutant, shot through the thigh; Lieut Care, son of Dr. Carey, shot in the foot, and when lying on the field stabbed through the thigh by a Yankee officer, whom he killed; Major Wheat was shot early after the opening of the engagement, through the body, the bullet going entirely through his body, just back of both nipples; we thought he was killed, but he was brought from the field alive, and though pronounced mortally wounded he is fast recovering, and we only hope for him to live to lead us to millions of such glorious victories. We can whip the Yankees. At no time did we have more the 15,000 men engaged. Our battalion have earned their laurels. I cannot write more. I will send details, though I may have to copy many things embraced in this letter.

Thank God for my escape.

W.*

Daily True Delta, 8/8/1861

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*Possibly 1st Lt. William D. Foley

Contributed by John Hennessy





Chaplain Junius M. Willey, 3rd Connecticut Volunteers, On the Battle

11 11 2012

Third Connecticut Regiment —- A reliable Statement from Rev. J. M. Willey, its Chaplain

We visited the encampment of the 2d and 3d Connecticut Regiments, and witnessed their dress parade on Thursday afternoon last, and were gratified at their general good appearance. The Secretary of the Navy, Mr. Welles, Senator Dixon, and chief clerk Faxon, were present to witness the parade, and to show their interest in the volunteers from this State. We heard an excellent report of Mr. Willey, the chaplain of the 3d Regiment. He has been untiring in his efforts for the welfare of the men, and will ever be held in grateful remembrance by them.

Mr. Willey is disposed to forgive the rebels for stealing several of his manuscript sermons at Bull Run, provided they will read and profit by them; still they are such a rebellious people, that he has but little hopes of their salvation, with any weapon short of shot and shell. The following addressed by him to the Waterbury American, will be read with interest. We give it at his request.

I don’t think that I should now intrude upon you, except to ask you to put little reliance upon the newspaper reports of the great battle of the 21st. The accounts of “hair-breadth escapes and wonderful exploits” are most ridiculous and absurd. So far as my observation aids me, the reporters have obtained many of their startling particulars from those who were first to run away from the fight – whose lightness of foot enabled them to present full reports of the battle as much in advance of Government dispatches as they were in advance of men of courage in their stampede to Washington. On my arrival at Willard’s Hotel, on Tuesday morning, I heard men recounting their own daring achievements, whom, with my own eyes, I saw practicing the “double quick” from the battle field before it was known through the army that a retreat was ordered. Regiments are praised for their bravery, who were not ordered to fire a gun, and encomiums are bestowed upon officers for rallying their regiments, when for hours the Regiments had not the slightest idea where their officers were.

For the sake of common honesty, I must insist that the 3d Connecticut Regiment, which was the only Connecticut Regiment who made on charge on that memorable day, should not be entirely ignored for the simple reason that none of its officers ran away to “post up” reporters as to its daring deeds.

About half-past two, p. m., the 3d Connecticut and 2d Maine were ordered to charge upon a battery of rebels. The Colonel of the 3d did not send but led his Regiment to one of the most perilous labors of the day. Amid a shower of bullets and grape shot that sounded like the humming of bees, the work was done; the enemy was driven back and the possession of the place obtained. Our officers were determined to mark the place as our own, and Major Warner called for the Regimental Flag. The Stars and Stripes were advanced. “Not that one,” shouted the Major, “give me the Connecticut Flag!” and I tell you, Mr. Senior Editor, that your old blood would have coursed in quicker currents could you have seen the Major and Color Sergeant erecting on that spot, amid a leaden storm, the “Qui Trans. Sust.” of old Connecticut.

This was not all. When at length the column was ordered to retire from the field, it became necessary for some Regiment to cover the retreat. Col. Chatfield was ordered to do it. Had he and his Regiment been on their way to Washington, this laborious and dangerous duty might have been avoided, but the 3d Connecticut happened to be on the field and their confidence in the coolness and discretion of a Colonel who could walk down the lines with a smile upon his face, as he informed them how he should lead them in a charge that must end in the bloody death of some for whom he felt a brother’s solicitude, inspired them with courage to which some of the Regiments were strangers.

One of our officers seemed ubiquitous. I mean Adjutant Duryee. In any part of the regiment where he was needed he always appeared. Before the battle he had secured the love of the Regiment – after the battle the mention of his courage and bravery was on every lip. He rendered incalculable service to the Colonel in keeping the lines in order.

The field and staff lost most of their baggage. – The officers had laid aside their dress uniforms and everything that could encumber them. The Col. retains his sword and horse; all else is gone, but in exchange he has secured a military reputation of which Waterbury may be justly proud.

Very truly yours,

J. M. W.

Hartford Daily Courant,8/7/1861

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Junius M. Willey at Ancestry.com

Contributed by John Hennessy





“G.”, 2nd Connecticut Volunteers, On the Battle

10 11 2012

From 2d Regiment.

Camp Keyes, Washington City,

July 28, 1861

Messrs. Editors – It is Sabbath morning – just one week since the memorable conflict at Bull’s Run, and oh! how different this moment are the feelings, the anxieties, the doubts and fears of the future. Then all was excitement, what is now quietude; and our worst fears, instead of our most sanguinary hopes, have been realized. We entered the field with hurried step, and [?] panting, and eager for the fray. We considered our cause sure to win, for its justice was undoubted. We doubted not for a moment the capabilities of our leaders or the stamina of their followers. And though the death-shots fell thick and fast around us, yet for a time they were as harmless as ashes of fire in the bosom of the great deep. Our troops pressed forward, shouting and cheering each other on in their holy mission, until we flanked and finally gained the rear of the enemy. Here we halted for a moment to rest and refresh ourselves, when our position was discovered, and once more we moved forward. We again halted, and delivered a few random shots at the enemy, as they retreated under the double fire of our brigade and the gallant 69th. While at a halt, it was my lot to witness a very painful scene. I captured a prisoner, (a German) belonging to the 8th South Carolina Regiment, and took him to Major Colburn for instructions as how to dispose of him. The prisoner requested one privilege as his last, which the Major very humanely granted. He said his brother lay a short distance off, in a dying condition, and he wished to see him. I bade him lead the way, and I followed.

He took me to an old log hut a few [?] from where our regiment was halted. On the north side, in the shade, we found the wounded man. The prisoner spoke to him – he opened his eyes – and the film of death had already overspread them, and the tide of life was fast ebbing. He was covered with blood, and the swarms and flies and mosquitoes which were fattening upon his life’s blood, indicated that he had lain there for some time. They clasped hands together, muttered a few words in the German language, supplicated the Throne of Grace for their families at home, kissed, and bade each a final adieu; the prisoner remarking as I took him by the arm to lead him away, for the column was moving, “Brother, you are dying, and I am a prisoner.” The man was shot with a musket ball, in the back, just over the hip, from which fact I inferred that he was on the retreat when the deadly ball overtook him.

The country round about seemed to be peculiarly adapted for a defensive position. It was very hilly, and on each elevation a battery was planted, strongly guarded by infantry, whose bayonets we could distinctly see gleaming in the sunlight. So well did they understand the position of matters inside their lines, that if they retreated, it was done for a decoy, and our brave fellows in pursuing them found themselves surrounded, or cut down like blades of grass before the scythe, by the rapid and terrible discharges of grape and canister from concealed batteries. At about 2 o’clock, Lieut. Upton, aid de camp, rode up, and took position in the center of our regiment. He addressed us in essence as follows: “Boys of old Connecticut, there is a battery on the brow of yonder hill. I want you to follow me, and you shall have the right of capturing it. Will you follow?” In a moment we were wild with delight and determination, cheering and placing our caps on our bayonets, waving them in the air, and exhibiting in gratifying tones the patriotism that [?] our arms for the ordeal. Just at that moment the considerate Col. Keyes rode up and on learning the cause of the enthusiasm, remarked that  it must not be attempted with a less number of troops than the entire Brigade. As the rest of the command were otherwise engaged the project was abandoned, and a subsequent reconnoiter showed us the madness of the idea, for, on emerging from the woods, we encountered another battery, which the rebels immediately brought to bear upon us. Gen. Tyler, however, payed no attention to the firing, until Col. Keyes ordered the men to take refuge in the woods, where we lay concealed for a quarter of an hour. And it is a fat, that not a soldier in the ranks had any idea that the order to “retreat” was to abandon the field. When we left our concealment we came away side by side with the Fire Zouaves, the 79th, and others, who were bearing off their killed and wounded. Of course, the great disaster of the day was the manic which spread itself with such velocity through our ranks. Our troops were in good order, and, as far as I observed, in cheerful spirits. The first indication that I noticed was the rapid retreat and disorganized condition of a battery, which I supposed to be Sherman’s. This was communicated to the baggage wagons, ambulances, &c., and such a scene of confusion and terror as followed, is utterly indescribable. Yet I trust our people will not construe this act as one of cowardice. Panics like that are by no means unparalleled. The memorable retreat of the French and Sardinians from Castiglione to Brescia, furnishes another instance of how complete a powerful army may be routed sometimes by the most trivial circumstance. The allies then were not as we were at the Run, just leaving the field of carnage, tired, weary, and jaded with long marching, our stomachs empty, and our lips parched with raging thirst. On the contrary, they had rested, and refreshed themselves with wine and cordials, which every French soldier is provided with, previous to an engagement. The occurrence must be fresh in the minds of all your readers.

The only real act of cowardice, unpardonable, unfortunately falls upon the New Haven Grays. — joined the company as a private. After we encamped at Glenwood, he was assigned a position as clerk for the Colonel. He remained in that position for about six weeks, when he was appointed by Col. Terry to fill a vacant post in the non-commissioned Staff. Here he remained until his disgraceful flight from the vicinity of Bull’s Run into Washington – where, after many acts of kindness by our Congressman, Hon. James F. English, he was enabled to reach home. Col. Terry, on hearing of the circumstance, immediately reduced him to the ranks, the order being publicly read at dress parade on Saturday evening, which threw him back into the ranks of the “Grays” – which company, before dismissing ranks unanimously voted him out of their ranks, and also instructed their Secretary to notify the young gentleman and all the Press of the City of Elms. A feeling of just indignation was aroused when we read his description given of our retirement from Centerville. The facts of the case are: Col. Terry’s horse becoming unmanageable, he gave it to — who had once within my hearing solicited the privilege of riding, to retain until he called for it, whereupon he started for the former bivouac, and from thence he continued his fight until he delivered “news” to the New Haven Palladium. But I will not follow the theme further. If we are fortunate enough to return home, we can tell the story with our own lips. I cannot close this epistle without thanking you for the free gift of the Journal and Courier, which has come to hand so promptly since our departure from home. Hon. John Woodruff has been very kind to us in supplying reading matter, but of course his gifts could not be as fresh as those that came direct from the office. The coarse fare incident to camp life, affected materially the health of some of our men, but now they are where they can buy fresh food, and are fast recovering their former health. Hoping anon to see you face to face,

I remain yours, truly,

G.

New Haven Daily Journal, 7/31/1861

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Contributed by John Hennessy





Capt. Richard Fitzgibbon, Co. H, 1st Connecticut Volunteers, On the Campaign

8 11 2012

Capt. Fitzgibbons, Co. H, of Bridgeport, kindly furnished us with the subjoined statement. He is a gentleman of intelligence, and the information derived from him can be relied upon as accurate. His statement is confirmed by Lieut. Lee, also of Bridgeport, who was side by side with Capt. F. in the engagement at Bull’s Run. Capt. Fitzgibbons has been in active military life about eight years, and now holds a Lieut. Colonel’s commission in the 8th Regiment of our own State militia.

Capt. Fitzgibbon’s Statement

The long roll sounded pleasantly in our ears while encamped at Fall’s Church, and at 2 o’clock P. M., Tuesday, the 16th, we marched to Vienna, where we bivouacked over night. About 6 o’clock the nest morning we took up the line for Fairfax, by way of Germantown. Our division, under the command of Col. Keyes, consisted of the 1st, 2d and 3d Conn., and the 2d Maine Regiments; the 1st and 2d Conn. regiments acted as skirmishers, and marched around Fairfax, while the remainder of the division marched directly forward. As we approached Germantown, we saw a secession flag flying on top of one of the houses. The 8th N. Y. regiment fired two shots at what was supposed to be a masked battery; our skirmishers fell upon their faces, ready to come up after the fire had been returned. The rebel battery fired over them, however. A member of the 8th N. Y. pulled down the flag, as we approached, and ran up the stars and stripes instead. This house was supposed to be the headquarters for the rebels. As we went through Germantown several houses were fired, but I am happy to say that none of our Connecticut troops had any hand in the firing of the buildings. – The house whereon the rebel flag was raised was entered by our men and found to be evacuated by the troops; tables were set, and our men partook freely of what they could find to eat. Our advanced and halted between Germantown and Centerville over night, where we bivouacked. Friday, about daybreak, we marched on for Centreville, where we arrived about noon. We could distinctly hear that an engagement was going on, before we arrived in sight. Several of our officers and civilians saw the engagement; none of our men took part. The secessionists, men, women, and children, followed up the rebel army; as we advanced, they pushed on, and they informed us that there was a great body of troops ahead of us.

Saturday, the 20th, we were notified to cook three days’ rations; that night we packed up, and at tow o’clock in the morning started for Bull’s Run. Our (Colonel Keyes’) brigade led off, until we got about half way, when we were called off into a corn field and filed off, and saw the whole column pass by. the 1st regiment boys felt a little discomfitted at this move, for fear they would not have a chance in the fight. We brought up the rear, and rested about half an hour, when the order came to again forward. This was about 7 o’clock in the morning. We marched into line, and about the first introduction we had was a charge by one of those masked batteries; we deployed a little to get by, ,when the men rallied in good order. Gen. Tyler rode by and praised our boys for their gallant appearance. We [??????]…they returned the fire, but their shots went over us, as we had dropped upon our faces. While in this position we loaded and fired another charge into them. One of our batteries came up and silenced one of their batteries which was playing upon us. As soon as their battery was silenced, the remainder of our brigade came up. We compelled the rebels to retreat, and as we moved on we encountered another battery; the 3d Conn. and the 2d Maine charged and suffered greatly. We then commenced scouting here and there, always putting in a fire when we got a chance. There was a continual fire upon us by their artillery, which was met by our musketry. We kept on fighting, Gen. Tyler assuring us we had won the day. He acted bravely; so did Col. Keyes and Col. Spiedel; Col. Burnham stood by his regiment. Soon afterwards, the order came to fall back, and we did so, not knowing it was a retreat; we were then in good order, and were accompanied by the Zouaves and Schenck’s brigade; saw the Zouaves make a splendid charge on the Black Horse Cavalry of Va.; it was a hand to hand conflict for a few moments with them, and the latter were cut up badly. We kept up a retreat, followed up by the enemy’s artillery and musketry. We saw the dead and wounded being carried from the field, some on blankets and others stretched on muskets. My company brought away six prisoners. We retreated in good order back to Centreville, to where we encamped the night before, arriving about dark. We remained here three hours and then had orders to fall back to Fall’s Church, which is about 25 miles from Bull’s Run. – We staid at Falls Church during Monday, and the next night had orders to march to Camp Upton, where the Ohio troops were encamped; we staid here during the night, and it was at this spot we saved some $200,000 of property, which had been left behind by one of the Ohio regiments. We struck their tents, took them to Alexandria, and loaded some six or eight cars with their trappings,, and about a ton and a half of ammunition. They had the finest camp equippage I ever saw. The War Department gave us great credit for what we had done.

Wednesday night we bivouacked at Arlington Heights; the next day we started for Washington. – We left Thursday afternoon, and arrived at Baltimore at 3 o’clock Friday morning, where we were detained until 6 P. M. waiting for conveyances; left Baltimore arrived at Havre de Grace, where we suffered another detention of five or six hours. We reached Philadelphia Saturday afternoon, and arrived in Jersey City about 4 o’clock Sunday morning; went on board the steamer Elm City at 4 o’clock and reached New Haven at 10.

Hartford Daily Courant, 7/29/1861

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Richard Fitzgibbon Biographical Information

Contributed by John Hennessy





Dr. P. W. Ellsworth, Connecticut Brigade, On the Battle

8 11 2012

Interesting Letter from Dr. P. W. Ellsworth -

Tribute to the Connecticut Troops.

We have had the pleasure of seeing a letter written by Dr. P. W. Ellsworth, surgeon of the Connecticut Brigade, in which he gives a particular account of the battle of Bull’s Run; also of that on the following Sabbath, at both of which he was present. He says the Connecticut troops receive the highest praise from their commanders. Gen. Tyler gives them unqualified commendation, and Col. Keyes, who acted a Brigadier General, declares that he never saw such a storm of bullets as the enemy poured upon us, and never saw veteran troops stand the shock of battle so bravely.

“It is a fact that our Connecticut troops stormed a battery before which the regulars had previously been repulsed, The Third regiment suffered most severely. The enemy fought chiefly from behind masked batteries, and when one was taken they had another concealed with commanded it. Three, however, were taken by great bravery in succession. Col. Burnham, of the Connecticut First, distinguished himself for his coolness and courage.

“The victory would have been on our side had not Johnston come up with his twenty thousand fresh troops, although the enemy had eighty thousand on the ground, and we not more than half that number.

“A Georgian colonel, taken prisoner, says that our artillery they could stand, ‘but our musketry was irresistible, it swept all before it.’ One crack company of Georgians lost every man but three, and the destruction on the side of the rebels is enormous.

“He says that in an open fight it is certain that Southerners are no match for our men.

“The view of the battle was grand, beyond description. The volume of smoke was not so great as I had expected, but the roar of artillery, and not less than one hundred and twenty thousand muskets, was terrific. The deep-toned roar of a huge thirty-two pounder, rifled gun, in our army could be distinguished above all. Every moment bomb shells burst in the air, scattering death, and rifled cannon also were pouring out their shells with great destruction on both sides.

“The battle raged thus from six A. M. till four P. M., with scarcely a moment’s cessation, excepting when our men were carrying the rebel batteries at the point of the bayonet. When the enemy saw our bayonets coming, they whipped off with their artillery and were ready again, so that it was hard work to get them.

“Our men labored under every disadvantage, from fatigue, hunger, and worst of all, from thirst – not a little, also, from the want of cavalry, to which the enemy were greatly indebted for their success: though their location and deliberate preparation, with their masked batteries, gave them a decided advantage. The federal troops declare that the rebels carried a flag staff having on one end a secession banner and on the other our own, and they showed either as suited their purpose. Their uniforms being very similar to our own, they often came close to our men in this treacherous way, preventing our fire until they had given their own.

“No provision for retreat had been made on our side; no one imagined the possibility of such an event. Consequently our troops were confused and subjected to the greatest privation and exposure.

He says, “I saw no one running, though they moved rapidly. Our Connecticut battalion retreated in the best order of all. No nobler men live than our Connecticut brigade, and I’ll not exclude the soldiers who fought with them. I am filled with admiration when I look upon them. Their country can never discharge the debt it owes them.

“The Southern troops are well fed, but where or how they obtain their provisions, I know not. What was found proved a good commissariat, and greater variety than we have had, thought they did not appear to be well supplied with tents.”

Hartford Daily Courant, 7/27/1861

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Contributed by John Hennessy





G. W. B., Co. C, 3rd Connecticut Volunteers, On the Battle

7 11 2012

From the Third Connecticut Volunteers.

————

An Account Of The Panic By A Member.

Arlington Heights, Wednesday,

July 24, 1861.

Dear Brother: – I have a letter written two days for you, but could find no way to send it to the city. We left our camp on Tuesday, the 16th, for the field of battle, and the past week’s endurance and hard labor, has been the greatest week of my life. Leaving Falls Village at 8 o’clock, marched to Vienna, and put up for the night. The next day we marched through Fairfax, in a round-about way; then to Centerville; most of the way through dense woods; tired and worn, we turned into a lot. At this time, Thursday, I think was the fight at Bull’s Run. The boys were very anxious to be in it, but we were held in reserve. We encamped in this lot, in the burning sun in the day, and the almost freezing dew at night, for a cover, Friday night and Saturday, until 1 o’clock Sunday morning, when our brigade moved about a mile, then halted [?] [?] hours, and let our grand division pass. We then fell in the rear, and marched about five miles, then halted again for an hour or more, when our brigade was ordered to march up to the battle field, and help the remainder of the division, which was about an hour’s march, at quick and double quick time. You can imagine what condition we were in to engage in a fight; tired and worn out, we were marched into the field; shot and shell pouring on us from the enemy, from one of their many masked batteries; their shots fell a great deal short of us, which was very fortunate. Our heavy guns were pouring in on them, with good effect. We could see them drop in crowds, as out shells struck in among them. We were ordered to take to the woods, which were a few rods in the rear of us. We were then ordered to charge on them, which we did, but without accomplishing much, for it was a pretty difficult matter for a brigade of infantry to take a battery, that we could not see, and pouring into us all the time. The enemy fell back, to draw us into the trap. The Maine 2d, being on the left, was cut up awfully; they got the worst of it; but our whole brigade did nobly; they stood together like men, advancing every time they were ordered, until towards night, we missed the division, except the three Connecticut and 2d Maine regiments, which composed our brigade. It was reported that a hasty retreat was ordered. We immediately turned and fled, as we saw that a number of rebel cavalry, with infantry to back them, were charging on us. Wearied and almost dead from fatigue, we were obliged to retreat, as the enemy were being reinforced all day, and we had no reinforcement. There was some mismanagement on the part of our officers, that we should be in this situation. Tyler was censured by both men and officers, for being so rash as to put us before a battery, when the rest were marched in a by way. He was bound to win, cost as many lives as it would. But the enemy being all fresh, we were whipped. Our brigade was the last to leave the field, and they left in good order; yet the road before us was the greatest scene of excitement that I ever witnessed. The lots were full of men, the roads crowded with artillery wagons, their horses on a dead run, colliding with freight wagons, and smashing hacks containing gentlemen spectators. I cannot begin to describe the confusion. Such a spectacle was never seen. There were troops at Centerville, who took a stand on the top of the hill, to prevent the advance of the enemy, and, with a few pieces of artillery, they gave our men a chance to escape. Everything that we had on, which had the least tendency to stop our progress, was thrown away. I was behind a man who was carrying a rifle. A shot passed by me, and knocked his piece out of his hand. I thought it about time to get out of the road. I took to the woods, threw off my haversack, which contained a number of eatables, writing materials, and many other things I would liked to have saved, next my belt, cartridge box, etc.; then went my blankets. It was hard to do it; but we were scattered, and running for dear life. The road and lots were covered with articles of this kind, which we were obliged to cast off, including muskets and all kinds of arms; but I hung to my canteen of water, for I thought that I could live longer without eating, than without drinking. I never knew what it was to want water, until this day. We drank water that, at any other time, we would not have washed our feet in. One man kicked a hog out of a mud puddle, and drank some water out of it. I saw a man riding a horse, when a ball came and cut the hind parts of the horse completely off. Many other incidents I shall reserve until my return home.

We escaped to Vienna, and turned in about one o’clock Monday morning, on the bare ground, slept about two hours, and started for our camp, at Falls Village. A party of three of us got strayed from the rest of our company, and when we arrived into camp, we found them all there, they having taken a more direct route. The three Connecticut regiments were the only ones that marched to their camps in a body. The rest of the soldiers having gone in squads of a dozen or more. We had to strike our tents, and wait all day in a drenching rain, for our wagons. At night we left the baggage with a guard, and started for the Ohio camp, about a mile towards Washington, where we remained all night, when the wagons came. We loaded them, and, with the 2d New York camp, started for Arlington. We got a good deal of credit for saving these camps, which the cowards had left, supposing the enemy would follow them up closely. We are top of the heap.

We intend to start for Washington some time today, about four miles off. We were very fortunate; not having lost but a very few men. Our mail came up to the battle field, and was taken by the enemy. I had four letters in it. That Sunday is long to be remembered. I would write much more, but I am so worn out that I cannot. I thought that you would feel anxious about me, and have scribbled these few line. I am as well as ever I was, but fatigued by long marches and hard work. A little recruiting will bring me all right again. We have not lost a man in our Company, and but one killed in our Regiment, as near as can be accounted for.

Yours truly,

G. W. B.,

Rifle Co. C., Third Regiment Ct. Vol.

New Haven Daily Morning News, 7/26/1861

Clipping Image

Contributed by John Hennessy








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