A “New” Photo of Rob Wheat

15 10 2008

The December issue of Civil War Times is out, which has an article by Mike Musick on his discovery of a previously unpublished ambrotype (above left), the subject of which appears to be Chatham Roberdeau Wheat, commander of the 1st Special Louisiana Battalion at Bull Run (I wrote about him here).  Once the article is put up on the magazine’s website I’ll post a link to it here, but for now you might want to head to your newsstand and get the hard copy.

Above right is a picture that is generally accepted to be Wheat, taken around the time of the outbreak of the Civil War.   Musick’s “new” image is thought to have been taken during Wheat’s earlier filibustering days.  Click the images above for larger images (you’ll get a super large image of the new photo if you click the first larger image a second time).   What do you think?  Same guy?

That shirt sure looks familiar.  Especially the sleeves.

Thanks to CWT for permission to post the new photo of Wheat.

See foloow up post here.

Family Ties – Kilpatrick Part V

15 10 2008

Here’s an update to the Kilpatrick Family Ties series.  I found this site the other day, which has confirmed some of the information I already had and also alerted me to a few other tidbits.  To quote the Dude: Lotta ins, lotta outs, lotta what-have-yous, lotta strands to keep in my head, man.

You’ll notice some stuff that expands a bit on Part II and Part III.  I found it really interesting that Kilpatrick granddaughter Consuelo Morgan’s husband Benjamin’s father, Benjamin Thaw, Sr, Harry K.’s half brother, was married to a woman named Elma Ellsworth Dows, born in October, 1861.  Elmer Ellsworth, the first Colonel of the 11th NY Fire Zouaves, was one of the war’s first martyrs (see here), and there was a multitude of babies born across the North in following years named for him.  This is the first time I’ve run across what appears to be a female namesake!

You’ll also see that Consuelo is buried in the Thaw plot in Pittsburgh’s Allegheny Cemetery.  I didn’t notice her grave when I made my trek there (see here), and didn’t think to look for her because she remarried after the death of Benjamin Thaw, Jr.  It turns out that she is buried not far from her other grandfather, Philip Hicky Morgan.  I guess I need to go back there.

The site has lots of interesting stuff about the Thaws that I didn’t know – though you can probably fill a thimble with the stuff I do know about them.  For instance, the family supplied two aviators to the American forces in WWI, one of whom died in action.  It seems a shame they’re remembered almost exclusively for nutcase Harry Kendall Thaw – of Pittsburgh.

First Bull Run Atlas

15 10 2008

Thanks to this announcement from Drew, I now know that Savas-Beatie will be publishing a new book on Bull Run as Volume 2 of its Civil War atlas series.  It will be authored by Bradley Gottfried, who wrote the Volume 1 on Gettysburg.  As I commented on Drew’s site:

I have to worry a bit about an atlas of First Bull Run, because there are some big questions about who went where and when, particularly during the Henry House Hill phase of the fighting. There are missing ORs for some key regiments (like the 11th NY and all of Jackson’s brigade). Joanna McDonald has a ton of maps in her book, and in fact wrote a tour book for that part of the fighting, but I don’t know that there is enough data available to produce maps that one could call definitive. This should be interesting.

The book is scheduled for release in Spring, 2009.  I’m going to see what I can do about getting an interview with Mr. Gottfried.

SHAF Tour with Vince Armstrong

12 10 2008

What a beautiful day yesterday!  And to top it off, I got to spend it exploring some of the most gorgeous government owned land in the nation, Antietam National Battlefield.  The Save Historic Antietam Foundation (SHAF) sponsored a dinner (Friday) and tour (Saturday) with Marion V(ince) Armstrong, author of “Unfurl Those Colors”, a history of the Second Corps of the Army of the Potomac during the Maryland Campaign of 1862.  I couldn’t make the dinner, but determined to attend the tour, even if it meant leaving my house at 5:15 Saturday morning (it did).  I was not sure when I went to bed on Friday that I would actually make the trip, but I’m glad I did.  I arrived at the VC just before 8:30 – the tourists were to meet in front of the building at 9:00 AM.  I saw Ranger Mannie Gentile and got to say a quick “Hello” before he started his busy day – then the SHAF members started showing up.  President Tom Clemens, who put the dinner and tour together for SHAF, was an early arrival, along with Mr. Armstrong with whom I had corresponded for a SHAF newsletter interview (which I posted here).  Outside I was happy to see that friend David Langbart had driven in for the tour.  I’ve stomped many battlefields with David over the past 10 years or so.  At 9:00 AM, about 20 tourists (and two frisky canines) set off on the first part of Vince’s tour, the West Woods (Sedgwick’s division) phase.

I decided to travel light, and since I had been over most of the field before I left my camera at home.  Big mistake, because we ended up crossing the Rt. 65 bypass onto the A. Poffenberger farm, which is not visited very often, and never by me.  So I have no pictures of Hauser’s ridge or the Mary Locher cabin.  David took lots of pictures though, and hopefully he’ll send me a sampling (David has sent me some nice photos of Piedmont Station which I have scanned and around which I will write a post this week).

After breaking for lunch (we got sandwiches at the Battleview Deli), and bumping into Ranger John Hoptak in the VC, we toured the Sunken Road (French’s & Richardson’s divisions) phase.  We were joined by Steve Recker, who was unable to make the morning tour due to guide commitments.  Vince led a well structured tour, touching on just about everything – tactics-wise, anyway – covered in his book.  He also let us in on his next project, which will cover the same events from the Confederate perspective.

At lunch David mentioned something with which I have been wrestling.  He thinks the blog might be improved upon by separating the digitization part (the OR posts, for instance) from the original content part.  I’ve thought about that, and if you’ve been following along you probably know that such was my original intent.  But unlike friend Brian Downey, who keeps Antietam on the Web separate from his blog, Behind Antietam on the Web, I lack the technical expertise and time required to build a good, database web site.  Early on, I posted the ORs as pages instead of articles, so they did not show up here on the main blog page.  But I decided I really wanted folks to read and see the stuff, and didn’t get much traffic to those items if I posted them as pages. So for the foreseeable future, at least, I think I’m going to put everything in as articles.  This will become less boring (but hopefully not less informative) once I finish with the official reports, which should be soon.

A good time was had by all, and I headed home about 3:30.  I had to stop once on the way home as I was getting pretty tired, but capped off a fine day with a big win for Penn State at Camp Randall Stadium in Madison, WI (Camp Randall was the training ground for Wisconsin volunteers, and was named for the wartime governor of the state, so that was on-topic).  Hopefully, we’ll be able to put together one or two tours each year.  Check out our website (www.shaf.org) for news of upcoming events, and consider becoming a member – we have an awesome newsletter and a swell new logo!

#56 – Col. Dixon S. Miles

10 10 2008

Reports of Col. Dixon S. Miles, Second U. S. Infantry, Commanding Fifth Division

O.R.– SERIES I–VOLUME 2 [S# 2] — CHAPTER IX, pp. 422-426

[JULY 17, 1861]

SIR: I have the honor to report my arrival at the intersection of the old Braddock road by that leading from Fairfax Court-House to Fairfax Station at 1.30 o’clock p.m. to-day, having been unable to accomplish the march by the time specified in your general order of yesterday, in consequence of the route being obstructed. En route we had some three or four skirmishes, the last one being within three miles of our present camp.

In this, so far as is ascertained, one officer and one private were slightly and one private seriously wounded. I will report more particularly as to this when the official returns reach me.

The obstructions on my route consisted of barricades, some of them quite extensive, caused by felling trees across the road. Within a mile of my present position we came upon quite an extensive earthwork, badly constructed, but capable of considerable defense. The parapet was about six feet thick, revetted with poles, with a command of several feet. The line was four hundred or five hundred yards in length. We found this work deserted. At the location of our present camp I found the camp of the Fifth Regiment Alabama troops, which had just been deserted.

I would report that Maj. J. G. Barnard, Engineers, is with my division. He desires me to inform you that he will remain with it to-morrow unless you otherwise direct.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Colonel Second Infantry, commanding Fifth Division


Assistant Adjutant General, Hdqrs. Dep’t N. E. Va.



Centreville, July 19, 1861

SIR: I have the honor to add the following in reference to the skirmish of the advanced guard of my division, referred to in my report of date the 17th instant.

In this action two companies, deployed as skirmishers, were concerned, and at the time were under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Young, of the Eighteenth Regiment New York Volunteers. The fire of the enemy opened from a wood, but, as during the engagement he was not exposed, I cannot report his number.

The wounded of my division are as follows: Lieutenant Groot, Eighteenth Regiment New York Volunteers, in left hand, slightly; Sergeant Allen, Company A, Eighteenth New York Volunteers, in left arm and side, severely; Private Waterson, Company A, Eighteenth New York Volunteers, in thigh, severely; Private McKinly, Company K, Eighteenth New York Volunteers, in leg, slightly.

I would invite the attention of the general commanding to the energetic manner in which Colonel Young discharged his duty. Determined bravery was manifested by every member of the command in contact with the enemy.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Colonel Second Infantry, commanding Fifth Division


Assistant Adjutant-General, Hdqrs. Dep’t N. E. Va.



Camp near Alexandria, July 24, 1861

SIR: My health being impaired and growing worse, if I delay I shall not be able to report the operations of my division on the 21st instant before Bull Run. Believing, besides, that commanders of brigades are directed to report to headquarters, I offer the following for the consideration of the general commanding:

Pursuant to instructions, the brigades of Blenker and Davies, soon after daylight, were in readiness to march and take position, but were prevented from so doing by other divisions blocking up the road. I discovered, however, that Davies’ brigade could be passed to the left and west through fields to Blackburn’s Ford. Lieutenant Prime, Engineer officer, conducted the brigade, and as soon as possible it joined Colonel Richardson before the crossing of this ford on Bull Run. Fire was then opened by Hunt’s battery, supported by Richardson’s brigade on the right. Edwards’ 20-pounder rifled guns were posted on the left, about six hundred yards from Richardson’s position, and sustained by a portion of Davies’ brigade. Blenker’s brigade took position at Centreville, and commenced throwing up intrenchments – one regiment being located at the former work of the enemy, one to the west of the town on the Warrenton road, and two on the heights towards Bull Run. With these last regiments were first placed Tidball’s and Greene’s batteries, Greene’s afterwards being removed to Richardson’s position, in consequence of notification being sent by that officer that about 2,000 of the enemy were about to attack him, and that he required more artillery.

I may here remark that some difference existed in the order given Lieutenant Prime and myself in regard to the defensive works to be thrown up, and also as to the quantity of tools he was to receive; my orders being, by the lieutenant’s advice, to intrench Centreville; his, from Major Barnard, to throw up works at Blackburn’s Ford. No tools came forward but the small amount Lieutenant Prime had of his own. These he took to Richardson’s position, commenced a battery, and made several hundred yards of abatis.  Blenker, with his pioneers, improved and extended the works at Centreville left by the enemy.

It was soon reported that the Fourth Pennsylvania Regiment had left at its encampment a battery of field guns. For this Colonel Blenker offered to organize a company of experienced European artillerists, which I accepted. The captain’s name, I regret, I have forgotten, as I should recommend his having permanent command of the guns in question. He is an efficient officer.(*)

So soon as I completed my arrangements with Blenker I visited Colonel Richardson; found him in proper position, and effectively at work, Hunt’s and Edwards’ batteries being in good position. There was no evidence of the enemy immediately about the ford until after the first opening of the fire, when he fled from barns and houses in the vicinity. I then, after ordering proper supports for the batteries and placing a reserve force in position, returned to Centreville, finding all quiet and the troops at work. Remaining here some time, I returned to Richardson when it was surmised that there was no enemy at that place, and found the ammunition of the batteries rapidly diminishing. I ordered from the brigades a few skirmishers to go forward and examine the ford, determined, if I could cross, to do so, and endeavor to cut the line of travel pursued by retreating and advancing detachments of the enemy. The line of skirmishers had barely entered the woods when a large force of the enemy was discovered concealed by breastworks. He opened fire, which was handsomely returned. In this affair three of the Sixteenth New York Volunteers were wounded. The skirmishers report the force of the enemy greatly damaged by Greene’s battery. I made no other attempt on this ford, my orders being on no account to get into a general engagement.

As I was again returning to Blenker’s position, I received the notice to telegraph to Washington, which I found had been done by Lieutenant Mendell, topographical engineer, on my staff, and who was compelled by illness to remain at my headquarters. It was at this time the order was received to post two brigades on the Warrenton turnpike at the bridge. I without delay sent a staff officer to order forward Davies’ brigade, but whilst this officer was executing my instructions Davies sent word he wanted a reserve regiment forward – that the enemy, some 3,000, was attempting to turn his flank. The staff officer, therefore, properly suspended the giving of my order, and immediately reported the fact to me, and this caused me to advance but the one brigade (Blenker’s) to the position on the Warrenton pike. Blenker’s advance to that point was soon impeded by fugitives from the battle-field. When these were passing my headquarters I endeavored to rally them, but my efforts were vain.

The attack on Davies’ position caused painful apprehension for the safety of the left flank of the Army, and deeming it of the first importance that my division should occupy the strongest position, I sent instruction to Davies and Richardson to have their brigades fall back on Centreville. I then followed Blenker’s brigade to see if it was in position, when I was informed the commanding general had passed. I then returned to Centreville, and found Davies’ and Richardson’s brigades arriving, and commenced placing them in position – Richardson’s brigade, with Greene’s battery, being placed about one-half mile in advance of Centreville heights, his line of battle facing Blackburn’s Ford. In rear of Richardson’s I posted two regiments behind fences as a support for the first line, and still farther in rear and on the heights I placed Hunt’s and Edwards’ batteries, two of Davies’ regiments being in reserve to support these. I then followed Blenker; found Tidball’s battery in admirable position, supported by the Garibaldi Guard, Blenker, with three remaining regiments and the Fourth Pennsylvania Battery,(+) being in advance. Having great confidence in his judgment and troops, I returned to Centreville heights to await events, when I found all my defensive arrangements changed. Not knowing who had done this, and seeing Colonel Richardson giving different positions to my troops, I asked by what authority he was acting, when he told me he had instructions from my superior officer. I soon thereafter met the commanding general, and complained of this change. The general’s arrangements were completed, and left me without further control of the division. At the time the attack was made on Davies’ flank the regiments of the brigade engaged performed their duty gallantly. The batteries of Hunt and Edwards, opening fire, did great damage to the advancing troops of the enemy, soon repulsing them. I am grieved that in this engagement a brave and accomplished young officer, Lieut. Presley O. Craig, of the Second Regiment Artillery, and who was attached to Hunt’s battery, was almost instantly killed. Several of the New York volunteers were wounded. I have not the reports relative thereto.

Blenker’s brigade, whilst on the Warrenton road, was charged by cavalry, but by a prompt and skillful fire he emptied several saddles, and relieved himself from further annoyance. This summary embraces the operations of my division up to the evening of the 21st.

Before closing permit me to name and do justice to my staff, whose assiduity in the performance of their duties and untiring exertions throughout the day deserve all the commendation I am able to bestow, viz: Captain Vincent, assistant adjutant-general; Lieutenant Prime, Engineer; Lieutenant McMillan, adjutant Second Infantry and acting inspector-general; Assistant Surgeon Woodward, medical director; and Major Ritchie, New York Volunteers, my aide-de-camp. Lieutenant Mendell, Topographical Engineers, was quite ill during the day and thereby prevented from being with me. Lieutenant Hawkins, Second Infantry, division quartermaster, and Lieutenant Cushing, Second Infantry, my aide, were absent on detached service for supplies, &c., and had performed their duty, and were within two miles of Centreville when they met our Army crowding the road. My brigade commanders, Blenker, Davies, and Richardson, admirably performed their respective duties. My remarks apply also to their officers and men. The batteries of Major Hunt, Captain Tidball, and Lieutenants Edwards and Greene handsomely executed all required of them.

In closing this report I would make a personal allusion to my condition during the day. I had lost my rest the two nights previous, was sick, had eaten nothing during the day, and had it not been for the great responsibility resting on me should have been in bed.

I am, sir, respectfully, your obedient servant,


Colonel Second Infantry, Commanding Fifth Division


Assistant Adjutant-General, Hdqrs. Dept. N. E. Va.

(*) This paragraph refers to the field battery belonging to the Eighth New York State Militia, which was manned by detachements from the Eighth and Twenty-ninth New York Infantry, under Capt. Charles Bookwood, of the latter regiment.  (See Col. Blenker’s report, p. 426)

(+) See note above.

Table – Return of casualties in the Fifth Division (Union) of Northeastern Virginia, at the Battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861

Two Whitings at Bull Run

8 10 2008

I’m a slave to sounds.  If I hear something and it provokes that Jeez, that sounds familiar sensation in my brain, I have to figure out why it sounds familiar.  Then I have to reconcile my findings – OK, it sounded familiar because A is sonically associated with Z, so what’s the practical connection, if any, between A and Z? Such is the case with the author of report #55, Col. Henry Whiting of the 2nd VT infantry regiment.  And no, I don’t know what’s up with that report – it reads like a fragment, it’s not  dated, and it doesn’t indicate to whom it was sent.

This itch was easy to scratch – Col. Henry Whiting’s name sounds familiar because Confederate Army of the Shenandoah commander and ranking rebel at Bull Run General Joseph E. Johnston’s staff engineer was Major William Henry Chase Whiting.  The Confederate Whiting was the guy who actually transcribed Beauregard’s whacked out orders on the evening of July 20-21, Bory’s man Colonel Thomas Jordan, who would normally handle such things, having been laid out with the help of a prescribed narcotic.

The Yankee Whiting (left, from Hunt’s New England volume of Colonels in Blue, click the thumb for a larger image) was born in 1818 in Bath, NY, and graduated from West Point in 1840.  It doesn’t look like he ever lived in Vermont, and according to Cullum was in fact regent of the University of Michigan when the war broke out, so how he wound up colonel of a Vermont regiment is a little murky to me.  A Wikipedia entry says that the command was initially offered to Vermont native Israel B. Richardson, who turned it down and recommended his classmate Whiting.  Although Whiting in fact graduated West Point one year ahead of Richardson, the two did enter the academy in the same year, and Richardson also lived in Michigan, so this sounds plausible.  He rose to brigade command but resigned over his failure to gain rank in early 1863.  He died in Ypsilanti, MI in 1887.

The rebel Whiting (left, from this site) was born in 1824 in Biloxi, MS.  But he went to high school in Boston, MA, so maybe there is a New England family connection there.  He graduated from West Point in 1845 (after first graduating first in his class from Georgetown University in DC in 1840), having established the highest academic marks ever attained by a cadet, a record that would stand until broken by Douglas MacArthur in 1903.  He died a prisoner in New York harbor in 1865, from wounds received at Ft. Fisher in North Carolina.  Fort Fisher was named for the colonel of the 6th NC, who was killed at Bull Run.

If anyone out there can connect these Whitings, please let me know.

#55 – Col. Henry Whiting

8 10 2008

Report of Col. Henry Whiting, Second Vermont Infantry

O.R.– SERIES I–VOLUME 2 [S# 2] — CHAPTER IX, p. 422

As we approached the field we met many ambulances and litters with the dying and wounded. We were greeted by the crowds of returning stragglers, telling us to hurry on; that they had driven them a mile. Meanwhile, the fact that we saw no infantry organized gave us a good deal to think of till we came to where the rifled cannon balls fell around. Then, not hearing any artillery from our side, the fact burst upon us that all of the troops, except our brigade, in the neighborhood were routed.

The Second Vermont was ordered to form on the left of the Maine Fourth. Line was formed; we marched up the hill-side, and about half the distance to the next eminence, about two hundred yards in front, where the infantry and artillery of the rebels were stationed in force. The Vermont Second formed in line, and deliberately fired with rapidity from fifteen to twenty rounds. The enemy retreated before the fire, upon which, and the fact that a body of troops came up to fire over our heads, the commands were given by the colonel, “Cease firing! By the right flank, right face! Forward, march!” but on account of the talk and the confusion created by others coming up in the rear, the command was not heard far from the right. The right company marched to the right a short distance, when it was discovered that a battery of rifled cannon was so planted as nearly to enfilade our regiment, when a retreat was ordered, or, in other words, to file right, which would have brought us off the field; but, so great seemed the desire to continue the fight for a time, my directions were either misunderstood or delayed in execution, [which] kept the regiment on the field a short time longer than I wished it to have remained.

As to the conduct of the officers and men in the presence of the enemy, they exhibited the utmost coolness and bravery. The Bennington company, with its excellent rifles, was very effective. Lieutenant-Colonel Stannard stood square up to the work, as well as Major Joyce and Adjutant Ladd. Captain Hope, notwithstanding he was in the rear during the forced march with his company, worked very effectively to the last. Indeed, all of the officers and men on the field behaved well; and though some gave out by the wayside through inability to proceed, which, when one considers the trip, would wonder that so many could proceed, and none but those in good health could possibly have made the march.

Yours, very truly,


Colonel, Commanding Second Vermont Regiment

#54 – Col. Mark H. Dunnell

6 10 2008

Report of Col. Mark H. Dunnell, Fifth Maine Infantry

O.R.– SERIES I–VOLUME 2 [S# 2] — CHAPTER IX, p. 421

ALEXANDRIA, VA., July 26, 1861

SIR: The Fifth Regiment of Maine Volunteers is now in quarters in this city. It came to this place with the rest of your brigade on Monday. The other reports which have been called for, and the condition of the regiment, have not allowed me time to report the action of the regiment on the field July 21, and as you were an eye-witness of its action, I have not deemed it necessary to make so great haste in the preparation of this report. I deem it due to many of the officers of my regiment to make a report.

The rapid movement of our men for many miles before the commencement of the action completely unfitted them for the labor of the action. None but an immediate eye-witness can fully realize the real sufferings of the men during the march. The best, stoutest, and bravest men failed, and fell by the roadside. The colonel, major, and surgeon were on the field, and took part in the action by a discharge of their respective duties. Captain Scammon, Company H; Captain Thompson, Company D; Captain Thomas, Company G; Captain Sherwood, Company F; Captain Goodwin, Company B, and Captain Heald, Company A, were each with their respective companies, and with marked courage and self-possession discharged their duties. Captain Noyes was under arrest. Captain Tobie was absent on furlough, and Captain Sawyer and Captain Edwards were absent by reason of exhaustion caused by the march. Lieutenant Barrows, of Company C; Lieutenant Buckman, of Company K; Lieutenant Walker, of Company G; Lieutenant Munson, of Company H; Lieutenant Sawyer, of Company G; Lieutenant Walker, of Company F, and Lieutenant Millett, of Company A, were the only lieutenants in their companies at the time of the action, and these officers deserve much praise for the heroic manner in which they met duty. Company B was fully officered at the time of the action. Captain Goodwin and Lieutenants Stevens and Pillsbury were all present, and it is to be reported that not one of Company B was killed or mortally wounded. Captain Sherwood was badly wounded in the left arm by a musket ball. Lieutenant Kenniston, Company D, was wounded and then taken prisoner. Dr. Buxton, surgeon, and hospital stewards were taken by the enemy.

The officers and privates of the regiment are in great need of rest, and, when fully recruited, will, I doubt not, be ready to meet any of the demands which may be made upon their endurance or their courage.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Colonel Fifth Regiment Maine V. M.

Col. O. O. HOWARD,

Commanding Third Brigade, Third Divisions

Potomac Crossing Event

5 10 2008

Check out Brian Downey’s recap of a recent outing in which participants forded the Potomac in commemoration of the Battle of Shepherdstown.  Good stuff, and thanks, Brian!

#53 – Col. Hiram G. Berry

5 10 2008

Report of Col. Hiram G. Berry, Fourth Maine Infantry

O.R.– SERIES I–VOLUME 2 [S# 2] — CHAPTER IX, pp. 420-421


Clermont, Va., July 26, 1861

SIR:: I have the honor to report to you my regiment now in quarters at this post. The engagement with the enemy on Sunday, and the long march incident thereto, have exhausted my men, and some time must necessarily elapse before the regiment will be fitted for active duties. As near as can be ascertained, the loss in killed in the engagement at Bull Run consists of two commissioned officers, Lieutenant Clark, of Company G (Wiscasset), and Lieutenant Burd, of Company F. Two commissioned officers wounded, Captain Bean and Lieutenant Huxford. Sergeant-Major Chapman killed; twenty-eight privates killed and thirty-three wounded.(*) This indeed has been an unfortunate affair for this regiment.

I herewith hand you report of wants for regiment, in accordance with order so to do. In doing so, I must beg leave to say that my men have no confidence whatever in the kind of arms with which we are now partially supplied. Had they been properly armed, the result of Sunday’s loss would have been somewhat different. It will take some time to bring the regiment up to that state of confidence in the managers of this war that it had prior to last Sunday’s affair. I mention these things for the reason that a commander should know all the facts material to the efficiency of his command.

Truly, your servant,


Colonel Fourth Regiment

Col. O. O. HOWARD,

Commanding Brigade

(*) But see division return, p. 405.


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